Reprinted from

Lewis Topographical Directory.

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DANGAN, a post-town, in that part of the parish of KILLERERAN which is in the barony of TYAQUIN, county of GALWAY, and province of CONN AUGHT, 23 1/4 miles (N. E.) from Galway, and 91 1/2 (W. by S.) from Dublin : the population is returned with the parish. This small town, which contains only about 30 houses, is situated on the road from Tuam to Ballinasloe. --See KILLERERAN.

DANGAN, OLD, a village, in the parish of KILMACOW, barony of IVERK, county of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (N. by W.) from Waterford; containing about 40 houses and 192 inhabitants.

DANGANDARGAN, a parish, in the barony of CLANWILLIAM, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 2 1/2 miles (S. W.) from Cashel, on the road from Golden to Clonmel; containing 323 inhabitants, and comprising 1077 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. it is a rectory, in the diocese of Cashel, and forms part of the union of Athassel and Relickmurry : the tithes amount to £105. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Golden.

DANION. --See DINGINDONOVAN.

 

DAVIDSTOWN, a parish, in the barony of NARRAGH and RHEBAN, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 4 1/2 miles (S. S. W.) from Kilcullen, on the road from Dublin to Athy; containing 1464 inhabitants. It is principally under tillage. The rectory is appropriate to the see of Kildare, and the parish, which is in the diocese of Dublin, forms part of the impropriate curacy of Kilcullen : the tithes amount to £199. 7. 4. In the R. C. divisions it is within the union or district of Crookstown, called also Narraghmore. There is a school at Calverstown under the Trustees of Erasmus Smith's charity, in which are about 30 boys and 40 girls.

 

DERENNISH, or DOURINCH, an island, in the parish of KILMINA, barony of BURRISHOOLE, county of MAYO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 5 miles (S. W.) from Newport-Pratt: the population is returned with the parish. It is situated in Clew bay, and contains 52 statute acres, the property of the Marquess of Sligo.

DERG. --See SKIRTS.

DERNISH, or DERRINISH, an island, in the parish of AHAMPLISH, barony of LOWER CARBERY, county of SLIGO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Sligo : the population is returned with the parish. This island is situated near the entrance of Milk-haven, on the north-west coast, and contains about 76 statute acres of land, the property of Lord Palmerston. On its south-west side is safe anchorage in all weather in two fathoms. About 1/2 a mile north of it is Carrignaspanach rock, which lies off the entrance of the haven, and the Tyrconnell rock is about 1/4 of a mile from the shore Milkhaven is situated about three leagues east of the point of Ballyconnell; the entrance is difficult, and only adapted for vessels drawing from 6 to S feet of water.

DERRY, a village, in that part of the parish of BALLINCHALLA which is within the barony of Ross, county of GALWAY, and province of CONNAUGHT, 7 1/2 miles (N. W.) from Cong; containing 95 inhabitants. It is situated on Lough Mask, and contains about 20 houses.

 

DERRYBRIEN, an extra-parochial place, in the barony of LOUGHREA, county of GALWAY, and province of CONNAUGHT, about 9 miles (S.) of Loughrea; containing 907 inhabitants. It consists of a range of mountains of the same name extending from Gort to Woodford, and partly separating the southern part of the county from Clare : there is a good road over them from Woodford to Gort. Here is a R. C. chapel, dependent on that of Killeenadeema.

 

 

 

 

DERRYGRATH, a parish, in the barony of IFFA and OFFA WEST, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 2 1/4 miles (E. by S.) from Cahir; containing 1299 inhabitants. It is situated on the road from Clonmel to Cahir, and comprises 3764 acres, of which about 30 are woodland, 2430 arable, 1088 pasture and 16 bog. Woodrooff, the seat of William Perry, Esq., is in a handsome and well-planted demesne, which extends into the adjoining parishes. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Lismore, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory constitutes the corps of the chancellorship of the cathedral of St. Carthage, Lismore. The tithes amount to £230. 6., of which £120 is payable to the appropriator, and £110. 6. to the vicar : the glebe comprises 16a. 3r. 24p. The church is a plain neat building erected by aid of a gift of £800, and a loan of £400, in 1816, from the late Board of First Fruits. The parochial schools are supported by the incumbent, and there is a female school under the patronage of Mr. Perry, also a hedge school of about 100 children.

DERRYHEEN, an ecclesiastical district, in the barony of UPPER LOUGHTEE, county of CAVAN, and province of ULSTER, 3 miles (N. W.) from Cavan, on the road to Enniskillen; containing 1771 inhabitants. This place was erected into an ecclesiastical district in 1834, by disuniting nine townlands from the parish of Urney, three from that of Kilmore, three from Castle-terra, and a portion of the parish of Drumlane. It is situated on the river Derryheen, and contains some good arable and pasture land in a state of improved cultivation, though partially subject to occasional inundation from the surrounding lakes, and a moderate portion of valuable bog. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Kilmore, and in the patronage of the incumbents of the parishes out of which it was formed : the income of the curate arises from a money payment contributed by each of the patrons. There is neither glebe-house nor glebe. The church is a neat and well-built edifice. A school at Dedris is supported by Lord Farnham, and there is one at Inishmore, together affording instruction to about 100 boys and 60 girls. Here are the ruins of some ancient buildings, called Church Urney, supposed to have been monastic : they form a picturesque object, with a burial-ground attached, used by the R. C. inhabitants.

 

DERRYLOSSORY. --See DERRALOSSORY.

DERRYNAHINCH, or DERRYNAHENSY, a parish, in the barony of KNOCKTOPHER, county of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 2 1/4 miles (S. E.) from Knocktopher, on the road from Kilkenny to Waterford; containing 1784 inhabitants, and comprising 8171 statute acres. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, and is part of the union of Knocktopher : the tithes amount to £225. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district called Ballyhale, and comprising the parishes of Derrynahinch, Knocktopher, Aghaviller, Killeasy, and parts of Burn-church, Jerpoint, and Kells, in which are five chapels, that of Derrynahinch being in the village of Ballyhale. There are four private schools, in which are about 180 children, and a Sunday school.

DERRYNANE. --See KILCROHANE.

 

DERRYPATRICK, or DIRPATRICK, a parish, in the barony of LOWER DEECE, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (N. E.) from Summer-hill, on the road to Skryne; containing 435 inhabitants, of which number, 54 are in the hamlet; and comprising 1932 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Meath, entirely impropriate in Mrs. Reynell; the clerical duties are discharged by the rector of Knockmark: the tithes amount to £107. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Kilmore.

DERRYVILLANE, a parish, in the barony of CONDONS and CLONGIBBONS, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 2 miles (S. E.) from Kildorrery, on the road from Castletown-Roche to Mitchelstown; containing 788 inhabitants. This small parish is situated on the eastern bank of the river Funcheon, and contains 1805 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £1663 per annum. The land is generally good, and limestone abounds, which is burnt for manure. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and forms part of the union and corps of the prebend of Glanworth in the cathedral of Cloyne; the rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Donoughmore : the tithes amount to £164. 7. 9 1/4., of which £97. 15. 5 1/2. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. The church is in ruins, but the burial-ground attached to it is still used. In the R. C. divisions, also, it is part of the union or district of Glanworth.

 

DESART, a parish, partly in the barony of IBANE and BARRYROE, and partly in the East Division of EAST CARBERY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 1 mile (E. by S.) from Clonakilty; containing 744 inhabitants. It is situated on the bay of Clonakilty, and comprises 582 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £401 per annum. Although elevated, about half of it is under tillage, principally for wheat and potatoes; and the remainder is mountain pasture. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ross, and forms part of the union of Kilgarriffe; the rectory is appropriate to the Dean of Ross. The tithes amount to £75, of which £40 is payable to the appropriator, and £35 to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Clonakilty. On an elevated site near the shore are the ruins of a church, which measured only about 20 feet by 12.

DESERT, a parish, in the barony of BARRYMORE, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S. E.) from Rathcormac; containing 1141 inhabitants. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, forming part of the union of Gortroe, into which parish it has entirely merged, and with which the tithes are returned. In the R. C. divisions it is in the union or district of Rathcormac. The schools and further details are noticed under the head of Gortroe.

 

 

DESERTLYN, or DYSERTLYN, a parish, in the barony of LOUGHINSHOLIN, county of LONDONDERRY, and province of ULSTER, on the road from Dublin to Coleraine; containing, with part of the post-town of Moneymore, 3318 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 5561 statute acres, of which 4977 are applotted under the tithe act and valued at £3243 per annum. There are several bogs, and the soil is variable but generally good and well cultivated. The linen manufacture is connected with agriculture, and affords occasional occupation to the inhabitants. Coal and freestone are visible in several places, but the seams of coal are too thin to pay the expense of working, while turf is cheap. Limestone is also abundant and extensively worked. The principal seats are those of the Hon. and Rev. J. P. Hewitt, Rowley Miller, Esq., and James Smyth, Esq.

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the gift of the Lord-Primate : the tithes amount to £230. 15. 4 1/2. The glebe-house was built in 1831, on a glebe of 200 acres. The church, which was built at Moneymore, in 1766, by aid of a gift of £424 from the late Board of First Fruits, is disused; and a beautiful church, in the Norman style of architecture, was erected by the Drapers' Company, in 1832, at an expense of £6000. In the R. C. divisions the parish is partly in the union or district of Lissan, and partly in that of Ardtrea. There is a place of worship for Baptists. In addition to the parochial schools, a large and handsome school-house at Larrycormick was erected and is chiefly supported by the Drapers' Company; there are two others within the parish. They afford instruction to about 320 children, exclusively of those in the Sunday school at Moneymore. The parish contains several raths, and a remarkable cairn on the top of Slieve Gallion. --See MONEYMORE.

 

DESERTMOON. --See DYSERTMOON.

 

DESERTOGHILL, a parish, in the barony of COLERAINE, county of LONDONDERRY, and province of ULSTER, 1 mile (S. E.) from Garvagh; containing 4701 inhabitants. This parish is intersected by the road from Dublin to Coleraine, and according to the Ordnance survey contains 11,469 1/2 statute acres, of which about 6309 are arable, 2867 pasture, and 2293 bog, or waste land. The soil, though thin, is tolerably well cultivated, and produces abundant crops. The inhabitants combine with their agricultural pursuits the weaving of linen cloth in their own houses. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Derry, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £290. The glebe-house is a small old building on the glebe townland of Meettigan, in the parish of Errigal, which comprises 370 acres, 30 of which are on the southern side of the river, in the parish of Desertoghill, besides a plot of seven acres contiguous to the ruins of the old church. The present church is a large edifice, in the ancient style of English architecture, built in 1784, partly at the expense of Dr. Hervey, afterwards Earl of Bristol, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £227. 4. 1. for its repair; it stands in the townland of Moyletra, one mile south of the old church. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, also called Kilrea, comprising the parishes of Desertoghill, Tamlaght-O'Crilly, and Kilrea, and containing three chapels, one here and two in Tamlaght-O'Crilly. A large and handsome meeting-house is now being built at Moneydig for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster. The parochial school at Ballyagan is supported by the rector; there are two schools under the Mercers' Company, two under the Ironmongers' Company, one under the National Board, and four others, also a private school. St. Columbkill here founded an abbey, which afterwards became parochial, but the old church, though now a picturesque ruin, does not bear evidence of such remote antiquity as some others in the neighbourhood; in 1622 it was one of the very few in the county that were in perfect repair. Not far distant from the old church is a small fortress; and in an adjoining field is an artificial cave of considerable extent, having three chambers or galleries. A curious stone, wherein are two small and rude founts, considered by the peasantry to be the impress of the knees of St. Columbkill while praying, stands in the churchyard. Half a mile above Garvagh is a curious encampment, called the Bonny Fort; and not far distant is a smaller one, called Rough-fort : both appear to have been constructed to protect the mountain pass.

DESERTSERGES, a parish, partly in the barony of KINALMEAKY, but chiefly in the East Division of the barony of EAST CARBERY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Bandon, on the old road from Cork to Dunmanway; containing 6629 inhabitants. It is situated on the south side of the river Bandon, and comprises 15,355 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £9781 per annum. A great part consists of rough pasture and bog; the remainder is under tillage. The land is generally cold, but in some places moderately fertile; an inconsiderable tract, called Cashelmore, is common mountain. Quarries of good slate are extensively worked at Bracna. There is a large flour-mill on the river Bandon, erected in 1835, by Arthur B. Bernard, of Palace-Anne, Esq.; and not far distant a paper-mill. Fairs are held at Mount-Beamish on June 26th, Aug. 1st, Sept. 29th, and Dec. 16th, chiefly for cattle and pigs. The gentlemen's seats are Kilcoleman, the residence of Adderly Beamish, Esq., beautifully situated on the banks of the river Bandon, and surrounded by fine plantations; Cashel, of J. Beamish, Esq.; Mount Beamish, of John Beamish, Esq., M. D.; Kilrush, of A. Poole, Esq.; Kilcoleman-Beg, of W. Lamb, Esq.; Sun Lodge, of W. McCarty, Esq.; Church-Hill, of the Rev. Mountiford Longfield; and Kiel, of John Wren, Esq.

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is appropriate to the vicars choral of the cathedral of St. Finbarr, Cork. The tithes of Desertserges amount to £1045, of which £315 is payable to the appropriators, and £730 to the vicar; the latter also receives the entire tithes of Garryvoe (a merged parish, to which Lord Kingsale presents), amounting to £315. There is an old glebe-house, with a glebe of 73a. 1r. 20p. The church is a good edifice, with a square tower, erected in 1802. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, except a small portion of the eastern district, which belongs to Bandon : the chapel, at Agheohil, is a large modern edifice. There are three Protestant parochial schools, in which are some R. C. children; one at Kilrush, supported principally by Capt. Poole, and the clergyman, and two by the Hon. and Rev. Chas. Bernard, the curate; one of these, at Moulnarogue, a handsome building, was erected by him in 1835; 180 boys and girls are instructed in these schools. There are also some pay schools, in connection with the R. C. chapel. Numerous forts are scattered over this parish; one, which is the most extensive and in the best preservation, surrounded by earthworks and fosses, stands on the lands of Kilmiran. In the north-eastern part of the parish are traces of the old church of Garryvoe. The remains of Derry castle form an interesting ruin; and several upright stones, called Golanes, seem to have been set up either to commemorate some important event, or to indicate the burial-place of some warrior. At Corron is a very powerful chalybeate spring, the waters of which contain large quantities of sulphur and iron, held in solution by carbonic acid gas.

DEVLANE, or DAVILANE, an island, in the parish of KILMORE, barony of ERRIS, county of MAYO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 14 miles (S. W.) from Bel-mullet : the population is returned with the parish. This island is situated off Blacksod bay, on the western coast, about two miles from the extremity of the peninsula, called the Mullet: near it is a smaller island, called Devlane-beg.

DIAMORE, or DIAMOR, a parish, in the barony of DEMIFORE, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 1 1/2 mile (W.) from Crossakeel, on the road from Oldcastle to Kells; containing 724 inhabitants. This parish comprises 4207 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. At Diamor is a quarry of good limestone, chiefly used for building; and at Bellvue is the neat residence of John Daniell, Esq. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, and forms part of the union of Loughcrew; the rectory is impropriate in E. Rotheram, of Hollymount, Esq. The tithes amount to £140, payable in equal portions to the impropriator and the vicar. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Kilskyre. There is a private school, in which are about 20 boys and 20 girls.

DINGINDONOVAN, or DANGAN, a parish, in the barony of IMOKILLY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Castle-Martyr; containing 1120 inhabitants. This parish, which by the country people is called Danion, comprises 5449 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. By draining, irrigating, and the introduction of modern farming implements, the state of agriculture has been greatly improved. A large supply of turf is procured from the mountain land, which constitutes about one-fourth of the parish. Fairs are held on Feb. 2nd, April 1st, and Aug. 5th, for the sale of cattle, sheep, pigs, pedlery, and agricultural and other implements. On the banks of a pretty glen is Ballyre, the residence of Crofton Uniacke, Esq.; and not far distant is Glengarra, of J. Uniacke, Esq.; these seats are surrounded by flourishing plantations, and are undergoing great improvements. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £155. There is neither church, glebe-house, nor glebe; the Protestant inhabitants attend divine service at Castlemartyr. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Killeagh, but there is no chapel here. There are two pay schools, in which are about 40 boys and 20 girls. The ruins of the old church form an interesting object; and near Glengarra are some remains of a castle, built by one of the Geraldines, in 1396,; it was garrisoned by the Earl of Desmond against Queen Elizabeth, but was taken by Capt. Raleigh, and shortly afterwards was retaken by the Irish under McCarty, who, being obliged to abandon it, destroyed it by fire. It gave name to the whole district, called Old Castletown though now known as Glengarra.

 

DINISH ISLAND, in the parish of KILCROHANE, barony of DUNKERRON, county of KERRY, and province of MUNSTER, 2 1/2 miles (S. S. W.) from Hogs Head, on the southern side of Ballinaskelligs bay, and about the same distance (W.) from Lambs Head, at the N. W. extremity of the Kenmare estuary, and on the western coast. It is the smaller of the two islands called the Hogs, and, together with the larger one called Scariff, is held by Daniel O'Connell, Esq., M. P., from the Earl of Cork. It is inhabited by three families, who are chiefly employed in the care of cattle grazed on the island. Close to these islands the depth of water is 28 fathoms; between them and Lambs Head are several smaller islands and rocks.

DISERT. --See DYSART, county of KERRY.

DISERT, or CARRIGEEN, a parish, in the barony of COSHMA, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 1 1/2 mile (W.) from Groom; containing 180 inhabitants. It is situated on the western bank of the river Maigue, between the parishes of Croom and Adare, and contains 531 acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Limerick, forming the corps of the prebend of Disert in the cathedral of Limerick, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £72. 10. The church having long since fallen to ruin, the parishioners attend divine service at Croom. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Croom. On the north side of the ruined church is a remarkable round tower, about 70 feet in height, standing on a rock of limestone : 14 feet from the foundation a circular-headed door opens to the north-east; on the opposite side is a pointed window, over which are three stories with square-headed lights, and at the top are four small slip windows. The mouldings round the door are in relief, and of superior workmanship in freestone, of which the window-frames are also composed; the remainder of the tower is constructed of limestone.

DISERT, or DYSART, a parish, in the barony of ATHLONE, county of ROSCOMMON, and province of CONNAUGHT, 10 miles (W. by N.) from Athlone, on the road to Ballinamore; containing 1661 inhabitants. This parish comprises 2972 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and is principally under tillage; there is a considerable quantity of bog, and some limestone. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Elphin, and is part of the union of Mount Talbot; the rectory is impropriate in Lord Ranelagh. The vicarial tithes amount to £18. 9. 3. In the R. C. divisions it, is the head of a union or district, including also part of Taughboy; the chapel is a new and commodious building. The parochial school is supported by subscription; and Lord Mount-Sandford supports a school at Sandford. Lake Culleen is partly in this parish.

DOAGH, a grange and village, in the barony of UPPER ANTRIM, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S.W.) from Ballyclare; the population of the grange is returned with the parish of Ballyeaston; the village contains 49 houses and 195 inhabitants. This place comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 2304 1/2 statute acres, of which 9 1/2 are under water, 48 woodland, 140 bog and marsh, and the remainder good arable land. The village is pleasantly situated near the Six-mile-water, and adjoining it is Fisherwick Lodge, a hunting seat belonging to the Marquess of Donegal, a very handsome house surrounded with thriving plantations, which add much to the beauty of the place. The tithes amount to £191. 3. 7 1/2., of which £127. 7. 1. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar.

DOGGSTOWN, a parish, in the barony of MIDDLE-THIRD, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 2 1/2 miles (S. S. W.) from Cashel; containing 94 inhabitants. This parish comprises 429 statute acres of good arable and pasture land, as applotted under the tithe act. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Cashel, forming part of the union of Knockgraffon : the tithes amount to £27. 13. 10 1/4. In the R. C. divisions, also, it forms part of the union of Knockgraffon, and contains a chapel.

DOLLA, a parish, in the barony of UPPER ORMOND, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Nenagh; containing 1041 inhabitants. This parish is situated at the termination of the Anglesey new road from Tipperary to Nenagh, and intersected by a small river: there is a large tract of mountain bog. Traverston, the seat of T. Going, Esq., is pleasingly situated in an extensive and well-planted demesne. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Killaloe, and is appropriate as a mensal to that see : the tithes amount to £161. 10. 9. There are some remains of the old church on the demesne of Kilboy. The poor's fund of Kilmore extends to this parish.

DOLLARDSTOWN. --See BALLYNACLOGH.

DOLPHIN'S BARN, a village, partly in the parish of ST. JAMES, barony of NEWCASTLE, and partly in that of ST. CATHERINE, barony of UPPERCROSS, county of DUBLIN, and province of LEINSTER. This village, forming a suburb of the city of Dublin, consists chiefly of a long street on the road to Crumlin, partly situated between the circular road and the Grand Canal, which latter intersects the village, and is here crossed by a stone bridge. There are several tanyards, and the extensive dye-works of Messrs. Pims, who have also dye stuff mills at Rudland; and on the Crumlin road are the dyeing and finishing works of Mr. P. Nevin. There is a R. C. chapel in the village, also a convent of nuns of the Carmelite order, who have a school for the gratuitous instruction of about 100 poor female children, and a select school for 12 young ladies.

DONABATE, or DONAGHBATE, a parish, in the barony of BALROTHERY, county of DUBLIN, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (N. by E.) from Swords; containing 386 inhabitants, of which number, 221 are in the village. This parish, which comprises 2366 statute acres, is situated on the eastern coast, near the inlets of Malahide and Rogerstown, and on the proposed line of the Grand Northern Trunk railway from Dublin to Drogheda, for which an act has been obtained. An extensive vein of green and white porphyry runs through it from east to west: the surrounding soil is limestone gravel and conglomerate grit. Contiguous to the village is Newbridge, the extensive demesne of Charles Cobbe, Esq. The house, which is a noble mansion, was erected by Archbishop Cobbe, about 1730, and contains several valuable paintings by the old masters, which were collected on the continent by the Rev. M. Pilkington, author of the Dictionary of Painters, who was vicar of this parish; the drawing-room contains several of the. paintings described by him. Near this mansion is Turvey, the property of Lord Trimleston. There is a martello tower near the shore, and a constabulary police force is stationed in the village. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin, episcopally united from time immemorial to the vicarage of Portrahan, or Portrane; the rectory is impropriate in the Rev. W. Hamilton and his heirs. The tithes amount to £220, of which £133. 6. 8. is payable to the impropriator, £66. 13. 4. to the vicar, and £20 to the economy estate of St. Patrick's cathedral, Dublin, as the rectorial tithes of the merged parish of Kilcreagh. The glebe-house was built in 1810, by aid of a gift of £100 and a loan of £320 from the late Board of First Fruits; and there is a glebe of nine acres, for which a rent of £29 per annum is paid. The church stands in a commanding situation, and contains a handsome marble monument to the memory of Dr. Cobbe, Archbishop of Dublin, who died in 1765 : contiguous to the ancient tower is a ruined chapel, in which are several sepulchral monuments of the Barnewall family, the oldest of which is of the 16th century: the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £184. 7. 6. for the repairs of the church. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also Portrane, where the chapel is situated. On a commanding situation in the demesne of Newbridge are the remains of the ancient castle of Lanistown, and about a mile from the village are the ruins of Kilcreagh church.

DONADEA, a parish, in the barony of IKEATHY and OUGHTERANY, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Kilcock; containing 400 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the western side of the bog of Allen, comprises 1976 statute acres, of which 120 are woodland, and of the remainder, nearly equal portions are under tillage and in pasture; the soil is good, and an improved system of agriculture prevails. There are excellent quarries of limestone, which is procured for building and burning; fuel is abundantly supplied from the bog of Allen. Donadea Castle is an ancient structure, belonging to the Aylmer family; in 1691 it was besieged by a party of forces in the interest of James II., but was gallantly defended by Ellen, daughter of Thomas, Viscount Thurles, wife of Sir Andrew Aylmer; it has been lately modernised and improved, and is at present the residence of Sir Gerald George Aylmer, Bart. Woodside, a handsome villa, has lately been built by the Rev. W. J. Aylmer, the rector. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Kildare, episcopally united to that of Balrahan, which two parishes constitute the corps of the prebend of Donadea in the cathedral of Kildare, and in the alternate patronage of the Crown and Sir G. G. Aylmer : the tithes amount to £125. 4. 9 1/2., and the tithes for the whole union amount to £286. 4. 9 1/2. There is neither glebe-house nor glebe. The church, a neat edifice in the later English style, was erected in 1813, by a loan of £1000 from the late Board of First Fruits, and contains a curious monument to Sir Gerald Aylmer, the first baronet, and his lady. A neat school-house has been built of stone, at an expense of £340, of which £170 was granted from the lord-lieutenant's school fund, and the remainder raised by subscription and by the Kildare-Place Society; three acres of land were granted at a nominal rent by Sir G. G. Aylmer, on lease renewable for ever, and vested in the rector and churchwardens, for the master; the school is further supported by the Trustees of Erasmus Smith's charity; 30 boys and girls are educated in it. Here is a dispensary.

 

 

 

DONAGHCAVEY,or FINDONAGH, a parish, partly in the barony of OMAGH, but chiefly in that of CLOGHER, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER; containing, with the post-town of Fintona, 11,787 inhabitants. At, the general plantation, this parish was known as the smaller portion of Fintona, and was granted by James I., partly to Sir F. Willoughby, and afterwards to John Leigh, Esq., under the name of Fentonagh, and partly to Sir. W. Cope, under the name of Derrybard : it is now called the manor of Castlemaine. It is situated on the road from Omagh to Enniskillen, and contains, according to the Ordnance survey, 23,052 1/4 statute acres, of which 18,342 1/4 are in the barony of Clogher, and 4710 1/4 in that of Omagh; 9403 acres are applotted under the tithe act. Much of the mountainous land affords good pasturage for sheep and cattle, and is re-claimable; the bogs afford fuel, but they are fast being worked out. Great benefit has been derived from the improvements of the resident gentlemen in cultivation and planting, and by new lines of road. The country around Fintona is fertile and well planted; and the woods around Eccles are large and flourishing. Limestone is found within the parish, in which are some indications of coal and iron-ore. The inhabitants combine the weaving of linen cloth with their agricultural pursuits : there is a small forge, called a plating mill, for manufacturing spades, shovels, &c. At Fintona a court is held monthly for the manor of Castlemaine. The gentlemen's seats are, Ecclesville, the residence of C. Eccles, Esq.; Derrabard House, of S. Vesey, Esq.; Cavan House, of W. Dickson, Esq.; Cavan Lodge, of C. Lucas, Esq.; and the glebe-house, of the Rev. J. McCormick.

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory forms the corps of the prebend of Findonagh in the cathedral of Clogher. The tithes amount to £600; there is a glebe-house, and two glebes comprising 400 acres. The gross annual value of the prebend is returned at £865. 17. 8. The church adjoins the town of Fintona, and was built after the civil war of 1641, during which the old one was destroyed; it is a large and venerable edifice, with a modern square tower, which was erected and the church much improved by aid of a loan of £400, in 1818, from the late Board of First Fruits. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; the chapel is near Fintona. There are two large meeting-houses for Presbyterians, and one for Wesleyan Methodists. Here are thirteen schools, in which about 580 boys and 300 girls are taught; and about 400 boys and 200 girls are educated in fifteen private schools : there are also six Sunday schools. On an eminence, in the midst of an extensive cemetery, the ruins of the old church form an interesting object; near the bridge are the remains of a very large cromlech. Nearly adjoining the glebe-house is a valuable sulphureous chalybeate spring. --See FINTONA.

 

DONAGHCUMPER, or DONOCOMPER, a parish, in the barony of SOUTH SALT, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 2 1/2 miles (S. W. by S.) from Leixlip; containing 1413 inhabitants. This place, which is also called Donocomfert, was distinguished at an early period by its priory for canons of the order of St.Victor, founded in 1202 by Adam de Hereford, in honour of St. Wolstan, Bishop of Worcester, then recently canonized. At the dissolution it was granted to Sir John Alen, the master of the rolls in Ireland, and afterwards lord chancellor, who was buried in the parish church, in which, till within a few years, was a monument bearing his effigy. The parish is situated on the road from Dublin to Celbridge, from which latter place it is separated only by the river Liffey, and comprises 4450 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. A bridge was erected over the Liffey, near the gate of St. Wolstan's priory, by John Ledleer, in 1308, which is still called New bridge, and consists of four irregular arches; it was in contemplation to rebuild it in 1794, but in that year a heavy flood having carried away nearly all the bridges on the river, this, which withstood its violence, was suffered to remain. A splendid mansion was erected here by Sir John Alen, on the priory lands, the site of which is now occupied by a handsome modern mansion, called St. Wolstan's, the seat of Richard Cane, Esq. The grounds, which are tastefully laid out and kept in the highest order, are watered by the Liffey, towards which they slope gently; and the demesne is embellished with several portions of the abbey, which have been carefully preserved by the proprietor, and have a beautifully picturesque appearance. At a short distance higher up the river is Donocomper, the seat of William Kirkpatrick, Esq.; the house has been recently enlarged, in the Tudor style of architecture, and the grounds are tastefully disposed. From both these seats the splendid mansion and noble demesne of Castletown are seen to great advantage, being separated only by the river. A cotton-spinning and weaving manufactory, in which power-looms are employed, has been established here, which, when in full work, affords employment to 100 persons. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Dublin; one-half is appropriate to the prebend of Kilmactalway, in the cathedral church of St. Patrick, Dublin, and the other half forms part of the union of Celbridge : the tithes amount to £190, One-half of which is payable to the prebendary, and the other to the incumbent of Celbridge. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Celbridge.

DONAGHEADY, a parish, in the barony of STRABANE, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, on the road from Strabane to Cookstown; containing, with the post-town of Dunamanagh, 10,480 inhabitants. The greater part of this parish was granted by James I. to Sir John Drummond, who founded the town of Dunamanagh, and built a bawn 109 feet square, no part of which remains, as the bawn was removed some years since, and the modern building called the Castle was erected on its site. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 39,3983 statute acres, of which 28,728 are applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £10,271 per annum. There are about 154 acres of water, and 250 of bog; the remainder is arable and pasture land. There is abundance of excellent limestone, both for building and agricultural purposes, but the mountains are chiefly clay-slate. Many of the glens and banks of the rivers are covered with underwood, the remains of the extensive forests of Mounterlony. Formerly there were several bleach-greens in the parish, and a paper-mill near Dunamanagh, all of which are now unemployed; but the inhabitants unite linen-weaving at home with agricultural pursuits. The upper half of the parish, with the exception of the church lands, is in the manor of Eliston, the court for which is held at Gortin; and the lower half is in the manor of Donolonge, which was granted by James I. to the Earl of Abercorn. A court is held at Donolonge monthly, for the recovery of debts under 40s. There are several handsome houses, the principal of which are Earl's Gift, the residence of the Rev. C. Douglas; Loughash, of Capt. Kennedy; Tullarton House, of R. Bond, Esq.; Glenville, of R. McRae, Esq.; Silver Brook, of J. Carey, Esq.; Black Park, of R. Ogilbye, Esq.; Thorn Hill, of A. C. D. L. Edie, Esq.; and the Grange, of T. Hutton, Esq.

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Derry, and in the patronage of the Marquess of Abercorn : the tithes amount to £1350. The glebe-house was erected in 1792, by aid of a gift of £100 from the late Board of First Fruits: the glebe comprises 1192 acres. The church is a small neat edifice, half a mile west from the ruins of the old church; it is in the Grecian style, with a small cupola and a bell at the western end; and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £202 for its repair. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of a union or district, comprising Donagheady and Leckpatrick, and containing one chapel in the former and two in the latter : it is in the benefice of the dean of Derry. There are four Presbyterian meeting-houses, three of which are in connection with the Synod of Ulster, two being of the second class, and one with the Seceding Synod, also of the second class. The male and female parochial schools adjoin the church, and are supported by the Marquess of Abercorn and the incumbent. At Loughash is a large and handsome school-house, erected at an expense of £200 : the school is under the National Board, as is another at Lisnarrow. There are also schools at Killeany, Rusky, Tamnaghbrady, Tyboe, Grange, and Ballyneuse; and an agricultural school at Loughash, supported by Capt. Kennedy. At Mount Castle, which gives the title of baron in the Irish peerage to the Marquess of Abercorn, are some fragments of a castle, built in 1619, by Sir Claude Hamilton, on an estate of 2000 acres, called Eden, which was granted to him by James I. : it was the birth-place of Sir George Hamilton, who distinguished himself in the parliamentary war, and of his son, Gen. Hamilton, afterwards sixth Earl of Abercorn, who commanded the Protestant Irish army against James II. at Londonderry and Enniskillen. Extensive ruins of the ancient church of Grange, which belonged to the abbey of Derry, exist on the banks of the Foyle. At Kildollagh are some large artificial caves, formed of loose stones, with flagstones over them covered with earth; they are about a quarter of a mile long, and contain several apartments; there is a less perfect one at Gortmaglen. --See DUNAMANAGH.

DONAGHENDRIE. --See DONAGHENRY.

DONAGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of RAPHOE, county of DONEGAL, and province of ULSTER; containing, with the post-town of Castlefin, 13,257 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Finn, and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 46,378 statute acres, of which 45,630 are applotted tinder the tithe act, and valued at £14,331 per annum, and 330 are water. More than one-third is mountainous and uninhabited; and, with the exception of a small portion of woodland, roads, and water, the remainder is good arable and pasture land. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Derry, and in the patronage of the Lighton family. The tithes amount to £1440. The glebe-house is a comfortable residence; the glebe comprises 750 acres. The church, situated near Castlefin, is a plain old edifice, towards the repairs of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £273 : there is also a chapel of ease opened for divine service in 1833. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there are three chapels, situated respectively at Crossroads, Castlefin, and Sessaghoneel. The Presbyterians have three places of worship, two in connection with the Synod of Ulster, namely, one at Donaghmore of the first class, and the other at Raws; and one belonging to the Seceding Synod. There are eight schools, in which about 300 boys and 250 girls are instructed; and nine pay schools, in which are 620 boys and 220 girls, and 10 Sunday schools, with six classes of adults established by one of the curates, who instructs 180 males and 80 females. --See CASTLEFIN.

 

DONAGHMORE, or DUNAGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of LOWER NAVAN, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 1 1/2 mile (N.) from Navan; containing 2132 inhabitants. An abbey is said to have been founded here by St. Patrick, who placed St. Justin over it: its remote antiquity is corroborated by its round tower, which rises from a projecting plinth to a height of 70 feet, being 60 feet in circumference near the base; a portion of the stone roof remains, and the doorway on the east side is six feet from the ground; it is remarkable, in having on the key-stone of the entrance, a sculptured representation of Christ suffering on the cross. The parish is situated at the junction of the rivers Blackwater and Boyne, and comprises 3824 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: the land is generally good and under tillage; there is neither bog nor waste. Black Castle is the handsome residence of Richard Ruxton Fitzherbert, Esq.; the mansion is a spacious and modern structure, situated on the banks of the Boyne, which flows within sight of it; the demesne is extensive and well planted. Ratholdren Castle, the seat of the late -- Cusack, Esq.; and Nevinstown, of Smith White, Esq.; are also within the parish. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Meath, and is part of the union of Navan: the tithes amount to £280 and there are about 8 1/2 acres of glebe, valued at £17 per ann. In the R. C. divisions also it is part of the union or district of Navan. At Flower Hill there is a school-house built partly by Government, and partly by subscription, at an expense of £250 : it is supported by annual donations from the Earl of Essex, Earl Ludlow, R. R. Fitzherbert, Esq., and the rector; about 40 boys and 30 girls are taught in it. Here are the ruins of a small church, with a high circular-headed arch, supporting part of a belfry.

DONAGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of RATOATH, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 9 miles (N. N. W.) from Dublin; containing 207 inhabitants, exclusively of the townland of Robertstown, which was omitted at the general census of 1831, and in 1834, contained 63 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Dublin to Ashbourne, and comprises 3296 acres. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, forming part of the union of Ratoath, and is subject to a quit-rent of £29. 12.: the tithes amount to £178. 6. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Creekstown; the chapel is an ancient edifice, situated in the old burial-ground. A private school is held in it, in which about 23 boys and 15 girls are taught.

DONAGHMORE, or DOONAMOR, a parish, in the barony of DUNGANNON, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 2 miles (N. N.W.) from Dungannon; containing 12,144 inhabitants. At this place, anciently called Domnach-mor, "the great fortress," St. Patrick founded an abbey, where he placed St. Columb, which soon acquired extensive grants of land and other valuable possessions, and continued to flourish till after the conquest of Ireland by Henry II. In the taxation of Pope Nicholas, in 1291, it is described as having contained many costly shrines. It appears to have been possessed by the Colidei, or Culdees, of Armagh, as by the inquisition of the 33rd of Henry VIII. we find the Colidei had its rectory and tithes, which, with many townlands in the adjoining parishes, were granted to the Archbishop of Armagh after the Reformation. Though there are no vestiges, it is ascertained that it stood a little north-east of the present village; within its precincts was a large and elegant cross of freestone, on which were inscribed numerous hieroglyphics representing various passages in the Scriptures; having been thrown down and mutilated in the war of 1641, it remained in that condition till 1776, when Richard Vincent, Esq., caused it to be removed and placed where it now stands, at the head of the village; it consists of a plinth, a shaft, and a cross, and is 16 feet in height. Donaghmore was also an important military station, frequent mention being made of it in the successive wars of Ireland, particularly during the rebellions of the O'Nials and the O'Donnels.

The parish is situated on the road from Dungannon to Omagh, and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 18,410 1/2 statute acres, of which, 146 are water; there are about 3000 acres of bog and mountain, but the greater part of the remainder is arable land. The present village has been built since the year 1796, under the direction, and by the spirited exertions, of A. Mackenzie, Esq., and is in a very flourishing state, comprising 88 well built and slated houses, mostly in one street. There is an extensive brewery of the celebrated Donaghmore ale, where upwards of 10,500 barrels of ale and beer are annually brewed; also soap and candle manufactories; much business is transacted in the spirit trade; and there are large brick-works adjoining the village. Near Castle-Caulfield is a small green for bleaching linen cloth, much of which is woven by the farmers and cottiers throughout the parish. A fair is held on the first Tuesday in every month, for cattle, sheep, pigs, &c.; and a manor court on the first Monday in every month in the Primate's manor of Donaghmore, for the recovery of debts under £5. There are some small lakes in the parish; in almost all of them are artificial islands, on which were castles, and where ancient implements of warfare, have been found. Among the principal seats are Fort Edward, that of Capt. Lindsay; Annaquinea, of J. Young, Esq.; Springfield, of R. Forster, Esq.; Beech Valley, of J. Wilcox, Esq.; Donaghmore Cottage, of J. King, Esq.; Parkanour, of J. Ynyr Burges, Esq.; Mullaghmore, of the Rev. T. Carpendale; Castle Caulfield, of H. King, Esq.; Tullynure Lodge, of the Rev. R. Fraser; and Mullagruen, of A. Mackenzie, Esq., which was built in 1683 by the celebrated Rev. G. Walker, defender of Londonderry, while he was rector of this parish, as appears by a shield bearing his arms and initials.

The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of the Lord-Primate : the tithes amount to £830. 15. 4 1/2. There is a glebe-house, with a glebe comprising 459 acres of excellent arable land; and in this parish are also the glebes of Drumglass and Ardtrea. The church is a large plain edifice, situated at Castle-Caulfield : it is in contemplation to erect another church in the village of Donaghmore. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms the head of two unions or districts, being partly united with Pomeroy, and partly with that of Killeshill: there are chapels at Tullyallen and in the village of Donaghmore. There are three meeting-houses for Presbyterians, one in connection with the Synod of Ulster; and a school-house is used as a place of worship by the Independents. The parish school is at Castle-Caulfield : there are seven other schools, in which about 870 children are taught; and Mr. Mackenzie has lately built on his demesne, at the corner of the old churchyard, an infants' school, which is attended daily by more than 70 children, and which he entirely supports, intending to endow it at his death. About 50 boys and girls are educated in two private schools. In 1807, the Rev. George Evans bequeathed £200, two-thirds of the interest to be appropriated to support Sunday schools, of which there are six here, and one-third to the poor of the parish. Thomas Verner, Esq., made a similar bequest for the maintenance of these schools : and there is one supported by the Presbyterian minister. In the burial-ground are an ancient stone font and the plinth of a cross : the ruins of Castle-Caulfield form a beautifully picturesque object. There are several ancient forts in various parts of the parish. --See CASTLE-CAULFIELD.

DONAGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of BALLAGHKEEN, county of WEXFORD, and province of LEINSTER, 85 miles (S. E. by S.) from Gorey, containing 2448 inhabitants. It is memorable as being the place where Dermod Mac Murrough, last King of Leinster, landed on his return from England, whither he had made a voyage to solicit aid against the confederate princes who had expelled him from his dominions. From this place he repaired privately to Ferns, which circumstance has given rise to a tradition that Glascarrig, in this parish, communicated with the castle of Ferns by a subterraneous passage, for which search has been made in vain. On the invasion by the English a considerable tract of land here was granted to Raymond le Gros, for which service was ordered by Henry II. to be rendered at Wexford castle. According to Sir James Ware, a priory of Benedictine monks was founded at Glascarrig, in the 14th century, by Griffith Condon, Richard Roche, and others, and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin; it was, according to Archdall, subject to the monastery of St. Dogmael, in the county of Pembroke, whose abbot had the presentation of a monk when any vacancy occurred. At the dissolution it was granted to Richard Boyle, first Earl of Cork; the remains, consisting only of part of the church, have been converted into farm-offices, and afford no indication of the original character of the building.

The parish is situated on the coast of St. George's channel, and comprises 5883 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, nearly the whole of which is under tillage; the system of agriculture is progressively improving. Limestone gravel is raised on the lands of Peppard's Castle, and quarries of an inferior kind of building stone are worked in other parts of the parish. A domestic manufacture of strong linen is carried on here, in which nearly all the female cottagers are employed; and there are oyster and herring fisheries along the coast. On the shore is Cahore Point, on which there is a telegraph : it is two leagues to the south of Courtown harbour, and about half a mile to the east of it is the northern extremity of the narrow sand bank called the Rusk and Ram, which extends thence S. by W. about 4 miles. At Cahore Point is a station of the coast-guard, being one of the eight comprised in the district of Gorey. Peppard's Castle, the seat of H. White, Esq., is a handsome modern mansion, in which have been incorporated some of the walls of the ancient castle; it is situated near the sea, about half a mile from the road to Wexford.

The living is an impropriate curacy, in the diocese of Ferns, and in the patronage of H. K. G. Morgan, Esq., in whom the rectory is impropriate : the tithes amount to £300, of which £23. 1. 6. is allotted by the impropriator to the curate, who receives a like sum out of the fund of the late Primate Boulter from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The church, which is situated on an eminence overlooking the sea, is a very ancient edifice, supposed to have been a cell to the abbey of Glascarrig, and is now in a dilapidated state. A new district church is about to be erected by subscription, on the border of the parish, near the adjoining parish of Kiltrisk, to which it has been united for the performance of clerical duties. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the district of Ardamine, or River chapel, and contains a chapel at Ballygarret, to which a school is attached, and there are two or three others in the district. A Sunday school is held in the church; and a school-house has lately been built on the estate of J. George, Esq., towards which the late Rev. R. Jones Brewster, impropriate curate, bequeathed £100; the remainder was raised by subscription.

DONAGHMORE. --See DONOUGHMORE.

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DONAGHMOYNE, a parish, in the barony of FARNEY (called also, from this parish, DONAGHMOYNE), county of MONAGHAN, and province of ULSTER, 2 1/2 miles (N. N. E.) from Carrickmacross; containing 14,070 inhabitants. It is situated on the mail coach road from Dublin to Londonderry, and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 25,604 statute acres, of which 102 1/4 are in Lough Muckno, and 258 1/4 in the smaller lakes with which the parish is interspersed. Nearly the whole of the land is in tillage; the soil is fertile and produces tolerably good crops, but the system of agriculture is in a very unimproved state. Limestone abounds in the southern part of the parish, and is quarried for building and for agricultural purposes; and coal has been discovered on the townland of Corlea, but has not been worked. At Thornford there is an extensive corn-mill. The principal gentlemen's seats are Longfield, the residence of J. Johnston, Esq.; Rahens, of J. Read, Esq.; Donaghmoyne, of J. Bashford, Esq.; Cabragh Lodge, of J. Boyle Kernan, Esq.; Rocksavage, of J. Plunkett, Esq.; Broomfield, of W. Henry, Esq.; Thornford, of Hamilton McMath, Esq.; and Longfield Cottage, of R. Banan, Esq.

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and in the patronage of the Crown; the rectory is impropriate in J. B. Kernan, Esq. The tithes amount to £1430. 15. 4 1/2., of which £476. 18. 5 1/2. is payable to the impropriator, and £953. 16. 11. to the vicar. The glebe-house is a comfortable residence, with grounds containing seven acres; the glebe comprises 50 1/2 acres. The church, a neat modern structure, was erected on a site presented by Jas. Bashford, Esq., by aid of a loan of £1250 from the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divisions the parish is partly, in the union or district of Inniskeen, and partly a benefice in itself; there are three chapels, situated respectively at Donaghmoyne, Lisdoonan, and Tapla, belonging to the parochial benefice, and one at Drumcatton belonging to the union of Inniskeen. There are schools at Lisdoonan and Donaghmoyne, supported by subscription, in which about 70 children are instructed; and 13 pay schools, in which are about 460 boys and 170 girls, also a Sunday school. At Fincairn, in the northern part of the parish, are several large stones, supposed to be a druidical, monument. On the townland of Cabragh was formerly an abbey dependent on the abbey of Mellifont; and on the townland of Mannon are the remains of an ancient castle, or Danish fort, which, from its elevated situation, and the remains of the buildings on its summit, appears to have been a strong and very important post; it commands an extensive view of the surrounding country.

DONAGHPATRICK. --See DONOUGHPATRICK.

DONAGORE. --See DONEGORE.

DONAMON, a parish, partly in the half-barony of BALLYMOE, county of ROSCOMMON, but chiefly in that which is in the county of GALWAY, and province of CONNAUGHT, 4 1/2 miles (S. W. by W.) from Roscommon; containing 1114 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Suck, on the road from Castlerea to Athleague, and contains 2500 statute acres, of which, 600 or 700 are bog, and 1526 arable and pasture, as applotted under the tithe act, except 100 of woodland. Agriculture is generally good, and still improving. There are quarries of limestone, which is used for building. The river Suck is here very deep and navigable, except at the bridge. The gentlemen's seats are Donamon Castle, the residence of St. George Caulfield, Esq.; and Emlaroy, of Oliver Armstrong, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Elphin, with those of Kilcroan and Ballinakill united, which three parishes form the union of Donamon, in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is partly impropriate in the Earl of Essex, and partly in St. George Caulfield, Esq. The tithes amount to £40. 2. 8., half of which is payable to the vicar, and half to the impropriators. There is neither glebe-house nor glebe. The church is an ancient building, in good repair; it was formerly a chapel of the Caulfield family, but when the church of Oran was blown down, it was given to the parishioners. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Kilbegnet. About 130 boys and 80 girls are taught in three schools, two of which are aided by the incumbent, and one by Mr. Caulfield, who contributes £20 per annum; and there is also a Sunday school. The Caulfield family has bequeathed £8 per annum, late currency, towards the repairs of the church, in which are some handsome monuments to the memory of its various members.

DONAMONA, a parish, in the barony of TULLAGH, county of CLARE, and province of MUNSTER, Contiguous to the town of Killaloe, in which parish it has merged. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Killaloe, entirely appropriate to the economy estate of the cathedral of St. Flannan : the tithes amount to £42. 4. 3.

DONANEY, or DONENY, a parish, partly in the barony of UPPER PHILIPSTOWN, KING'S county, but chiefly in that of WEST OPHALY, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (S. W. by S.) from Kildare, on the road to Athy : containing 676 inhabitants. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Kildare, and is part of the union of Lackagh; the rectory is appropriate to the bishop. The tithes amount to £130. 18., of which £S7. 5. is payable to the bishop, and £43. 12. 8. to the vicar. There are three acres of glebe. In the R. C divisions it forms part of the union or district of Monasterevan. About 70 boys and 30 girls are educated in a private school. There are some remains of an ancient church : also the ruins of a castle, and a large mansion-house now gone to decay, which was once occupied by the family of Browne.

DONARD, a parish, in the barony of LOWER TALBOTSTOWN, county of WICKLOW, and province of LEINSTER, 4 1/2 miles (E. by S.) from Dunlavin; containing, with the ancient chapelry of Dunbey, 1463 inhabitants, of which number, 717 are in the village. According to Archdall, St. Silvester, who accompanied St. Palladius into Ireland about the year 430, presided over a church here, in which he was interred and his relics were honoured, until they were removed to the monastery of St. Baithen, or Innisboyne. During the disturbances of 1798, the village was burnt by the insurgents, the inhabitants having been driven to seek refuge in Dunlavin : the church was garrisoned by the yeomanry, on this occasion, which greatly injured it, and it has since become dilapidated. The parish is situated on the Little Slaney, about a mile to the east of the main road from Dublin to Baltinglass and Tullow, and the road from Hollywood to Hacketstown runs through the village. The surrounding scenery is of a strikingly bold and romantic character. Donard House is the residence of Mrs. Heighington. A market and two fairs were formerly held here by patent, but both have been discontinued, though a pleasure fair is yet held on the 15th of Aug. This a constabulary police station. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, episcopally united, about 30 years since, to the curacy of Crehelp and the ancient chapelry of Dunbay, together forming the union of Donard, in the patronage of the Archbishop. The tithes amount to £220, and of the entire benefice, to £307. 3.7. There is neither glebe-house nor glebe. The church is in the later style of architecture, with a square tower surmounted with pinnacles; the interior is very neatly fitted up, and on the north side there is a handsome white marble tablet to the memory of Charles Fauscett, Esq., who died in 1834 : it was built on a new site in 1835, by aid of a grant of £850 by the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union or district of Dunlavin : there is a chapel in the village. The parochial school is aided by an annual donation from the vicar; and an infants' school for foundlings sent from the Foundling Hospital, Dublin, is supported by that institution. In these schools about 150 children are taught; and there is also a Sunday school. The remains of the church over which St. Silvester presided are on the summit of the mountain called Slieve Gadoe, or the Church-mountain, more than 2000 feet above the level of the sea, being the highest of the group that separates the King's river from the glen of Imail; it is the resort of numerous pilgrims, who are attracted by the supposed sanctity of a well close, by the walls, the water of which, notwithstanding its great height, continues without any sensible increase or decrease throughout the year. Near the village is a moated rath, or Danish fort, and on the townland of Kilcough is another.

 

DONEGAL, a sea-port, market and post-town, and parish (formerly an incorporated parliamentary borough), in the barony of TYRHUGH, county of DONEGAL, and province of ULSTER, 24 miles (S. W.) from Lifford, and 113 (N. W.) from Dublin; containing 6260 inhabitants, of which number, 830 are in the town. In 1150 Murtogh O'Loghlen burnt this town and devastated the surrounding country. A castle was built here by the O'Donells about the 12th century; and a monastery for Franciscan friars of the Observantine order was founded in 1474, by Hugh Roe, son of O'Donell, Prince of Tyrconnell, and by his wife, Fiongala, daughter of O'Brien, Prince of Thomond. O'Donell, in 1587, bade defiance to the English government and refused to admit any sheriff into his district. The council at Dublin not having sufficient troops to compel his submission, Sir John Perrot, lord-deputy, proposed either to entrap him or his son. He accomplished his object by sending a ship freighted with Spanish wines to Donegal, the captain of which entertained all who would partake of his liberality. Young O'Donell and two of his companions accepted his invitation, and when intoxicated were made prisoners and conveyed to Dublin as hostages for the chief of Tyrconnell. After remaining a prisoner in the castle for a considerable time, he, in company with several other hostages, effected his escape and returned to Donegal, where he was invested with the chieftaincy of Tyrconnell, and married a daughter of O'Nial, chief of Tyrone. In 1592, an English force under Captains Willis and Convill took possession of the convent and the surrounding country, but were quickly expelled by the young Hugh Roe O'Donell, with the loss of their baggage. In 1600, O'Nial met O'Donell and the Spanish emissary, Oviedo, here, on the arrival of supplies from Spain at Killybegs, to concert the plan of a rebellion. Shortly after this, the English, taking advantage of O'Donell's absence in Connaught, marched a strong party to Donegal, and took possession of the monastery, which was unsuccessfully assaulted by O'Donell; and the debarkation of the Spaniards at Kinsale, about this time, occasioned him to go to their assistance, leaving the English in undisturbed possession. In 1C31, the annals of Donegal, generally called the "Annals of the Four Masters," were compiled in the convent: the original of the first part of this work is in the Duke of Buckingham's library at Stowe, and of the second in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy; part of these interesting annals have been published by Dr. O'Conor, under the title of " Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores." The castle was taken, in 1651, by the Marquess of Clanricarde, who was, however, soon obliged to surrender it to a superior force. On the 15th of October, 1798, a French frigate of 30 guns anchored close to the town, and two more appeared in the bay; but the militia and inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood showing a determination to resist a landing, they left the harbour.

The town is pleasantly situated at the mouth of the river Esk, and consists of three streets, comprising 150 houses, and a large triangular market-place. The market is held on Saturday; and fairs on the 2nd Friday in each month. Here is a constabulary police station. The harbour is formed by a pool on the east side of the peninsula of Durin, where, at the distance of two miles below the town, small vessels may ride in two or three fathoms of water, about half a cable's length from the shore. There is a good herring fishery in the bay, in summer. The borough was incorporated by a charter of James I., dated Feb. 27th, 1612, in pursuance of the plan of forming a new plantation in Ulster. The corporation consisted of a portreeve, twelve free burgesses, and an unlimited number of freemen; and the charter created a borough court, of which the portreeve was president, but it has long since been disused. From its incorporation till the Union the borough returned two members to the Irish Parliament, and on the abolition of its franchise, £15,000 was paid as compensation to the Earl of Arran and Viscount Dudley. Since that period the corporation has ceased to exist. By a grant to Henry Brook, in 1639, a manor was erected, comprehending the town of Donegal, with a court leet and a court baron, to be held before a seneschal appointed by the patentee, having a civil jurisdiction to the extent of 40s. The manorial court is still held monthly, on Mondays, except during the summer: petty sessions are held every alternate week; and the general quarter sessions for the county are held here in March, June, October, and December, in a small sessions-house. There is a small bridewell.

The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance' survey, 23,260 statute acres, including 503 1/4 in Lough Esk and 214 3/4 in small lakes : 23,089 acres are applotted under the tithe act, besides which there are about 900 acres of bog and a large tract of mountain land, in which is the beautiful lake of Lough Esk, at the upper end of which is the romantic and picturesque place called Ardnamona, the property of G. C. Wray. Esq., and from which the river Esk descends southward to its estuary, in the inmost recess of the bay of Donegal. About a quarter of the cultivated land is arable, the remainder pasture. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Raphoe, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is impropriate in Col. Conolly. The tithes amount to £338. 9. 2 1/2., of which £107. 13. 10 1/4. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. The glebe-house was rebuilt by aid of a gift of £100, from the late Board of First Fruits in 1816; and there is a glebe of 38 acres. The church is a handsome structure, built in 1825, by aid of a donation of £100 from John Hamilton, Esq., and a loan of £1300 from the same Board. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and has a chapel at Donegal and one at Townawilly. There is a meeting-house for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the third class, and one connected with the Seceding Synod, of the second class; also two places of worship for Independents and one for Wesleyan Methodists. The parochial school was built on land given by the Earl of Arran. There are also a school on Erasmus Smith's foundation, one supported by Mrs. Hamilton, and nine others aided by different Societies and subscriptions. In these are about 600 children, and there are three Sunday schools. About the close of the last century, Col. Robertson, son of a clergyman of this town, bequeathed a sum of money, out of the interest of which, £15 per annum was to be paid to each of the parishes in the diocese of Raphoe, for the support of a school-master to instruct children of all religious denominations. This fund has so much increased as to enable the trustees to grant £40 to each parish, for the erection of a school-house, provided an acre of land on a perpetually renewable lease be obtained for a site. There is a dispensary in the town, supported in the customary manner. Manganese is found in the demesne of Lough Esk, the residence of Thomas Brooke, Esq. Pearls, some of great beauty, have been found on the river Esk. The remains of the monastery are still visible at a short distance from the town : the cloister is composed of small arches supported by coupled pillars on a basement; in one part of it are two narrow passages, one over the other, about four feet wide, ten long, and seven high, which were probably intended as depositories for valuables in times of danger. A considerable part of the castle remains, and forms an interesting feature in the beautiful view of the bay; although it and the other property granted to the patentee, at a rent of 13s. 4d. per annum, have passed into other families, one of his descendants still pays a rent to the crown for it. Within three miles of the town is The Hall, the residence of the Conyngham family. Donegal gives the titles of Marquess and Earl to the Chichester family.

DONEGORE, a parish, in the barony of UPPER ANTRIM, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER, 3 1/2 miles (E. by N.) from Antrim; containing 2532 inhabitants. It. comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 6650 statute acres. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Connor, united to that of Kilbride, and the granges of Nalteen and Doagh, forming the union of Donegore, in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes of the parish amount to £393. 7, 10 1/2., and of the entire benefice, to £954. 5. 9. : there is a glebe-house. The church, which is nearly in the centre of the parish, was built in 1659. Divine service is also performed every Sunday in a private house at Kilbride. There is a meeting-house for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the first class, and one in connection with the Seceding Synod, of the second class. The parochial school, in which are about 60 children, is aided by the rector; and there are three Sunday schools.

DONEIRA, or DONIRY, a parish, in the barony of LEITRIM, county of GALWAY, and province of CON-NAUGHT, 5 1/4 miles (W. N. W.) from Portumna; containing 2348 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the west by the Slievc-Baughta mountains, and comprises 3963 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. It is in the diocese of Clonfert; the rectory is appropriate partly to the see and partly to the deanery of Clonfert, and partly with the vicarage forming part of the union of Tynagh. The tithes amount to £95. 13. 10 1/2., of which £12. 17. 3. is payable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, £4. 12. 3 3/4. to the dean, and £78. 4. 3 3/4. to the incumbent. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Ballynakill, and contains a chapel.

DONEMAGAN, a parish, in the barony of KELLS, county of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Callan, on the King's river; containing 1162 inhabitants. It comprises 3447 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act; and is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, forming part of the union of Knocktopher : the tithes amount to £184. 12. 3 3/4. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a district, which also comprises the parishes of Kilree, Ballytobin, and Kilmoganny, and part of Kells; and contains the chapels of Donemagan and Kilmoganny. About 115 children are educated in two private schools, and a Sunday school is held in the R. C. chapel.

DONENY. --See DONANEY.

DONERAILE, a market and post-town, and a parish (formerly a parliamentary borough), in the barony of FERMOY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 21 miles (N. by W.) from Cork, and 132 (S. W.) from Dublin; containing 6940 inhabitants, of which number, 2652 are in the town. Sir William St. Leger, who was Lord-President of Munster in the reign of Charles I., held his court here. He purchased the Doneraile estate of Sir Walter Welmond and John Spenser (son of the poet), which purchase was subsequently confirmed by the crown, and the estate created a manor. In the civil war of 1641, Sir William, both as a statesman and soldier, rendered important services; but his infirm health did not enable him long to sustain the hardships to which he was then exposed, and he died in the following year. In 1645, the Irish under Lord Castlehaven took the castle of Doneraile, and burned the greater part of the town.

It is pleasantly situated on the river Awbeg (the " Gentle Mulla" of Spenser), which is here crossed by a neat stone bridge of 3 arches, and on the mail road from Mallow to Mitchelstown; it consists chiefly of one wide main street, and a smaller one called Buttevant lane, and contains about 390 houses. The vicinity is extremely pleasing, the roads being shaded by fine fir and other trees, and the country studded with gentlemen's seats. By a charter of the 15th of Charles I. (1639), constituting Sir William St. Leger lord of the manor, power was given to the seneschal to hold a court leet and court baron, with jurisdiction in personal actions to the amount of 40s.; also a market on Thursday, and two fairs annually on the feast of St. Magdalene and All Souls. The market is, however, now held on Saturday for provisions, but on account of its proximity to Mallow, it is but thinly attended; the fairs, which are held on the 12th of Aug. and Nov., have also much declined; and although the seneschal's court is still occasionally held, with the view of preserving the right, no business has been transacted in it for the last seven years. The market and courthouse, a convenient building, is situated in the main street. Near the bridge is the extensive flour-mill of Messrs. Creagh & Stawell, and at Park is that of Messrs. Norcott & Co. This is a chief constabulary police station, and a small military force is also quartered in the town. By a second charter, granted in the 31st of Charles II. (1660), the borough was empowered to return two members to the Irish parliament, and the elective franchise was vested in the freeholders made by the lord of the manor; but no corporation was created : the seneschal was the returning officer. From this period until the Union it continued to send two burgesses to parliament, when it was disfranchised and the compensation of £15,000 paid to the heirs of Hayes, Viscount Doneraile. His descendant, Hayes St. Leger, the third and present Viscount Doneraile, is lord of the manor, which extends over parts of this parish and that of Templeroan.

The parish, which extends to the Galtee mountains, on the confines of the county of Limerick, and includes the ancient subdivisions of Rossagh and Kilcoleman, contains 20,797 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £9367 per annum. About 8800 acres are coarse mountain pasture : the arable land is in general good, and the state of agriculture is gradually improving, a considerable portion of the land being in the occupation of the resident gentry. Limestone abounds, and some good specimens of marble are occasionally obtained. Among the numerous seats, Doneraile Park, that of Viscount Doneraile, is distinguished for its extent and beauty : it is intersected by the river Awbeg, over which, and within the demesne are several neat stone and rustic bridges. The mansion is a handsome and substantial building, to which has been added, within the last few years, a large conservatory stored with the choicest plants : it is situated on an eminence gently sloping to the winding vale of the Awbeg. The other seats are Creagh Castle, that of G. W. B. Creagh, Esq.; Laurentinum, of the same family; Kilbrack, of Mrs. Stawell; Byblox, of Major Crone; all of which are on the Awbeg : and in the parish are also Donnybrook, the seat of W. Hill, Esq., Old Court, of J. Stawell, Esq.; Carker House, of N. G. Evans, Esq.; Lissa, of Capt. Croker; Hermitage, of J. Norcott, Esq.; Crobeg, of G. Stawell, Esq.; Cromore, of R. Campion, Esq. Park House, of A. Norcott, Esq.; Cottage, of J. Norcott, Esq., M. D.; Stream Hill, of G. Crofts, Esq.; Kilbrack Cottage, of the Very Rev. P. Sheehan, P.P.; and, in the town, the newly erected mansion of A. G. Creagh, Esq. The parish is in the diocese of Cloyne, and is a perpetual curacy, forming part of the union of Templeroan, or Doneraile, in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is impropriate in Edward Giles, Esq., of Park, near Youghal. The tithes (including Rossagh and Kilcoleman) amount to £1173. 7. 1., the whole of which is payable to the impropriator, subject to an allowance of £13. 6. 8., (late currency) to the officiating minister. The church, at the north end of the town, is a neat and commodious edifice with a tower, formerly surmounted by a spire which was blown down about 12 years since. It was erected in 1816, by aid of a loan of £2000 from the late Board of First Fruits, and contains an ancient font, and a mural monument to several members of the St. Leger family. The evening church service is performed in the courthouse during the winter, and the Methodists also assemble there on alternate Fridays. Rossagh and Kilcoleman, which are said to have been formerly distinct parishes, have merged into this both for civil and ecclesiastical purposes. In the R. C. divisions the parish is united to those of Cahirduggan and Templeroan. The chapel is a handsome and spacious edifice, erected by subscription in 1827 : it consists of a nave lighted on each side by lofty windows and surmounted by a cupola: the altar and other internal decorations correspond with its exterior. The site was given by Lord Doneraile, who also contributed £50 towards its erection. A convent for nuns of the order of the presentation has been established here for many years, and liberally endowed by Miss Goold. The chapel attached to it is open to the public on Sunday mornings, and the chaplaincy is endowed with £82 per ann., by Miss Goold, who has also appropriated £28 per ann. for clothing the children educated at the convent school, where about 400 girls are gratuitously instructed, and taught both plain and ornamental needlework. The parochial school of 25 children is aided by £10 per ann. from the incumbent, and a school at Ballinvonare of 110 children is aided by £12 per ann. from Harold Barry, Esq., who also provides the school-house. The Lancasterian free school of 300 boys is within the demesne of Lord Doneraile, by whom it is entirely supported, and a school of about 20 girls is supported by Lady Doneraile, who also pays a writing-master for attending it. A dispensary is supported here in the customary manner. At Ballyandree is a chalybeate spring, stated to be of much efficacy in complaints of the liver.

Of the remains of antiquity, Kilcoleman castle is the most interesting, from having been once the residence of the poet Spenser. It was originally a structure of some magnitude, the property of the Desmond family, and on their forfeiture was, with about 3000 acres of land, granted by Queen Elizabeth, in 1586, to Edmund Spenser, who resided here for about 12 years, during which period he composed his " Faery Queen." The ruins, situated on the margin of a small lake, have a very picturesque appearance, being richly clothed with ivy; the tower-staircase and the kitchen are still nearly entire, and one small closet and window in the tower quite perfect. The castle at Creagh is in good preservation, and about to be fitted up as an appendage to the family mansion. The ruins of Castle Pook still remain, hut of Doneraile castle, which stood near the bridge, and in which Sir William St. Leger held his court of presidency, there is not a vestige. Doneraile gives the titles of Viscount and Baron to the family of St. Leger.

DONISLE. --See DUNHILL.

DONNYBROOK (ST. MARY), a parish, partly in the half-barony of RATHDOWN, county of DUBLIN, but chiefly within the county of the city of DUBLIN, 2 miles (S. by E.) from Dublin; containing 10,394 inhabitants. It includes the villages of Ballsbridge, Clonskea, Donnybrook, Old Merrion, Sandymount, and Ringsend with Irishtown, each of which is described under its own head. The village of Donnybrook is chiefly remarkable for its fair, the patent for which was granted by King John, to continue for 15 days, commencing on the Monday before the 26th of August. On the following day great numbers of horses, cattle, and sheep are sold; but the principal object is amusement and diversion. It is held in a spacious green belonging to Messrs. Maddens, who derive from it annually about £400. A twopenny post has been established here, since the erection of the Anglesey bridge over the Dodder. A hat manufacture was formerly carried on to a great extent, but it has greatly decreased; there are some sawmills in the village, and a branch of the city police is stationed here. The parish is situated on the river Dodder, and comprises 1500 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act; the lands are fertile and under good cultivation; and near the village is a quarry of excellent building stone, in which organic remains have been found. Exclusively of the gentlemen's seats described under the head of the several villages near which they are respectively situated, are Annfield, the residence of R. Percival, Esq., M. D.; Mount Errol, of Sir R. Baker, Knt.; Montrose, of J. Jameson, Esq., Swanbrook, of Alderman F. Darley; Gayfield, of T. P. Luscombe, Esq., Commissary-General; Priest House, of J. Robinson, Esq.; Stonehouse, of J. Barton, Esq.; Woodview, of E. J. Nolan, Esq.; Nutley, of G. Roe, Esq.; Thornfield, of W. Potts, Esq.; Airfield, of C. Hogan, Esq.; Simmons Court Hall, of G. Howell, Esq.; Belleville, of Alderman Morrison; Flora Ville, of M. Fitzgerald, Esq.; Donnybrook Cottage, of A. Colles, Esq., M. D.; Simmons Court, of P. Madden, Esq.; and Glenville, of J. O'Dwyer, Esq. Within the parish are iron-works, an extensive calico-printing establishment, a distillery, and salt works. The Dublin and Kingstown rail-road, the road from Dublin by Ballsbridge, and the road to Bray through Stillorgan, pass through it. That part of the parish which is in the county of the city is within the jurisdiction of the Dublin court of conscience. It is a chapelry, in the diocese of Dublin, and forms part of the corps of the archdeaconry of Dublin. The tithes amount to £166. 3. 0 3/4., to which is added about £300 collected as minister's money : there is no glebe-house, and the glebe comprises only about three-quarters of an acre. The church is a spacious and handsome edifice, in the early style of English architecture, with a tower surmounted by a well-proportioned spire; and was erected at Simmons Court (the old church in the village having fallen into decay), by a loan of £4154 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1829. In the R. C. divisions the parish is united to those of St. Mark, Tawney, and St. Peter; there are chapels at Donnybrook and Irishtown, and a spacious chapel is now in progress near Cottage-terrace, Baggot-street. In the avenue leading to Sandymount is a convent of the Sisters of Charity, a branch from the establishment in Stanhope-street, Dublin; the sisters are employed in visiting the sick and in attending a school for girls; attached to the convent is a small neat chapel. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists close to the village of Donnybrook. A school for boys and another for girls are supported by subscription; and there is a dispensary at Ballsbridge. The hospital for incurables is in this parish, and is chiefly supported by Grand Jury presentments; and the Bloomfield retreat for lunatics was established by the Society of Friends. There are cemeteries at Donnybrook and Merrion; and at Simmons Court are the remains of an old castle, consisting of a massive pointed archway. In the grounds of Gayfield is a medicinal spring, the water of which is similar in its properties to that of Golden Bridge. Lord Chief Justice Downes was born in the castle of Donnybrook, now a boarding school.

DONNYCARNEY, or DONECARNEY, a village, in the parish of COLPE, barony of LOWER DULEEK, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 1/2 miles (E.) from Drogheda; containing 25 houses and 108 inhabitants. This place is situated on the road from the sea, by way of Mornington, to Drogheda, and is said to have been the site of a nunnery, which at the suppression was granted to the Draycott family : the ruins are inconsiderable.

DONOGHENRY, or DONAGHENDRY, a parish, in the barony of DUNGANNON, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, on the mail coach road from Dublin to Coleraine; containing, with the post-town of Stewartstown, 5364 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 7154 3/4 statute acres, including 50 3/4 in Lough Roughan : 6889 acres are applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £5261 per annum, of which 426 are bog, and 6463 arable. The land is rich and well cultivated, and there are extensive quarries of limestone, freestone, and basalt. Near the glebe-house is an extensive deposit of new red sandstone; and in Anna-hone are valuable mines of coal, which, though discontinued in 1825, were formerly worked with great advantage : they are now leased by the owner to a spirited individual, who has recommenced them, with success, upon an extensive scale. Coal, clay, and other valuable deposits exist near Coal Island (see the article on that place). The manufacture of linen and union cloth is carried on to a considerable extent. Mullantean is the handsome residence of Miss Hall; Barnhill, of W. Holmes, Esq.; Donaghendry, of the Rev. F. L. Gore; Anketell Lodge, of Roger C. Anketell, Esq.; and Ardpatrick, of the Rev. W. J. Knox, near which are the remains of a Danish fort. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the alternate patronage of Sir Thomas Staples, Bart., and E. H. Caul-field, Esq.: the tithes amount to £315. The glebe-house is a large and handsome edifice, built (by aid of a gift of £100, and a loan of £825, in 1811, from the late Board of First Fruits) on a glebe comprising 30 acres of excellent land within the parish; the remainder of the glebe, 210 acres, being in the townland of Tamnavally, in the parish of Arboe. The church is situated in Stewartstown; it was built, in 1694, out of the forfeited impropriations by order of William. III., the old building at Donoghenry having been destroyed in the war of 1641; and a lofty square tower and side aisles have been recently added. There is a chapel of ease at Coal island, lately erected by subscription. In the R. C. divisions the parish is united to that of Ballyclog, and part of Clonoe, forming the union of Stewartstown, in which are two chapels, one at, Stewartstown and one at Coal Island. Here are two Presbyterian meeting-houses, one in connection with the Synod of Ulster, and the other with the Seceding Synod, both of the second class. There are nine schools in the parish, including an infants' school lately established, all aided by subscription, and a school for girls supported by Mrs. Gore; about 550 children are taught. At Roughan are the ruins of an extensive castle, built by the Lord-Deputy Sidney, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and afterwards held by the Earl of Tyrone during his rebellion; and in the war of 1641, by Sir Phelim O'Nial, who placed a powerful garrison in it : it was afterwards dismantled, by order of parliament, and is now a picturesque ruin. At Donoghenry is the site of the old church and cemetery, which was the burial-place of the ancient family of Bailie, whose mansion-house adjoining is now in ruins. In a field contiguous is an upright stone, one of the supporters of a cromlech, and near it is another lying on the ground, in the upper side of which is a circular cavity, or artificial basin : about a quarter of a mile westward is a large and perfect cromlech, with a table stone, weighing more than 20 tons, placed within a circle of smaller stones. Near Stewartstown are the remains of a castle built by Sir Andrew Stewart, in the reign of James I., to whom the monarch had granted extensive possessions in this neighbourhood. In 1823, a small cup, or chalice, was discovered in a bog at Dunaghy, full of silver coins of the Danish princes, many of which are preserved in the collection of R. C. Anketell, Esq. In the small lake of Ardpatrick is a floating island, and around its shores human bones, camp-poles, &c., have been discovered : in this lake many persons were drowned in the civil war of 1641; and around its shores the army of James II. encamped on their march to Derry in 1689. --See STEWARTSTOWN.

DONOGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of NORTH SALT, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (E.) from Maynooth, on the road to Dublin, and on the banks of the Royal Canal, including part of the demesne of Carton, the seat of His Grace the Duke of Leinster. It is in the diocese of Dublin : one-half of the rectory is appropriate to the prebend of Kilmactalway in the cathedral church of St. Patrick, Dublin, and the other forms part of the union of Celbridge; the tithes amount to £17, payable in moieties to the prebendary and the incumbent. In the R. C. divisions it forms also part of the union or district of Celbridge. The ruins of the church are situated on the bank of the canal.

DONOHILL, a parish, partly in the barony of CLANWILLIAM, but chiefly in that of KILNEMANAGH, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 3 3/4 miles (N.) from Tipperary, on the new line of road to Nenagh; containing 4308 inhabitants. This parish comprises 12,812 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. Greenfield, the residence of Col. W. Purefoy; and Philipstown, of H. B. Bradshaw, Esq., are the principal seats. A mountain stream, called the Anacarthy, runs through the parish, where is a small village of that name, in which are a constabulary police station, a chapel and a school. It is in the diocese of Cashel; the rectory is impropriate in the representatives of the Rev. R. Watts, and the vicarage forms part of the corps of the precentorship in the cathedral church of St. Patrick, Cashel. The tithes amount to £384. 12. 3 3/4., of which £200 is payable to the impropriators and the remainder to the vicar. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there are two chapels, one at Anacarthy, and one at Donohill. There are five schools aided by subscriptions; in which about 500 children are taught. Some slight remains of the ancient church may be seen; there is a conical hill, supposed to be a Danish rath; and on an eminence near Anacarthy is a circular tower, called Ballysheedy Castle, forming a conspicuous object from a great distance.

DONONAUGHTA, a parish, in the barony of LONGFORD, county of GALWAY, and province of CON-NAUGHT; containing, with the post-town of Eyrecourt, 2277 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Shannon, and on the road from Banagher to Loughrea; and comprises 2423 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: a very small portion is woodland, and the remainder is principally under tillage. Among the gentlemen's seats are Eyrecourt Castle, that of J. Eyre, Esq., to which is attached a chapel of ease, built in 1677 by J. Eyre, Esq.; Eyreville, of T. S. Eyre, Esq.; Prospect, of C. A. O'Malley, Esq.; and Fahy, of T. Burke, Esq. It is in the diocese of Clonfert: the rectory is appropriate to the see, and the vicarage episcopally united, in 1813, to the vicarages of Meelick, Fahy, Tyrenascragh, Killimorbologue, Kilquane, and Lusmagh, forming the union of Dononaughta, in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £71. 10. 9 1/4., of which £46. 3. 1. is payable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, and £25. 7. 8 1/4. to the vicar; and the tithes of the whole benefice amount to £299. 15. 4 1/4. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £450, and a loan of £200, from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1822. The church, a plain building in Eyrecourt, was erected by aid of a loan of £307 from the same Board, in 1818 : the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £354 for its repair. Divine service is also performed in a school-house in the parish of Killimorbologue. In the R. C. divisions this parish is united to those of Clonfert and Meelik, forming the union of Eyrecourt, where the chapel is situated. A school for boys is supported by the interest of a bequest of £1000, and a house by the late Rev. J. Banks, to which Mr. Eyre has given an acre of land; and there is another school, aided by subscription, in which together are about 30 boys and 30 girls. --See EYRECOURT.

DONORE, a parish, in the barony of LOWER DULEEK, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 1/4 miles (W. S. W.) from Drogheda, on the road to Navan; containing 1191 inhabitants, of which number, 124 are in the village. This parish anciently formed part of the possessions of the abbey of Mellilfont. On July 1st, 1690, it was the position occupied by James II. during the battle of the Boyne, a detailed account of which is given in the article on Drogheda. The parish comprises 1954 acres : the ground under cultivation is naturally very productive, and there is neither waste land nor bog. Abundance of limestone is procured from an old and well-worked quarry at Sheep-house, and is much used for building; it is of a handsome light colour. By the canal, passing by Oldbridge, from Drogheda to Navan, timber, slates, stone, and coal are brought to Donore, and corn taken back to Drogheda. Old Bridge, the seat of H. B. Coddington, Esq., is situated in an extensive demesne, well planted, on the banks of the Boyne; a residence called Farm is also the property of this gentleman; and Stalleen is the property and occasional residence of William Sharman Crawford, Esq. The parish is in the diocese of Meath; the rectory is partly impropriate in the Marquess of Drogheda, but the greater part of the parish is tithe-free : the parishioners attend divine service at the churches of Duleek and Drogheda. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, also called Rosnaree, comprising the parishes of Donore and Knockcomon, in each of which is a chapel. There is a school in which about 50 boys and 30 girls are taught. The ruins of the church consist of a gable and part of a side wall. In the lands of Old Bridge are several trenches and redoubts used at the battle of the Boyne; and at the foot of King William's glen is an obelisk in commemoration of the battle. Duke Schomberg is believed to have been buried within the gate of the grounds of H. B. Coddington, Esq.

DONORLIN. --See DUNORLIN.

DONOUGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of IBANE and BARRYROE, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Clonakilty; containing 364 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the eastern side of the entrance to Clonakilty bay, on a very exposed and bold shore opening abruptly to the Atlantic. It comprises 306 statute acres, nearly all under tillage, and there is neither waste land nor bog. The principal manure is sand and sea-weed, which are found in abundance on the strand, and of which large quantities are sent to Clonakilty. There is a quarry of excellent slate, affording employment to a number of persons throughout the year. Along the coast are some beautiful small bays, but so much exposed that no use can be made of them, unless in very calm weather. A coastguard station has been fixed at Rock Castle, near the village. Donoughmore is a prebend in the cathedral of Ross, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £42. There is neither glebe-house, glebe, nor church; divine service is performed in the barrack of the coast-guard station every Sunday. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Lislee. The parochial school is supported by subscription under the patronage of the rector; and there is a pay school, in which are about 60 children. Here is a solitary square tower of very rude character; it has no windows, but two entrances, one from the ground and the other at some height above it, and appears to have been the tower of the ancient parish church. Around it is an ancient cemetery, now used chiefly for the interment of infants. Not far distant is a small but very perfect rath with a rampart 12 feet high.

DONOUGHMORE, a parish, partly in the barony of BARRETTS, but chiefly in that of EAST MUSKERRY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 12 miles (W. N. W.) from Cork, on the new line of road to Kanturk; containing 6794 inhabitants. This parish comprises 22,000 statute acres, of which 8000 acres, which had been forcibly withheld from the see of Cloyne (to which nearly half the parish belongs), since the year 1539, were, in 1709, recovered by Bishop Crow, and are now the property of that see, but in the hands of the Commissioners under the Church Temporalities act: about 2880 acres are bog and mountain, and the remainder is good arable and pasture land. The soil is generally cold and wet, except in the neighbourhood of Derry, where the lands are well cultivated and very productive. Not more than one-fourth of the land is under tillage; the remainder is mountain pasture and bog, especially in the northern part of the parish, where a vast tract of heathy bog and moorland extends to the summit of the Boggra mountain, on which numerous herds of cattle are pastured. The principal residences are Derry, that of J. B. Gibbs, Esq.; Derry Cottage, of the Rev. W. Meade; Kilcullen, of Jer. Lynch, Esq.; Firmount, of Horace Townsend, Esq.; and Fortnaght, of the Rev. Morgan O'Brien. The new line of road from Cork to Kanturk passes through this wild district, and will contribute greatly to its improvement: the rivers Dripsey and Awenbeg have their rise in it. Fairs are held on May 18th and Nov. 21st for general farming stock. Near the cross of Donoughmore is a constabulary police barrack. A manorial court is held under the Bishop of Cloyne, and petty sessions monthly. The rectory constitutes the corps of the prebend of Cloyne in the cathedral of St. Colman, and in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes amount to £1100. The glebe-house is a very old building; the glebe comprises 14 acres of fertile land. The church is a small and very old edifice in a state of great dilapidation, and is about to be rebuilt by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there are two chapels, one near the cross of Donoughmore, and the other at Fortnaght, the former a spacious and neat edifice, the other a small plain building. A school is supported by the rector, in which about 20 children are educated; at Garrane is a school, in which about 30 boys and 20 girls are instructed, and for which a house was given by Mr. Stowell; and there are five pay schools, in which are about 300 boys and 160 girls. Between this parish and Kilshanig is the Pass of Redshard, where Lord-President St. Leger, in 1641, drew up such forces as he could raise to oppose the insurgents coming from the county of Limerick, and commanded by Lord Mountgarret, but on their messengers showing him their pretended commission from the king, he disbanded his forces and retired to Cork. This place gives the title of Earl to the family of Hutchinson.

DONOUGHMORE, county of KILKENNY. --See BALLYRAGGET.

DONOUGHMORE, a parish, in the county of the city of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 2 1/2 miles (S. E.) from Limerick; containing 729 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the road from Limerick to Bruff, and comprises 821 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and about 97 acres of bog mostly cut out and reclaimed. The land is generally good, but, though so near the city of Limerick, the system of agriculture is in a very unimproved state; some of the land is depastured by milch cows and the produce sent daily to Limerick. There are several handsome residences in the neighbourhood, of which the principal are Ballyseeda, that of T. G. Fitzgibbon, Esq.; South Hill, of S. Evans, Esq.; and Clonlong, of J. Norris, Esq.; and there are several substantial houses, the occasional residences of some of the Limerick merchants, who have farms in the parish. Donoughmore is a prebend in the cathedral of Limerick, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £92. 6. 1 1/2. There is neither church, glebe-house, nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parishes of Cahirnarry and Cahirnavalla; the chapel is a small thatched building nearly in the centre of the parish. There is a pay school of about 100 children. The ruins of the ancient parish church are extensive and venerably picturesque, consisting of the walls and gables, which are tolerably entire and covered with ivy; within the area are the tombs and monuments of the ancient families of Roche, Kelly, Connell, and Fitzgerald.

DONOUGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of UPPER OSSORY, QUEEN'S county, and province of LEINSTER, 1 1/4 mile (N. W. by N.) from Rathdowney, on the road from Burros-in-Ossory to Kilkenny; containing 1211 inhabitants, of which number, 383 are in the village. This parish contains 3226 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The village comprises about 70 houses, and contains extensive corn-mills and a large starch manufactory. Fairs are held in it on March 28th, June 12th and 13th, Aug. 31st, and Dec. 12th. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £154. 9. 7 1/2 There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 193 acres. The church was rebuilt by aid of a loan of £500 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1821. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Rathdowney, and contains a plain chapel. The parochial school is endowed with an acre of land by the rector, and there are two private schools, in all which about 100 children are educated.

DONOUGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of IFFA and OFFA EAST, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 4 1/2 miles (N.) from Clonmel, on the road to Thurles; containing 456 inhabitants. It comprises 1085 statute acres; there are some bogs and marshy land, and also some portions of uncultivated ground, which are susceptible of improvement and might be easily reclaimed. Limestone abounds in the parish, and is quarried exclusively for burning into lime, which is the principal manure. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Lismore, united, by act of council in 1805, to the rectory of Kiltigan, together constituting the union and corps of the prebend of Donoughmore in the cathedral of Lismore, in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £138. 9. 3., and the tithes of the union to £232. 3. 1. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £350 and a loan of £450 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1818 : the glebe comprises 13a. 2r. 20p. The church has been in ruins from time immemorial, and the Protestant parishioners attend the church of Lisronagh, about two miles distant. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Powers-town. The remains of the church, which may possibly have been the church of a monastery said to have existed here at a very remote period, and of which St. Farannan was the first abbot, consist chiefly of an exterior and interior arch richly sculptured with mouldings and embellished with grotesque ornaments; they are of the later Norman style, and have sustained much injury from time and dilapidation.

DONOUGHMORE, a parish, in the barony of UPPER TALBOTSTOWN, county of WICKLOW, and province of LEINSTER, 5 miles (N. E.) from Baltinglass; containing 4130 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Slaney, and in the glen of Imail, which abounds with excellent pasturage : it comprises 25,202 statute acres, about 8100 of which form a large tract of mountain, having an extensive bog at its base. The land is in tillage and pasture, and great numbers of calves are fattened here, and large quantities of butter made for the Dublin market. The scenery is bold and rugged, contrasting strikingly with the milder character of the adjacent glen. At Knocknamunion is a factory for making blankets and frieze, and there is a granite quarry at Knockaderry. In this parish stand the Leitrim barracks, which were erected after the disturbances of 1798, at an expense of about £8000 : they have been recently disposed of to a private individual. The seats are Coolmoney, the residence of Lady Louisa Hutchinson, a handsome and newly erected mansion, commanding fine views of the glen of Imail; and Ballinclea, of Richard Fenton, Esq. Donoughmore is a prebend in the cathedral church of St. Patrick, Dublin, in the patronage of the Archbishop : the tithes amount to £461. 10. 9 1/4. The glebe-house is situated about three-quarters of a mile from the church, on a glebe comprising 20 acres. The church was rebuilt in 1711, and the present tower added to it, in 1821, by aid of a loan of £400 from the late Board of First Fruits: it has been recently repaired. Evening service is also performed, during summer, in the school-house at Knockenargan. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Dunlavin and Donard; the chapel is at Davidstown. There are four schools, one of which is supported by the Trustees of Erasmus Smith's charity; the parochial school, near the church, was erected in 1821, by subscription; and one at. Knockenargan was erected, in 1834, also by subscription, on half an acre of land given for the site by the Earl of Wicklow : in these schools about 120 boys and 70 girls are taught, and about 80 more boys and 60 girls in six private schools. A loan fund was established in 1824; Mrs. Caldwell left £20 per annum, late currency, to the Protestant poor; and the interest of £200 stock was left by the late Dr. Ryan, who was rector of this parish, in 1818, to five poor Protestants and five poor Roman Catholics.

On the townland of Castleruddery are several raths, or Danish mounds; the most conspicuous is one of considerable height on the grounds of Mr. J. Wilson, and on the same land is a druidical circle of about 120 feet in diameter, round which are numerous blocks of stone, some not of the district, and in the centre of the circle there was no doubt an altar. Adjoining the garden is a pond, in which skeletons of the elk, or moose deer, have been found. On the same townland a flint spear-head was found, on ploughing a field in 1829. At Knockenargan there are two raths, and another at Gibstown; at Knockendaragh is a very extensive one, which is surrounded by a rampart and fosse; there is another above Old Deer park, at Castleruddery, which is moated, besides several others in the parish. Near the little village of Knockendaragh is a cromlech. Eardestown and Brusselstown hills, the former 1314, and the latter 1305, feet above the level of the sea, are in this parish : the summit of the latter is encircled by three concentric mounds, the lowest of which is about half way down the declivity of the hill, and. with the next. above it, is formed of rough loose stones; the uppermost is constructed of large unhewn blocks, piled up to a considerable height, forming round the summit of the hill a kind of mural crown, perceptible at a great distance. There is an old burial-place near Leitrim Barracks, used by the Roman Catholics; also slight remains of a seat called Seskin, and another called Snugborough, built by Col. Percy, about 1695; the former is now the property of the Earl of Wicklow, and the latter that of Harman Herring Cooper, of Shrewl Castle, Esq.

DONOUGHPATRICK, a parish, in the barony of CLARE, county of GALWAY, and province of CON-NAUGHT, 2 3/4 miles (E. by N.) from Headford; containing 3697 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the Black river, near Lough Corrib, and comprises 7719 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Tuam, and is part of the union of Headford, or Kilkilvery. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Kilcooney and Donoughpatrick, which is also called Ballycolgan and contains a chapel. There are three pay schools, in which are 180 children.

DONOUGHPATRICK, a parish, partly in the barony of LOWER NAVAN, but chiefly in that of UPPER KELLS, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (N. W.) from Navan; containing 931 inhabitants. St. Patrick is said to have founded an abbey here, to which Conal Mac Neill was a great benefactor; it was frequently plundered and burnt by the Danes prior to its final destruction by them in 994. The parish is situated on the road from Enniskillen to Drogheda, and on the river Blackwater : it comprises 3605 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The land is about half under tillage and half pasturage, and of superior quality : there are quarries of limestone and brownstone. The gentlemen's seats are Gibbstown, that of J. N. Gerrard, Esq., situated in a well-planted demesne of about 1270 statute acres; and Randlestown, the property of Col. Everard, but the residence of Henry Meredith, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, united, by act of council, in 1801, to the rectory of Kilberry, and in the patronage of Col. Everard, in whom the rectory is impropriate. The tithes amount to £280, of which £180 is payable to the impropriator, and £100 to the vicar; the gross value of the benefice, tithe and glebe inclusive, is £509. 9. 2. The glebe-house was erected in 1812, by aid of a gift of £200, and a loan of £600, from the late Board of First Fruits : the glebe comprises 18 acres, valued at £36 per annum. The church is a neat edifice; the body was rebuilt in 1805, and attached to an ancient tower; the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £104. 3. 7. for its repair. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union of Kilberry and Telltown. The parochial school is aided by the incumbent, who has also given a house and garden, and in three private schools about 120 boys and 50 girls are educated. A large Danish fort at Gibbstown has been planted. A castle formerly existed here.

DONOWNEY, or DOWNONEY, a parish, in the barony of BANTRY, county of WEXFORD, and province of LEINSTER, 5 miles (N. W.) from Taghmon; containing 208 inhabitants. This small parish is situated on the road from Enniscorthy to Duncannon Fort, and contains 1074 statute acres. It is in the diocese of Ferns; the rectory is appropriate to the see, and the vicarage forms part of the union of Horetown : the tithes amount to £38. 15. 4 1/2., of which two-thirds arc payable to the bishop and the remainder to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions it is partly in the union or district of Taghmon, but chiefly in that of Newbawn or Adams-town. There are some remains of a cromlech.

DONQUIN, or DUNQUIN, a parish, in the barony of CORKAGUINEY, county of KERRY, and province of MUNSTER, 7 miles (W. S. W.) from Dingle; containing, with the Blasquet or Ferriter's islands, 1363 inhabitants. This parish is situated at the south-western extremity of the peninsula of Dingle, and terminates in the promontory called Dunmore Head, the most westerly point of Ireland. The latter is called in Irish Tig Vourney Geerane, or " Mary Geerane's House," in like manner as the extreme point of North Britain is called " John O'Groat's." Dunmore Head is in N. Lat. 52° 8' 30" and in W. Lon. 10° 27' 30" : it lies about 5 Irish miles (W. by N.) from the entrance of Ventry harbour, and 3 1/2 miles (W. 1/4 S.) from the west end of the island called the Great Blasquet. The parish contains 4937 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of which nearly one half consists of coarse rocky mountain pasture, interspersed with patches of bog; the remainder is in tillage : sea-weed is extensively used for manure, and the state of agriculture is gradually improving. At Clohua is a small harbour for fishing boats employed during the season in taking mackerel, scad, and turbot; and at Ballyikeen is a station of the coast-guard. It is in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe; the rectory is impropriate in Lord Ventry, and the vicarage forms part of the union of Marhyn. The tithes amount to £75, payable in moieties to the impropriator and the vicar : , divine service is performed every Sunday at the coastguard station. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Keel, or Terreter. A school has been recently built at Ballyikeen. On the rocky coast of this parish are often found the beautiful crystals called Kerry stones. The ruins of the church still remain in the burial-ground, where the Prince of Ascule was interred after the wreck of part of the Spanish Armada off this coast. --See BLASQUET ISLANDS.

DOOGH. --See KILKEE.

DOON, a parish, partly in the barony of KILNEMANAGH, county of TIPPERARY, and partly in the barony of OWNEYBEG, but chiefly in that of COONAGH, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 14 miles (S. E.) from Limerick, on the old road to Templemore; containing 5311 inhabitants, of which number, 178 are in the village. This parish comprises 27,734 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of which more than 2000 acres are mountain and bog, about 4000 under tillage, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The soil in some places is remarkably rich, but the system of agriculture is in a very unimproved state, and a considerable portion of the meadow and pasture land is overflowed by the Dead and Mulcairn rivers. The bog in the lower parts of the parish is exceedingly valuable and lets at a very high rent; near the close of the last century more than 100 acres of bog moved from one townland into two others, destroying thirteen cabins, the inmates of five of which perished. Freestone of fine quality is quarried here for public buildings; much of it has been used in the city of Limerick and in other towns, and large quantities are shipped for England and other places. The principal seats are Castle Guard, the residence of the Hon. W. O'Grady, an ancient castle of the Earls of Desmond, enlarged and restored in the baronial style, with a lofty keep and ramparts; Toomaline House, of Mrs. Marshall, formerly a priory of Canons regular and a cell to the abbey of Inchenemeo, granted on its dissolution by Queen Elizabeth to Miler Magragh, Archbishop of Cashel, and of which there are still some remains; Bilboa House, now nearly in ruins, the property of the Earl of Stradbroke, and formerly the residence of Col. Wilson, built wholly of brick from Holland, situated in grounds formerly richly wooded but now going to decay, and commanding a fine view of the Bilboa mountains on the north, to which it has given name; and Glengare, of G. Hodges, Esq., situated on one of the 12 townlands of this parish which are in the county of Tipperary, and together comprise 4700 acres. Fairs are held at Bilboa on the 12th of August and May, and a constabulary force is stationed in the village. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Emly, constituting the prebend of Doon in the cathedral of St. Ailbe, and in the patronage of the Archbishop of Cashel: the tithes amount to £830. 15. 4 1/2. The glebe-house is a handsome residence, and the glebe comprises 35 acres, subject to a rent of £40 per annum payable to the trustees of Erasmus Smith's fund, who own much land in this parish. The church, rebuilt in 1800 by a gift of £500 from the late Board of First Fruits, is a small plain edifice with a low square tower; in the churchyard was interred the noted outlaw, Emun-a-Cnoc, or Edmund of the Hill. In the R. C. divisions this parish, with the exception of eight townlands in the union of Cappamore, is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parish of Castletown. Lord Stanley, who has an estate of about 600 acres in the parish, has given two acres, rent-free, to erect a chapel and school-house : the shell of the former edifice is nearly completed, at an expense of £1000 to the parishioners; it is situated on a small hill over the village, commanding a fine view of the Doon and Galtee mountains. There are five private schools, in which are 300 children.

DOONAS. --See KILTINANLEA.

DOONFEENY. --See DUNFEENY.

DORINCH, an island, in the parish of KILMINA, barony of BURRISHOOLE, county of MAYO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 5 miles (W.) from Westport; the population is returned with the parish. It is situated in Clew bay: in its vicinity is the smaller island called Dorinchbeg, and to the north is the bar at the entrance of Westport bay.

DORRAH, or DURROW, a parish, in the barony of LOWER ORMOND, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 3 miles (W.) from Parsonstown, on the roads leading respectively from Portumna to Parsonstown and from Nenagh to Banagher; containing 3397 inhabitants. It is situated near the river Shannon, and is bounded on the north by the Brosna, comprising 10,829 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: about 3000 acres are bog, principally lying along the Shannon and the Brosna, and consequently capable of drainage from the fall of the land towards those rivers; and of the remainder the greatest portion is under tillage; a tract of about 200 acres of meadow, called the Inches, is of remarkably fine quality, and the parish generally is in a good state of cultivation. There is a quarry of good limestone, which is burnt for manure. The principal seats are Walsh Park, that of J. W. Walsh, Esq.; Sraduff, of T. Antisell, Esq.; Newgrove, of J. W. Bayly, Esq.; Rockview, of J. Lewis Corrigan, Esq.; Gurteen, of J. Lalor, Esq.; Arbour Hill, of J. Antisell, Esq.; Ross House, of R. Smith, Esq.; Clongowna, of the Rev. Mr. Troke; Ballyduff, of B. Walker, Esq.; and Redwood, the property of Major Bloomfield. There is a flour-mill at Derrinsallagh. The parish is in the diocese of Killaloe, and is a rectory and vicarage, forming part of the union of Lorrha and corps of the archdeaconry of Killaloe : the tithes amount to £415. 7. 8 1/4. It formerly consisted of three parishes, Bonahane, Pallas, and Ross, the remains of the churches of which are still visible, and the two former had glebes. At Ross there was a very extensive burial-ground, which has not been used as such within the memory of man. The church is a neat modern edifice, completed in 1832, for which a grant of £900 was made by the late Board of First Fruits : the old church has been occupied as a dwelling-house from time immemorial. In the R. C. divisions also the parish forms part of the union or district of Lorrha, called also Dorrha; the chapel, on the townland of Gurteen, has been lately fitted up in a neat manner. In the demesne of Walsh Park is a school-house built by the proprietor, who supports the school; and there is a school at Gurteen in connection with the National Board. At Redwood are the ruins of an old castle, and there are some remains of the ancient parish church.

DORSAKILE. --See KILPATRICK, county of WESTMEATH.

DOUGHBEG, a village, in the parish of CLONDEVADOCK, barony of KILMACRENAN, county of DONEGAL, and province of ULSTER; containing 55 houses and 284 inhabitants.

DOUGLAS, a chapelry, comprising that portion of the parish of CARRIGALINE which is in the county of the city of CORK, and in the province of MUNSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S. E.) from Cork, on the road to Carrigaline; containing 816 inhabitants. This village, which is situated at the head of a small bay called Douglas channel, on the eastern side of Cork harbour, is irregularly built in two detached portions respectively on the upper and lower roads from Cork. Its origin is attributed to the settlement of a colony of linen weavers from Fermanagh, who in 1726 commenced here the manufacture of sail-cloth., which obtained such celebrity in the English market, that unlimited orders were received for all that could be made. This establishment continued to flourish till after the introduction of machinery into the English factories, which enabled the English manufacturers to undersell those of Ireland, and the trade consequently declined greatly, though the manufacture is still carried on. A very extensive rope-yard has long been established, and the patent cordage made here is in very great repute. There is a large boulting-mill belonging to Mr. G. White, capable of manufacturing 6000 barrels of flour annually, and which might be easily made to produce twice that quantity; there is also a mill on the road to Monkstown belonging to Mr. Power, of equal capability. A large quantity of bricks, of a bright ash colour, is made in the immediate vicinity of the village, and sent to a considerable distance inland; and great numbers are conveyed by small craft to the port of Cork. A penny post to Cork has been established, and a constabulary police force is stationed in the village. The environs of Douglas are exceedingly pleasant and the scenery richly diversified and embellished with numerous elegant seats and tasteful villas; the surface is undulated, rising in some places into considerable eminences and commanding extensive and interesting views. To the north and west are seen the course of the river Lee, the peninsula of Blackrock, the hills of Glanmire and Rathcooney, with others in the distance, the city of Cork, and the beautiful country towards Inniscarra. To the east and south are the mountains beyond Midleton and Youghal, the harbour of Cork with the town of Cove, the course of the Carrigaline river and the rich scenery on its banks. The principal seats are Maryborough, the residence of E. E. Newenham, Esq., a noble mansion in a spacious demesne embellished with stately timber; Old Court, of Sir Geo. Goold, Bart., an elegant residence beautifully situated on a commanding eminence embosomed in woods of luxuriant growth; Monsfieldtown, of T. C. Kearney, Esq.; the Hill, of A. O'Driscoll, Esq.; Vernon Mount, of O. Hayes, Esq.; Thornberry, of T. Townsend, Esq.; Belmont Cottage, of Capt. S. H. Lawrence; Windsor, of G. Cooke, Esq.; Rowan's Court, of Mrs. Evanson; Frankfield, of S. Lane, Esq.; Montpelier, of the Rev. M. O'Donovan; Alta Villa, of J. Woodroffe, Esq., M.D.; Charlemont, of C. Evanson, Esq.; Bloomfield, of W. Sheehy, Esq.; Shamrock Lawn, of W. P. Robinson, Esq.; Grange Erin, of W. E. Penrose, Esq.; Tramore, of T. S. Reeves, Esq.; Grange, of H. Conron, Esq.; Mount Conway, of H. Sharpe, Esq.; West Grove, of Mrs. S. Baylie; Bally-brack, of J. Heard, Esq.; Atkin Ville, of Mrs. Atkins; Mount Emla, of J. Barries, Esq.; Garryduffe, of Mrs. Allen; Wilsfort, of Mrs. Dowman; Rose Hill, of W. Lane, Esq.; Douglas House, of T. Fitzgerald, Esq.; Castle Treasure, of C. Lloyd, Esq.; Ballinrea, of the Rev. J. Beesteed; Ballincurrig Cottage, of W. C. Logan, Esq.; Eglantine, of J. Leahy, Esq.; Villa Nova, of J. Lombard, Esq.; Knockreagh, of L. Nash, Esq.; Donnybrook, of L. Jones, Esq.; Factory Ville, of J. C. Bernard, Esq.; Hampstead, of Lieut. Boyle Hill; Bellevue, of E. Lucette, Esq.; Alton Ville, of A. C. McCarthy, Esq.; Bellair, of W. Perrier, Esq.; Garna Villa, of S. Harrison, Esq.; and Grange House, of J. R. Day, Esq. The chapel is a small neat edifice, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £230 for its repair. In the R. C. division this place is the head of a union or district comprising also the parish of Ballygarvan; the chapel is a neat building, and there is also a chapel at Ballygarvan. The parochial male school is chiefly supported by the rector; a female school by Mrs. Reeves and a few ladies; and an infants' and female school are supported and superintended by Miss O'Donovan, of Montpelier : there is also a National school in the village, and a dispensary. There are raths at Old Court and Moneas, and some slight remains of Treasure castle.

DOULOUGH'S (ST.), a parish, in the barony of COOLOCK, county of DUBLIN, and province of LEINSTER, 5 1/2 miles (N. E.) from Dublin, on the road to Malahide; containing 345 inhabitants. The land in this parish is of good quality and the soil favourable to the growth of corn, of which large crops are raised; the system of agriculture is improved, and there is abundance of limestone, which is quarried for agricultural and other uses, and in some of which varieties of fossils are found. The surrounding scenery is pleasingly and richly diversified, and from its elevation the parish commands extensive and beautiful views of the sea and the mountains in the neighbourhood. The principal seats, all of which command interesting prospects, are St. Doulough's Lodge, the residence of J. Rutherfoord, Esq.; St. Doulough's, of Mrs. Shaw; Lime Hill, of the Rev. P. Ryan, A. M.; and Spring Hill, of H. Parsons, Esq. It is a curacy, in the diocese of Dublin, and in the patronage of the Precentor of the cathedral of Christ-church, to whom the rectory is appropriate : the tithes amount to £160, payable to the incumbent. The church is a neat modern edifice, adjoining the ancient structure, which is still preserved as a singular and interesting relic of antiquity. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Baldoyle and Howth. About 60 children are taught in the parochial school, which is supported by subscription, aided by the incumbent. The ancient church of St. Doulough, which is still tolerably entire, is one of the oldest and most singular religious edifices in the country : it is situated on an eminence at the extremity of an avenue about 50 yards in length, at the entrance of which is a low granite cross supposed to have been originally placed over the south porch. The church is about 48 feet long and 18 feet wide, with a massive square embattled tower, and is built of the limestone found in the neighbourhood, with the exception of the mullions of the windows, the keystones of the arched roofs, and the more ornamental details, which are of oolite or fine freestone, probably imported in a previously finished state from Normandy or England. The south porch, which rises like a vast buttress at the south-eastern angle of the tower, contains a low and imperfectly pointed doorway leading into a crypt with a stone roof groined, and divided into two small apartments, one of which is almost entirely occupied with the altar-tomb of St. Doulough, the staircase leading to the tower, and the pillars supporting the roof. From this a low doorway leads into the eastern portion of the church, which is 22 feet long and 12 feet wide, lighted at the east end by a trefoiled window, and two smaller windows on the south and one on the north side. This part of the church and also the tower are evidently of much later date than the rest of the building, which is supposed to have been erected in the 10th century; the groining of the roof, the tracery of the windows, and other details contrasting strongly with the ruder portions of the structure. Between the south windows of the church, and projecting into its area, is the staircase leading through the upper portion of the porch to the tower, and opening into a small apartment with two pointed windows, beyond which is an apartment immediately under the roof, 36 feet in length and very narrow, having that portion of it which is under the tower rudely groined. In the south porch a staircase leads from the apartment in which is St. Doulough's tomb, to a very small apartment, called St. Doulough's bed, 5 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 2 1/2 high, and lighted only by a loophole; the entrance is extremely low and narrow; the roof is vaulted, and in the floor is a small hole, through which a bell rope appears to have passed. The roof of the church forms a very acute angle, and the stones of which it is constructed are so firmly cemented that it is impervious to water, though it has been exposed to the weather for eight or nine centuries. This singular edifice comprises within its narrow limits seven different apartments, two staircases, and a great variety of windows of various designs, and door cases all differing in character. Near the church is a well, dedicated to St. Catharine, enclosed within an octagonal building with a groined roof of stone; of this building, with which a subterraneous passage communicated from the crypt in which is St. Doulough's tomb, the faces towards the cardinal points, in which are loopholes, are raised to a second story and crowned with a pediment, in which is a lancet-shaped window; the door is on the south side, and the whole is finished with a pyramidal dome, of which the upper part is wanting. The interior of the building is circular, and has three deep recesses in the walls, in which are stone seats. In the centre of the area is the well, encircled by a ring of stone two feet in depth and 5 inches thick on the edge. In each spandril of the arched ceiling, and over each recess in the walls, is a sunken panel, and the interior was formerly decorated with paintings of scriptural subjects.

DOVEA, a parish, in the barony of ELIOGARTY, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (S. S. W.) from Templemore; the population is returned with the parish of Inch, of which, for all civil purposes, this is regarded as forming a part. A constabulary police force has been stationed here. It is in the diocese of Cashel; the rectory is impropriate in the Marquess of Ormonde, in trust for charitable uses at Kilkenny; and the vicarage forms part of the union of Clogher and corps of the chancellorship of Cashel.

DOWN (County of), a maritime county of the province of ULSTER, bounded on the east and south by the Irish sea, on the north by the county of Antrim and Carrickfergus bay, and on the west by the county of Armagh. It extends from 54° 0' to 54° 40' (N. Lat.), and from 5° 18' to 6° 20' (W. Lon.); and comprises an area, according to the Ordnance survey, of 611,404 acres, of which, 502,677 are cultivated land, 108,569 are unprofitable bog and mountain, and 158 are under water. The population, in 1821, amounted to 325,410, and in 1831, to 352,012.

This county, together with a small part of that of Antrim, was anciently known by the name of Ulagh or Ullagh, in Latin Ulidia (said by some to be derived from a Norwegian of that name who flourished here long before the Christian era), which was finally extended to the whole province of Ulster. Ptolemy, the geographer, mentions the Voluntii or Uluntii as inhabiting this region; and the name, by some etymologists, is traced from them. At what period this tribe settled in Ireland is unknown : the name is not found in any other author who treats of the country, whence it may be inferred that the colony was soon incorporated with the natives, the principal families of whom were the O'Nials, the Mac Gennises, the Macartanes, the Slut-Kellys, and the Mac Gilmores. The county continued chiefly in the possession of the same families at the period of the settlement of the North of Ireland in the reign of King James, at the commencement of the seventeenth century, with the addition of the English families of Savage and White, the former of which settled in the peninsula of the Ardes, on the eastern side of Strangford Lough, and the latter in the barony of Dufferin, on the western side of the same gulf. It is not clearly ascertained at what precise period the county was made shire ground. The common opinion is that this arrangement, together with its division into baronies, occurred in the early part of the reign of Elizabeth. But from the ancient records of the country it appears that, previously to the 20th of Edward II., here were two counties distinguished by the names of Down and Newtown. The barony of Ardes was also a separate jurisdiction, having sheriffs of its own at the same date; and the barony of Lecale was considered to be within the English pale from its first subjugation by that people; its communication with the metropolis being maintained chiefly by sea, as the Irish were in possession of the mountain passes between it and Louth. That the consolidation of these separate jurisdictions into one county took place previously to the settlement of Ulster by Sir John Perrott, during his government, which commenced in 1584, is evident from this settlement comprehending seven counties only, omitting those of Down and Antrim because they had previously been subjected to the English law.

The first settlement of the English in this part of Ulster took place in 1177, when John de Courcy, one of the British adventurers who accompanied Strongbow, marched from Dublin with 22 men-at-arms and 300 soldiers, and arrived at Downpatrick in four days without meeting an enemy. But when there he was immediately besieged by Dunleve, the toparch of the country, aided by several of the neighbouring chieftains, at the head of 10,000 men. De Courcy, however did not suffer himself to be blockaded, but sallied out at the head of his little troop, and routed the besiegers. Another army of the Ulidians having been soon after defeated with much slaughter in a great battle, he became undisputed master of the part of the county in the vicinity of Downpatrick, which town he made his chief residence, and founded several religious establishments in its neighbourhood. In 1200, Roderic Mac Dunleve, toparch of the country, was treacherously killed by De Courcy's servants, who were banished for the act by his order; but in 1203 he himself was seized, while doing penance unarmed in the burial-ground of the cathedral of Down, by order of De Lacy, the chief governor of Ireland, and was sent prisoner to King John in England. The territory then came into the possession of the family of De Lacy, by an heiress of which, about the middle of the same century, it was conveyed in marriage to Walter de Burgo. In 1315, Edward Bruce having landed in the northern part of Ulster, to assert his claim to the throne of Ireland, this part of the province suffered severely in consequence of the military movements attending his progress southwards and his return. Some years after, William de Burgo, the representative of that powerful family, having been killed by his own servants at Carrickfergus, leaving an only daughter, the title and possessions were again transferred by marriage to Roger Mortimer, Earl of March, through whom they finally became vested in the kings of England.

It is partly in the diocese of Down, and partly in that of Dromore, with a small portion in that of Connor. For purposes of civil jurisdiction it is divided into the baronies of Ardes, Castlereagh, Dufferin, Iveagh Lower, Iveagh Upper, Kinelearty, Lecale, and Mourne, and the extra-episcopal lordship of Newry. It contains the borough, market, and assize town of Downpatrick; the greater part of the borough, market, and assize town, and sea-port of Newry; the ancient corporate, market, and post-towns of Bangor, Newtown-Ardes, Hillsborough, and Killyleagh; the sea-port, market, and post-towns of Portaferry and Donaghadee; the market and post-towns of Banbridge, Saintfield, Kirkcubbin, Rathfriland, Castlewellan, Ballinahinch, and Dromore; the sea-port and post-towns of Strangford, Warrenpoint, Rosstrevor, Ardglass, and Killough; the sea-port of Newcastle, which has a penny-post; the post-towns of Clough, Comber, Dromaragh, Hollywood, Moira, Loughbrickland, Kilkeel, and Gilford; and a part of the suburb of the town of Belfast, called Ballymacarret. Prior to the Union it sent fourteen members to the Irish parliament, namely, two for the county at large, and two for each of the boroughs of Newry, Downpatrick, Bangor, Hillsborough, Killyleagh, and Newtown-Ardes. It is at present represented by four members, namely, two for the county, and one for each of the boroughs of Newry and Downpatrick. The number of voters registered at the last general election was 3729. The election for the county takes place at Downpatrick. Down is included in the north-east circuit: the assizes are held at Downpatrick, where are the county gaol and court-house: quarter sessions are held at Newtown-Ardes, Hillsborough, Downpatrick, and Newry : the number of persons charged with criminal offences and committed to prison, in 1835, was 468, and of civil bill commitments, 87. The local government is vested in a lord-lieutenant, 19 deputy lieutenants, and 120 other magistrates, besides whom there are the usual county officers, including two coroners. There are 30 constabulary police stations, having in the whole a force of 5 chief and 30 subordinate constables and 114 men, with 6 horses, the expense of whose maintenance is defrayed equally by Grand Jury presentments and by Government. There are a county infirmary and a fever hospital at Downpatrick, and dispensaries situated respectively at Banbridge, Kilkeel, Rathfriland, Castlewellan, Dromore, Warrenspoint, Donaghadee, Newry, Newtownbreda, Hollywood, Hillsborough, Ardglass, and Bangor, maintained equally by private subscriptions and Grand Jury presentments. The amount of Grand Jury presentments for 1835 was £43,103. 7. 0 1/4., of which £5257. 6. 2. was for the public roads of the county at large; £17,226. 19. 2. was for the public roads, being the baronial charge; £11,923. 18. 4. for public buildings and charities, officers' salaries, &c.; £3429. 1. 5 1/2. for police; and £5266. 1. 10 3/4. in repayment of a loan advanced by Government. In the military arrangements it is included in the northern district, and contains three barrack stations for infantry, namely, two at Newry and one at Downpatrick. On the coast there are nineteen coast-guard stations, under the command of two inspecting commanders, in the districts of Donaghadee and Newcastle, with a force of 15 chief officers and 127 men.

The county has a pleasing inequality of surface, and exhibits a variety of beautiful landscapes. The mountainous district is in the south, comprehending all the barony of Mourne, the lordship of Newry, and a considerable portion of the barony of Iveagh : these mountains rise gradually to a great elevation, terminating in the towering peak of Slieve Donard; and to the north of this main assemblage is the detached group of Slieve Croob, the summit of which is only 964 feet high. There are several lakes, but none of much extent: the principal are Aghry or Agher, and Erne, in Lower Iveagh; Ballyroney, Loughbrickland, and Shark, in Upper Iveagh; Ballinahinch, in Kinelearty; and Ballydowgan, in Lecale. The county touches upon Lough Neagh in a very small portion of its north-western extremity, near the place where the Lagan canal discharges itself into the lake. Its eastern boundary, including also a portion of the northern and southern limits, comprehends a long line of coast, commencing at Belfast with the mouth of the Lagan, which separates this county from that of Antrim, and proceeding thence along the southern side of Carrickfergus bay, where the shore rises in a gentle acclivity, richly studded with villas, to the Castlereagh hills, which form the back ground. Off Orlock Point, at the southern extremity of the bay, are the Copeland islands, to the south of which is the town and harbour of Donaghadee, a station for the mail packets between Ireland and Scotland. On the coast of the Ardes are Ballyhalbert bay, doughy bay, and Quintin bay, with the islets called Burr or Burial Island, Green Island, and Bard Island. South of Quintin bay is the channel, about a mile wide, to Strangford Lough, called also Lough Cone. The lough itself is a deep gulf stretching ten miles into the land in a northern direction, to Newtown-Ardes, and having a south-western offset, by which vessels of small burden can come within a mile of Downpatrick. The interior is studded with numerous islands, of which Boate says there are 260 : Harris counts 54 with names, besides many smaller; a few are inhabited, but the others are mostly used for pasturage, and some are finely wooded. South of Strangford Lough are Gun's island, Ardglass harbour, and Killough bay Dundrum bay, to the south-west, forms an extended indentation on the coast, commencing at St. John's Point, south of Killough, and terminating at Cranfield Point, the southern extremity of the county, where the coast takes a northwestern direction by Greencastle, Rosstrevor, and Warrenpoint, to Newry, forming the northern side of the romantic and much frequented bay of Carlingford.

The extent and varied surface of the county necessarily occasion a great diversity of soil: indeed there exists every gradation from a light sandy loam to a strong clay; but the predominant soil is a loam, not of great depth but good in quality, though in most places intermixed with a considerable quantity of stones of every size. When clay is the substratum of this loam, it is retentive of water and more difficult to improve; but when thoroughly cultivated, its produce is considerable and of superior quality. As the subsoil approaches to a hungry gravel, the loam diminishes considerably in fertility. Clay is mostly confined to the eastern coast of the Ardes and the northern portion of Castlereagh, in which district the soil is strong and of good quality. Of sandy ground, the quantity is still less, being confined to a few stripes scattered along the shores, of which the most considerable is that on the bay of Dundrum : part of this land is cultivated, part used as grazing land or rabbit-warren, and a small portion consists of shifting sands, which have hitherto baffled all attempts at improvement. There is a small tract of land south of the Lagan, between Moira and Lisburn, which is very productive, managed with less labour than any of the soils above mentioned, and earlier both in seed-time and harvest. Gravelly soils, or those intermixed with water-worn stones, are scattered over a great part of the county. Moory grounds are mostly confined to the skirts of the mountains; the bogs, though numerous, are now scarcely sufficient to afford a plentiful supply of fuel: in some parts they form the most lucrative portion of the property. The rich and deep loams on the sides of the larger rivers are also extremely valuable, as they produce luxuriant crops of grass annually without the assistance of manure.

The great attention paid to tillage has brought the land to a high state of agricultural improvement. The prevailing corn crop is oats, of which the favourite sorts are the Poland, Blantire, Lightfoot, and early Holland; wheat is sown in every part, and in Lecale is of excellent quality, and very good also in Castlereagh barony; barley is a favourite crop, mostly preceded by potatoes; rye is seldom sown, except on bog; much flax is cultivated; and turnips, mangel-wurzel, and other green crops are very general. Though, from the great uneven-ness of surface, considerable tracts of flat pasture land are very uncommon, yet on the sides of the rivers there are excellent and extensive meadows, annually enriched by the overflowing of the waters; and, in the valleys, the accumulation of the finer particles of mould washed down from the sides of the surrounding hills produces heavy crops of grass. Many of the finest and most productive meadows are those which lie on the skirts of turf bogs, at the junction of the peat and loam : the fertility of the compound soil is very great, the vegetation rapid, and the natural grasses of the best kind. Artificial grasses are general; clover in frequent cultivation, particularly the white. Draining is extensively and judiciously practised; and irrigation is successfully resorted to, especially upon turf bog, which, when reclaimed, is benefited by it in an extraordinary manner. In the management of the dairy, butter is the chief object: considerable quantities are sold fresh in the towns, but the greatest part is salted and sent to Belfast and Newry for exportation. Dung is principally applied as manure for raising potatoes, and great attention is paid by the farmers to collect it and to increase its quantity by additional substances, such as earth, bog soil, and clay. Lime, however, is the most general manure. At Ballinahinch, the most central part of the county, limestone of three kinds may be seen at a small distance from each other, the blue from Carlingford, the red from Castlespie, and the white from Moira, a distance of fourteen miles; the white is most esteemed. Limestone gravel is used in the neighbourhood of Moira, and found to be of powerful and lasting efficacy. Marling was introduced into Lecale about a century ago : the result of the first experiments was an immediate fourfold advance in the value of land, and the opening of a corn trade from Strangford; but the intemperate use of it brought it into discredit for some time, though it has latterly, under more judicious management, resumed its former character. Shell-sand is used to advantage on stiff clay lands; and sea-weed is frequently applied to land near the coast, but its efficacy is of short duration. Turf bog, both by itself and combined with clay, has been found useful. The system of burning and paring is practised only in the mountainous parts. In the neighbourhood of towns, coal-ashes and soot are employed : the ashes of bleach-greens, and soapers' waste, have been found to improve meadows and pastures considerably. The attention of the higher class of farmers has been for many years directed to the introduction of improved implements of husbandry, most of which have had their merits proved by fair trial: threshing machines are in general use. In no part of the country is the art of raising hedges better understood, although it has not yet been extended so universally as could be desired. In many parts the enclosure is formed of a ditch and a bank, from four to eight feet wide, and of the same depth, without any quicks; sometimes it is topped with furze, here called whins. In the mountainous parts the dry stone wall is common.

The cattle being generally procured more for the dairy than for feeding, special attention has not been paid to the improvement of the breed : hence there is a mixture of every kind. The most common and highly esteemed is a cross between the old native Irish stock and the old Leicester long-horned, which are considered the best milchers. But the anxiety of the principal resident landowners to improve every branch of agriculture having led them to select their stock of cattle at great expense, the most celebrated English breeds are imported, and the advantages are already widely diffusing themselves. The North Devon, Durham, Hereford, Leicester and Ayrshire breeds have been successively tried, and various crosses produced; that between the Durham and Leicester appears best adapted to the soil and climate, and on some estates there is a good cross between the Ayrshire and North Devon; but the long-horned is still the favourite breed of the small farmer. Great improvements have also been made in the breed of sheep, particularly around Hillsborough, Seaford, Downpatrick, Bangor, Cumber, Saintfield, and other places, where there are several fine flocks, mostly of the new Leicester breed. In other parts there is a good cross between the Leicester and old native sheep. The latter have undergone little or no change in the vicinity of the mountains; they are a small hardy race, with a long hairy fleece, black face and legs, some of them horned; they are prized for the delicacy and flavour of their mutton. The breed of pigs has of late been very much improved: the Berkshire and Hampshire mostly prevail; but the most profitable is a cross between the Dutch and Russian breeds, which grows to a good size, easily fattens, and weighs well; the greater number are fattened and slaughtered, and the carcases are conveyed either to Belfast, or Newry for the supply of the provision merchants, where they are mostly cured for the English market. The breed of horses, in general, is very good. There are some remains of ancient woods near Downpatrick, Finnebrogue, Briansford, and Castlewellan; and the entire county is well wooded. The oak every where flourishes vigorously; in the parks and demesnes of the nobility and gentry there is a great quantity of full-grown timber, and extensive plantations are numerous in almost every part, particularly in the vale of the Lagan, from Belfast to Lisburn, and around Hollywood, and many of the hills have been successfully planted.

The Mourne mountains, extending from Dundrum bay to Carlingford bay, form a well-defined group, of which Slieve Donard is the summit, being, according to the Ordnance survey, 2796 feet above the level of the sea, and visible, in clear weather, from the mountains near Dublin : granite is its prevailing constituent. To the north of these mountains, Slieve Croob, composed of sienite, and Slieve Anisky, of hornblende, both in Lower Iveagh, constitute an elevated tract dependent upon, though at some distance from, the main group. Hornblende and primitive greenstone are abundant on the skirts of the granitic district. Mica slate has been noticed only in one instance. Exterior chains of transition rocks advance far to the west and north of this primitive tract, extending westward across Monaghan into Cavan, and on the north-east to the southern cape of Belfast Lough, and the - peninsula of Ardes. The primitive nucleus bears but a very small proportion, in surface, to these exterior chains, which are principally occupied by grauwacke and grauwacke slate. In the Mourne Mountains and the adjoining districts an extensive formation of granite occurs, but without the varieties found in Wicklow, agreeing in character rather with the newer granite of the Wernerians : it constitutes nearly the whole mass of the Mourne mountains, whence it passes across Carlingford bay into the county of Louth. On the north-west of these mountains, where they slope gradually into the plain, the same rock reaches Rathfriland, a table land of inconsiderable elevation. Within the boundaries now assigned, the granite is spread over a surface of 324 square miles, comprehending the highest ground in the North of Ireland. Among the accidental ingredients of this formation are crystallised hornblende, chiefly abounding in the porphyritic variety, and small reddish garnets in the granular: both varieties occur mingled together on the top of Slieve Donard. Water-worn pebbles, of porphyritic sienite, occasionally containing red crystals of feldspar and iron pyrites, are very frequent at the base of the Mourne mountains, between Rosstrevor and Newcastle : they have probably been derived from the disintegration of neighbouring masses of that rock, since, on the shore at Glassdrummin, a ledge of porphyritic sienite, evidently connected with the granitic mass of the adjoining mountain, projects into the sea. Greenstone slate rests against the acclivities of the Mourne mountains, but the strata never rise high, seldom exceeding 500 feet. Attempts have been made to quarry it for roofing, which it is thought would be successful if carried on with spirit. Feldspar porphyry occurs in the bed of the Finish, north-west of Slieve Croob, near Dromara, and in a decomposing state at Ballyroany, north-east of Rathfriland. Slieve Croob seems formed, on its north-east and south-east sides, of different varieties of sienite, some of them porphyritic and very beautiful: this rock crops out at intervals from Bakaderry to the top of Slieve Croob, occupying an elevation of about 900 feet. Grauwacke and grauwacke slate constitute a great part of the baronies of Ardes, Castlereagh, and the two Iveaghs : it is worked for roofing at Ballyalwood, in the Ardes; and a variety of better quality still remains undisturbed at Cairn Garva, south-west of Conbigg Hill. Lead and copper ores have been found in this formation at Conbigg Hill, between Newtown-Ardes and Bangor, where a mine is now profitably and extensively worked. Two small limestone districts occur, one near Downpatrick on the south-west, and the other near Comber on the northwest, of Strangford Lough. The old red sandstone has been observed on the sides of Strangford Lough, particularly at Scrabo, which rises 483 feet above the lough, and is capped with greenstone about 150 feet thick; the remaining 330 feet are principally sandstone, which may be observed in the white quarry in distinct beds of very variable thickness, alternating with grauwacke. This formation has been bored to the depth of 500 feet on the eastern side of Strangford Lough, in the fruitless search for coal, which depth, added to the ascertained height above ground, gives from 800 to 900 feet as its thickness. The greatest length of this sandstone district is not more than seven miles; it appears to rest on grauwacke. Coal, in three seams, is found on the shores of Strangford, and two thin seams are found under the lands of Wilnmount, on the banks of the Lagan; there are also indications of coal in two places near Moira. Chalk appears at Magheralin, near Moira, proceeding thence towards the White mountains near Lisburn, and forming a low table land. The quarries chiefly worked for freestone are those of Scrabo and Kilwarlin, near Moira, from the latter of which flags are raised of great size and of different colours, from a clear stone-colour to a brownish red. Slates are quarried on the Ardes shore, between Bangor and Ballywalter, and near Hills-borough, Anahilt, and Ballinahinch : though inferior to those imported from Wales in lightness and colour, they exceed them in hardness and durability. In the limestone quarries near Moira, the stone is found lying in horizontal strata intermixed with flints, in some places stratified, and in others in detached pieces of various forms and sizes : it is common to see three of these large flints, like rollers, a yard long and twelve inches each in diameter, standing perpendicularly over each other, and joined by a narrow neck of limestone, funnel-shaped, as if they had been poured when in a liquid state into a cavity made to receive them. Shells of various kinds are also found in this stone.

The staple manufacture is that of linens, which has prevailed since the time of William. III., when legislative measures were enacted to substitute it for the woollen manufacture. Its establishment here is owing greatly to the settlement of a colony of French refugees, whom the revocation of the edict of Nantes had driven from their native country, and more especially to the exertions of one of them, named Crommelin, who, after having travelled through a considerable part of Ireland, to ascertain the fitness of the country for the manufacture, settled in Lisburn, where he established the damask manufacture, which has thriven there ever since. The branches now carried on are fine linen, cambrics, sheetings, drills, damasks, and every other description of household linen. Much of the wrought article, particularly the finer fabrics, is sent to Belfast and Lurgan. for sale; the principal markets within the county are Dromore (for finer linens), and Rathfriland, Kilkeel, Downpatrick, Castlewellan, Ballinahinch, Banbridge, Newry, Dromore, and Kirkcubbin, for those of inferior quality. The cotton manufacture has latterly made great progress here; but as the linen weavers can work at a cotton loom, and as the cotton weavers are unqualified to work at linen, the change has not been in any great degree prejudicial to the general mass of workmen, who can apply themselves to one kind when the demand for the other decreases. The woollen manufacture is confined to a coarse cloth made entirely for domestic consumption, with the exception of blanketing, which was carried on with much spirit and to a great extent, particularly near Lisburn. The weaving of stockings is pretty generally diffused, but not for exportation. Tanning of leather is carried on to a large extent: at Newry there is a considerable establishment for making spades, scythes, and other agricultural implements and tools; and there are extensive glass-works at Newry and Ballimacarett. Kelp is made in considerable quantities along the coast and on Strangford lough, but its estimation in the foreign market has been much lowered by its adulteration during the process.

There is a considerable fishery at Bangor, for flat fish of all kinds, and for cod and oysters; also at Ardglass for herrings, and at Killough for haddock, cod, and other round fish; the small towns on the coast are also engaged in the fishery, particularly that of herrings, of which large shoals are taken every year in Strangford lough, but they are much inferior in size and flavour to those caught in the main sea. Smelts are taken near Portaferry; mullet, at the mouth of the Quoile river, near Downpatrick; sand eels, at Newcastle; shell fish, about the Copeland islands; and oysters, at Ringhaddy and Carlingford.

The principal rivers are the Bann and the Lagan, neither of which is navigable within the limits of the county : the former has its source in two neighbouring springs in that part of the mountains of Mourne called the Deer's Meadow, and quits this county for Armagh, which it enters near Portadown, where it communicates with the Newry canal. The Lagan has also two sources, one in Slieve Croob, and the other in Slieve-na-boly, which unite near Waringsford: near the Maze it becomes the boundary between the counties of Down and Antrim, in its course to Carrickfergus bay. There are also the Newry river and the Ballinahinch river, the former of which rises near Rathfriland, and falls into Carlingford bay; and the latter derives its source from four small lakes, and empties itself into the southwestern branch of Strangford lough. This county enjoys the benefit of two canals, viz., the Newry navigation, along its western border, connecting Carlingford bay with Lough Neagh; and the Lagan navigation which extends from the tideway at Belfast along the northern boundary of the county, and enters Lough Neagh near that portion of the shore included within its limits. It originated in an act passed in the 27th of George II. : its total length is 20 miles; but, from being partly carried through the bed of the Lagan, its passage is so much impeded by floods as to detract much from the benefits anticipated from its formation.

There are two remarkable cairns; one on the summit of Slieve Croob, which is 80 yards round at the base and 50 on the top, and is the largest monument of the kind in the county: on. this platform several smaller cairns are raised, of various heights and dimensions. The other is near the village of Anadorn, and is more curious, from containing within its circumference, which is about 60 yards, a large square smooth stone supported by several others, so as to form a low chamber, in which were found ashes and some human bones. A solitary pillar stone stands on the summit of a hill near Saint-field, having about six feet of its length above the ground. Among the more remarkable cromlechs is that near Drumbo, called the Giant's Ring, also one on Slieve-na-Griddal, in Lecale; there is another near Sliddery ford, and a third is in the parish of Drumgooland; others less remarkable may be seen near Rathfriland and Comber. There are two round towers : one stands about 24 feet south-west of the ruins of the church of Drumbo, and the other is close to the ruins of the old church of Maghera : a third, distinguished for the symmetry of its proportions, stood near the cathedral at Downpatrick, but it was taken down in 1790, to make room for rebuilding part of that edifice. Of the relics of antiquity entirely composed of earth, every variety is to be met with. Raths surrounded by a slight single ditch are numerous, and so situated as to be generally within view of each other. Of the more artificially constructed mounds, some, as at Saintfield, are formed of a single rampart and foss; others with more than one, as at Downpatrick, which is about 895 yards in circuit at the base, and surrounded by three ramparts : a third kind, as at Dromore, has a circumference of 600 feet, with a perpendicular height of 40 feet; the whole being surrounded by a rampart and battlement, with a trench that has two branches, embracing a square fort, 100 feet in diameter : and there are others very lofty at Donaghadee and Dundonald, with caverns or chambers running entirely round their interior. A thin plate of gold, shaped like a half moon, was dug out of a bog in Castlereagh; the metal is remarkably pure, and the workmanship good though simple. Another relic of the same metal, consisting of three thick gold wires intertwined through each other, and conjectured to have formed part of the branch of a golden candlestick, was found near Dromore. Near the same town have been found a canoe of oak, about 13 feet long, and various other relics; another canoe was found at Loughbrickland, and a third in the bog of Moneyreagh. An earthen lamp of curious form was dug up near Moira, the figures on which were more remarkable for their indecency than their elegance.

There are numerous remains of monastic edifices, of which the principal are at Downpatrick, those of Grey abbey on the shore of Strangford lough, and at Moville near Newtown-Ardes, Inch or Innis-Courcy near Downpatrick, Newry, Black abbey near Ballyhalbert, and Castlebuoy, or Johnstown in the Ardes. The first military work which presents itself in the southern extremity of the county is Greencastle, on the shore of Carlingford bay, said to have been built by the De Burgos, and afterwards commanded by an English constable, who also had charge of Carlingford castle : these were considered as outworks of the pale, and therefore intrusted to none but those of English birth. The castle of Narrow-water is of modern date, being built by the Duke of Ormonde after the Restoration. Dundrum castle is finely situated upon a rock overlooking the whole bay to which it gives name : it was built by De Courcy for the Knights Templars, but afterwards fell into the hands of the Magennis family. Ardglass, though but a small village, has the remains of considerable fortifications : the ruins of four castles are still visible. Not far from it is Kilclief castle, once the residence of the bishops of Down; between Killough and Downpatrick are the ruins of Bright and Skreen castles, the latter built on a Danish rath, as is that of Clough; in Strangford lough are Strangford castle, Audley's castle, and Walsh's castle; Portaferry castle was the ancient seat of the Savages; in the Ardes are also the castles of Quintin, Newcastle, and Kirkestown; the barony of Castlereagh is so called from a castle of the same name, built on a Danish fort, the residence of Con O'Neill; near Drumbo is Hill Hall, a square fort with flanking towers; Killileagh Castle is now the residence of Hamilton Rowan, Esq.; and at Rathfriland are the ruins of another castle of the Magennises. General Monk erected forts on the passes of Scarva, Poyntz, and Tuscan, which connect this county with Armagh, the ruins of which still exist. At Hillsborough is a small castle, which is still maintained in its ancient state by the Marquess of Downshire, hereditary constable; and other castles in various parts have been taken down. The gentlemen's seats are numerous, and many of them are built in a very superior style of architecture; they are all noticed in their respective parishes.

Mineral springs, both chalybeate and sulphureous, abound, but the former are more numerous. Of these, the most remarkable are Ardmillan, on the borders of Strangford lough; Granshaw, in the Ardes; Dundonnell, three miles north-west of Newtown-Ardes; Magheralin, Dromore, Newry, Banbridge, and Tierkelly. Granshaw is the richest, being equal in efficacy to the strongest of the English spas. The principal sulphureous spa is near Ballinahinch : there is an alum spring near the town of Clough. The Struel springs, situated one mile south-east of Downpatrick, in a retired vale, are celebrated not only in the neighbourhood and throughout Ireland, but in many parts of the continent, for their healing qualities, arising not from their chymical but their miraculous properties : they are dedicated to St. Patrick, and are four in number, viz., the drinking well, the eye well, and two bathing wells, each enclosed with an ancient building of stone. . The principal period for visiting them is at St. John's eve, on which occasion the water rises in the wells, supernaturally, according to the belief of those who visit them. Penances and other religious ceremonies, consisting chiefly of circuits made round the wells for a certain number of times, together with bathing, accompanied by specified forms of prayer, are said to have been efficacious in removing obstinate and chronic distempers. A priest formerly attended from Downpatrick, but this practice has been discontinued since the year 1804. Not far distant are the walls of a ruined chapel, standing north and south : the entrance was on the north, and the building was lighted by four windows in the western wall. St. Scorden's well, in the vicinity of Killough, is remarkable from the manner in which the water gushes out of a fissure in the perpendicular face of a rock, on an eminence close to the sea, in a stream which is never observed to diminish in the driest seasons.

Pearls have been found in the bed of the Bann river. Fossil remains of moose deer have been found at different places; and various kinds of trees are frequently discovered imbedded in the bogs. This county is remarkable as being the first place in Ireland in which frogs were seen : they appeared first near Moira, in a western and inland district, but the cause or manner of their introduction is wholly unknown. The Cornish chough and the king-fisher have been occasionally met with near Killough; the bittern is sometimes seen in the marshes on the sea-coast; the ousel and the eagle have been observed in the mountains of Mourne; and the cross-bill at Waringstown. Barnacles and widgeons frequent Strangford lough and Carrickfergus bay in immense numbers during winter; but they are extremely wary. A marten, as tall as a fox, but much longer, was killed several years since at Moira, and its skin preserved as a curiosity. Horse-racing is a favourite amusement with all classes, and is here sanctioned by royal authority; James II. having granted a patent of incorporation to a society to be called the Royal Horsebreeders of the county of Down, which is still kept up by the resident gentry, and has produced a beneficial effect in improving the breed of race-horses. Downshire gives the title of Marquess to the family of Hill, the descendants of one of the military adventurers who came to Ireland in the reign of Elizabeth.

DOWN, Borough and Diocese of. --See DOWNPATRICK.

DOWNINGS, a parish, in the barony of CLANE, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 5 miles (N. W.) from Naas, on the road to Edenderry; containing 1393 inhabitants. It is intersected by the Grand Canal, which passes through a large tract of bog extending into the parish, and has two bridges, called respectively Burgh's bridge and Bonner's bridge, where the summit level commences, which is estimated as having an elevation of 400 feet above the top of St. Patrick's steeple, Dublin, whence it proceeds to Ballyteague, a distance of four miles : there is a reservoir of 20 acres for the supply of the canal. The parish is mostly under tillage. The gentlemen's seats are Downings, the elegant residence of M. Bury, Esq., and Woodville, the seat of J. Bury, Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Kildare, the rectory forming part of the union of Kilcock, and the vicarage part of the union of Bridechurch: the tithes amount to £132. Divine service is performed in a house appointed by the bishop, once every Sunday and holyday. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Carogh. There are some slight remains of the old parish church.

DOWNMAHON, or DUNMAHON, a parish, in the barony of FERMOY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 3 miles (N. N. W.) from Fermoy; containing 927 inhabitants. It comprises 2263 statute acres, as applotted for the county cess, and valued at £2285. 8. 4. per annum; the land is chiefly in tillage and produces good crops. On the east bank of the Funcheon, near Glanworth bridge, is a large flour-mill, the produce of which is in high repute. The parish, which is said to have formerly belonged to the abbey of Fermoy, is an impropriate rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne: the tithes amount to £300, and are entirely payable to John Nason, Esq. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Glanworth. Here are the remains of a castle, consisting of a square tower.

DOWNPATRICK, an unincorporated borough, market, and post-town, and parish, in the barony of LECALE, county of DOWN, (of which it is the chief town), and province of ULSTER, 18 miles (S. E. by S.) from Belfast, and 74 (N.) from Dublin; containing 9203 inhabitants, of which number, 4784 are in the town.

This place, which was anciently the residence of the native kings of Ullagh or Ulidia, was originally named Aras-Celtair and Rath-Keltair, one signifying the house and the other the castle or fortification of Celtair, the son of Duach; by Ptolemy it was called Dunum. Its present name is derived from its situation on a hill, and from its having been the chosen residence of St. Patrick, who, on his arrival here in 432, founded in its vicinity the abbey of Saul, and, shortly after, an abbey of regular canons near the ancient Doon or fort, the site of which was granted to him by Dichu, sou of Trichem, lord of the country, whom he had converted to the Christian faith. St. Patrick presided over these religious establishments till his death in 493, and was interred in the abbey here, in which also the remains of St. Bridget and St. Columbkill, the two other tutelar saints of Ireland, were subsequently deposited. The town was constantly exposed to the ravages of the Danes, by whom it was plundered and burnt six or seven times between the years 940 and 1111; and on all these occasions the cathedral was pillaged by them. In 1177, John de Courcy took possession of the town, then the residence of Mac Dunleve, Prince of Ullagh, who, unprepared for defence against an invasion so unexpected, fled precipitately. De Courcy fortified himself here, and maintained his position against all the efforts of Mac Dunleve, aided by the native chieftains, for its recovery. In 1183, he displaced the canons and substituted a society of Benedictine monks from the abbey of St. Werburgh at Chester. Both he and Bishop Malachy III., endowed the abbey with large revenues; and in 1186 they sent an embassy to Pope Urban III. to obtain a bull for translating into shrines the sacred reliques of the three saints above named, which was performed with great solemnity by the pope's nuncio in the same year. De Courcy having espoused the claims of Prince Arthur, Duke of Brittany, assumed, in common with other English barons who had obtained extensive settlements in Ireland, an independent state, and renounced his allegiance to King John, who summoned him to appear and do homage. His mandate being treated with contempt, the provoked monarch, in 1203, invested De Lacy and his brother Walter with a commission to enter Ulster and reduce the revolted baron. De Lacy advanced with his troops to Down, where an engagement took place in which he was signally defeated and obliged to retreat with considerable loss of men. De Courcy, however, was ultimately obliged to acknowledge his submission and consent to do homage. A romantic description of the issue of this contest is related by several writers, according to whom De Courcy, after the termination of the battle, challenged De Lacy to single combat, which the latter declined on the plea that his commission, as the King's representative, forbade him to enter the lists against a rebellious subject, and subsequently proclaimed a reward for De Courcy's apprehension, which proving ineffectual, he then prevailed upon his servants by bribes and promises to betray their master. This act of perfidy was carried into execution whilst De Courcy was performing his devotions unarmed in the burial-ground of the cathedral: the assailants rushed upon him and slew some of his retinue; De Courcy seized a large wooden cross, with which, being a man of great prowess, he killed thirteen of them, but was overpowered by the rest and bound and led captive to De Lacy, who delivered him a prisoner to the king. In 1205, Hugh de Lacy was made Earl of Ulster, and for a while fixed his residence at the castle erected here by De Courcy. In 1245, part of the abbey was thrown down and the walls of the cathedral much damaged by an earthquake. A desperate battle was fought in the streets of this town, in 1259, between Stephen de Longespee and the chief of the O'Neils, in which the latter and 352 of his men were slain. Edward Bruce, in his invasion of Ulster, in 1315, having marched hither, plundered and destroyed the abbey, and burnt part of the town : he again plundered the town three years afterwards, and on that occasion caused himself to be proclaimed King of Ireland at the cross near the cathedral. To subdue the opposition raised by the wealthy abbots of this district, under Primate Cromer, against the spiritual supremacy of Henry VIII., Lord Grey, then lord-deputy, marched with a powerful army into Lecale, took Dun-drum and seven other castles, and in May 1538, having defaced the monuments of the three patron saints and perpetrated other acts of sacrilege, set fire to the cathedral and the town; three years afterwards, this act was made one of the charges on which he was impeached and beheaded. On the surrender of the abbey in 1539, its possessions, with those of the other religious establishments in the town, were granted to Gerald, eleventh Earl of Kildare. In 1552, the town was plundered and partially destroyed by Con O'Neil, Earl of Tyrone; and two years afterwards it was assaulted by his son Shane, who destroyed its gates and ramparts. During the war of 1641, the Protestants of the surrounding district having fled hither for protection, the town was attacked by the Irish under the command of Col. Bryan O'Neil, who burnt a magnificent castle erected by Lord Okeham, and committed a great slaughter of the townsmen; many that escaped were afterwards massacred at Killyleagh.

The town is built upon a group of little hills, on the south shore of the western branch of Lough Cone or Strangford Lough, and consists of four principal streets rising with a steep ascent from the market-place in the centre, and intersected by several smaller streets and lanes : on the eastern side the hills rise abruptly behind it, commanding views of a fertile and well-cultivated tract abounding with richly diversified and picturesque scenery. It is divided according to ancient usage into three districts, called respectively the English, Irish, and Scottish quarters, and contains about 900 houses, most of which are well built: the streets are well paved, and were first lighted with oil in 1830; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water. An ancient ferry across the western arm of Strangford lough connected this town with the neighbourhood to the north until a bridge was erected about one mile from the town, with a tower gate-house upon it, which was destroyed and the bridge itself greatly damaged in 1641. A public library and news-room was erected by subscription in 1825; and races are held in July alternately with Hillsborough, under charter of James II., on an excellent course one mile south of the town. The members of the Down Hunt hold their annual meetings in a handsome building in English-street, called the County Rooms, which is also used for county meetings, &c. The barracks are an extensive and convenient range of buildings, formerly the old gaol, in which a detachment of two companies from the garrison at Belfast is placed. The only article of manufacture is that of linen, principally yard wide, for the West Indies and the English market, and drills for Scotland, in which about 700 weavers, are employed. There are two ale breweries in the town. On the hanks of the Quoile, one mile distant, are excellent quays, where vessels of 100 tons' burden come in from Strangford lough: the principal imports are iron, coal, salt, timber, bark, and general merchandise : the exports are wheat, barley, oats, cattle, pigs, potatoes, and kelp. Formerly the tide flowed up close to the town, but in 1745 an embankment was constructed across the Quoile water, one mile distant, by the Rt. Hon. Edward Southwell, lord of the manor, which restrained it to that point, and about 500 acres of land were recovered: this embankment was swept away by a storm, and a second was formed by Lord de Clifford, with floodgates, &c., but after much rain a considerable portion of meadow land in the neighbourhood of the town is yet inundated. The market is on Saturday; it is large and well supplied with provisions of all kinds, and with pedlery. Brown linen webs were formerly sold on the market day in the linen hall, but the sale has of late much declined. The market-house is an old low building, containing some good upper rooms, in which the petty sessions are held and the public business of the town is transacted. Fairs are held annually on the second Thursday in January, March 17th, May 19th, June 22nd, Oct. 29th, and Nov. 19th. This is a chief constabulary police station, with a force consisting of one officer, one constable, and seven men.

Downpatrick had a corporation at an early period, the existence of which is recognised in 1403, when letters of protection were granted to it by Henry IV., under the title of the " Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty of the city of Down, in Ulster." The borough returned two members to the Irish parliament so early as 1585 : this privilege was exercised till the union, since which they have returned one member to the Imperial parliament. The right of election was vested in the pot-wallopers, but under an act of the 35th of George III. it was limited to the resident occupiers of houses of the annual value of £5 and upwards, who have registered twelve months before the election : the number of qualifying tenements under the old law was estimated at about 650. The act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 88, caused no alteration in the franchise or in the limits of the borough, which is co-extensive with the demesne of Down, containing 1486 statute acres : the number of voters registered, in 1835, was 525. The seneschal appointed by the lord of the manor is the returning officer. The manor, which is the property of David Ker, Esq., is very ancient, its existence being noticed in a record dated 1403. A patent of it was granted to Lord Cromwell by James I., in 1617, whereby sundry monasteries, lands, and tenements, including the demesne of Down, were erected into the manor of Downpatrick the manorial court, in which the process is either by attachment or civil bill, is held by the seneschal every third Tuesday, and has jurisdiction to the amount of £10 over 67 townlands in the parishes of Downpatrick, Saul, Bailee, Bright, Ballyculter, and Inch. The seneschal holds a court leet for the manor in spring and at Michaelmas. Petty sessions are held every Thursday : the assizes for the county are held alternately here and at Newry; and the county quarter sessions for the division of Downpatrick are held here in March and October. The county hall, or court-house, which was considerably enlarged and improved in 1834, occupies an elevated site in English-street; it is a large and handsome edifice, consisting of a centre and two wings, approached by a fine flight of stone steps; the centre is appropriated to the criminal court, the eastern wing to the civil court, and in the western are preserved the county records, &c.; it also contains a suite of assembly-rooms. The county gaol is a very commodious building, erected in 1830 at an expense of £60,000, and occupying an area of one acre and a half: the internal arrangements and management are calculated to carry into the best effect the improved system of prison discipline, and have been recommended as a model for similar establishments by the inspector-general of prisons.


Arms of the Bishoprick.

The SEE of DOWN is supposed to have originated in the abbey founded here by St. Patrick, but St. Carlan is said to have been the first bishop. Its early prelates are called Bishops of Dundalethglass, but it is probable that this see was generally included in the diocese of Connor, prior to the episcopacy of Malachy O'Morgair, who became bishop in 1137, and separated it from Connor; his immediate successors are called bishops of Ulster by some historians. John Cely was the last bishop who, in modern times, held the bishoprick of Down separate from that of Connor : he was deprived of it for his crimes and excesses in 1441. Archbishop Prene recommended William Bassett, a Benedictine monk, to the Pope, as a successor to Cely, hut the pope added this see to that of Connor, and they have remained united to the present time. John, the first bishop of Down and Connor, was not, however, allowed to enjoy his united bishopricks in peace; for Thomas Pollard claimed to be Bishop of Down, and is supposed to have been supported by the archbishop, but lost his cause in 1449. John was fined shortly before his death for not appearing upon summons in Parliament. Bishop Tiberius, who is stated to have very much beautified the cathedral, was succeeded, about 1526, by Robert Blyth, abbot of Thorney, in Cambridgeshire, who held these bishopricks in commendam, and resided in England. The last bishop before the Reformation was Eugene Magenis, who was advanced to these sees by Pope Paul III.; and although John Merriman, chaplain to Queen Elizabeth, was consecrated bishop in 1568, the pope appointed Miler Magragh to the united see : he, however, never had possession of the temporalties, and subsequently becoming a Protestant was made Archbishop of Cashel. John Tod, who had been educated at Rome, but had renounced popery, was nominated bishop by James I., in 1604, and held the see of Dromore in commendam : he was tried before the High Commission Court, which deprived him of the bishopricks, and afterwards poisoned himself in London. From 1660 to 1667 these sees were held by the celebrated Jeremy Taylor, who had also the administration of the see of Dromore, and was a privy counsellor and Vice Chancellor of the University of Dublin. Bishop Hutchinson, whose episcopacy commenced in 1720, had the church catechism translated into Irish, and printed in English and Irish, primarily for the use of the inhabitants of Rathlin, and hence it is called the Rathlin Catechism. Under the Church Temporalities Act, when either the bishoprick of Down and Connor, or of Dromore, becomes vacant, Dromore is to be added to Down and Connor, and the surviving bishop is to take the title of Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore, and the temporalities of the see of Dromore are to be vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The diocese is one of the ten that constitute the ecclesiastical province of Armagh : it comprehends part of the county of Antrim, and the greater part of Down, extending 52 British miles in length by about 28 in breadth, and comprises an estimated area of 201,950 acres, of which, 800 are in Antrim and 201,150 in Down. The gross annual revenue of the see of Down, on an average of three years ending Dec. 31st, 1831, amounted to £2830. 16. 8 1/2.; and there are 6411 acres of profitable land belonging to the diocese. The entire revenue of the united sees of Down and Connor averages £5896 per annum, and the see lands comprise 30,244 statute acres. The chapter consists of a dean, archdeacon, precentor, and treasurer, and the two prebendaries of St. Andrew's and Dunsford. The abbey founded by St. Patrick appears to have been the first cathedral of this see; it was several times plundered and burnt by the Danes. It was repaired by Malachy O'Morgair, in 1137, and by Malachy III., aided by John de Courcy, in ] 176, and was burnt in 1315 by Lord Edward Bruce. Having been repaired or rebuilt, it was again burnt, in 1538, by Lord Leonard de Grey. In 1609, James I. changed the name of the cathedral from St. Patrick's to the Holy Trinity, which was its original designation; and on account of its being in a ruinous condition, Charles II., in 1663, erected the church of Lisburn into a cathedral and bishop's see for the diocese of Down and Connor. It continued in ruins till the year 1790, when it was restored by a grant of £1000 from Government and liberal subscriptions from the nobility and gentry of the county; and in the same year a rent-charge of £300 late currency on the tithes of the ancient union was appropriated by act of parliament for its repairs and for the support of an organist, three vicars choral, and six choristers. It is situated on an eminence to the west of the town, and is a stately embattled edifice chiefly of unhewn stone, supported externally by buttresses, and comprising a nave, choir, and aisles, with a lofty square tower at, the west end, embattled and pinnacled, and smaller square towers at each corner of the east gable, in one of which is a spiral stone staircase leading to the roof. The aisles are separated from the nave by lofty elegant arches resting on massive piers, from the corbels of which spring ribs supporting the roof, which is richly groined and ornamented at the intersections with clusters of foliage. The lofty windows of the aisles are divided by a single mullion; the nave is lighted by a long range of clerestory windows, and the choir by a handsome east window divided by mullions into twelve compartments, which appears to be the only window remaining of the splendid edifice erected in 1412, and destroyed by Lord de Grey. Over the east window are three elegant niches with ogee pointed arches, containing on pedestals the remains of the mutilated effigies of St. Patrick, St. Bridget, and St. Columbkill. The choir is handsomely fitted up with stalls for the dignitaries. The cathedral was opened for the performance of divine service, after its restoration in 1817: the tower was completed in 1829, at an expense of £1900. It contains a monument to the memory of Edward Cromwell, Baron Okeham, who was proprietor of nearly all Lecale, and who died and was buried here in 1607; and another to his grandson Oliver, Earl of Ardglass, who was interred in 1668. The cathedral service is not performed, the building being used rather as a second parish church. The consistorial court of the united diocese is at Lisburn : it consists of a vicar-general, two surrogates, a registrar, deputy-registrar, and several proctors. The registrars are keepers of the records of the united diocese, which consist of the documents relating to the see lands, benefices, inductions, and wills, the earliest of which is dated 1650. The number of parishes in the diocese is 43, which are comprehended in 37 benefices, of which 6 are in the patronage of the Crown, 2 in that of the Lord-Primate, 12 in that of the Bishop, 1 in the gift of the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin, 13 in lay patronage, and the remainder are perpetual curacies, in the gift of the incumbents of the parishes out of which they have been formed. The number of churches is 40, and there are 2 other episcopal places of worship, and 25 glebe-houses.

In the R. C. divisions this diocese is united as in the Established Church, forming the bishoprick of Down and Connor: in the Bishoprick of Down are 18 parochial districts, containing 37 chapels served by 28 clergymen, 18 of whom are parish priests and 10 coadjutors or curates. The cathedral of the united diocese is at Belfast, where the R. C. bishop resides.

The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 11,484 1/2 statute acres, of which 125 are water, and there is neither waste land nor bog within its limits; the land is very fertile, and, with the exception of some marshes, is all arable, and in an improved state of cultivation. There are several quarries of rubble stone, which is used principally for building. The scenery is enriched with numerous gentlemen's seats, of which the principal are Hollymount, the beautiful residence of Col. Forde, situated in an extensive demesne, richly planted and well watered; Ballykilbeg House, the residence of J. Brett Johnston, Esq.; and Vianstown, of Mrs. Ward. About two miles from the town is the beautiful lake of Ballydugan; and near it is Ballydugan. House, memorable as the residence of Col. White, who was murdered, and the mansion burnt in the war of 1641. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Down, formerly united, by royal charter in the 7th of James I., to the rectories of Saul, Ballyculter, Bailee, Bright, and Tyrella, which together constituted the union and corps of the deanery of Down; but under the provisions of the Church Temporalities Act, the ancient union has been dissolved, and by act of council, in 1834, the rectories of Down and Tyrella, seven townlands in the parish of Bailee, one in that of Kilclief, and four in that of Bright, have been made to constitute the incumbency and corps of the deanery, which is in the patronage of the Crown. The gross income of the present deanery amounts to £1554. 15. 11 1/2., of which £1078. 11. 3. is paid by the parish of Down, £164. 15. 9. by that of Tyrella; £6. 6. is the rental of a small glebe of la. Or. 7p.; £146. 7. is received from the townlands of Ballee; £148. 2. 8 1/2. from those of Bright, and £10. 13. 3. from that of Kilclief. Out of this income the dean pays £6 to the diocesan schoolmaster, £12. 16. for proxies, a quit-rent of £7. 9.4 1/2., £100 to a curate, &c., £100 for a residence (there being no deanery or glebe-house), and £127. 7. 10 1/2. as a contribution to the cathedral. The parish church, a neat edifice in the Grecian style, was rebuilt on an enlarged scale in 1735, partly at the expense of Mr. Southwell, lord of the manor, and the Rev. -- Daniel, then Dean of Down; it was repaired and newly roofed in 1760 and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £200 for its further repair. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and contains two chapels, one in the town (built in 1790) and the other at Ballykilbeg, three miles distant. There are also two places of worship for Presbyterians, one in connection with the Synod of Ulster (completed in 1827, at an expense of £900, and now about to be enlarged), and of the second class; and the other with the presbytery of Antrim of the first class; and one each for Wesleyan Methodists, Methodists of the new connection, and Primitive Methodists.

The diocesan school, founded in the 12th of Elizabeth, appears to have fallen into decay until the year 1823, when it was united to that of Dromore, and an excellent school-room and residence for the master were erected at the end of Saul-street, in this town, in 1829, at an expense of £1000, defrayed by the county at large, on a site given by Lord de Clifford. It is free to all boys of both dioceses, and is endowed with £50 per annum from the diocese of Dromore, and £40 from that of Down, of which one-third is paid by the bishops and two-thirds by the clergymen, being a per centage on the net value of their livings; it is also further supported by a contribution of £10. 10. per ann. from the lay impropriators, a rent-charge of £20 on the estate of the late Lord de Clifford, and the rental of the land on which the school premises at Dromore were situated, amounting to £4. 4. The master is appointed by the lord-lieutenant, on the recommendation of the bishop. A parochial school conducted on the Lancasterian plan, and an infants' school, established in 1832, are supported by voluntary contributions; in connection with the Presbyterian meeting-house of the Synod of Ulster, is a large school-house for girls, and the trustees intend immediately to erect another for boys; at Hollymount are schools for boys and girls, supported by Lady Harriet Forde; and there are other day and Sunday schools supported by subscription. The number of children on the books of these day schools is 646, namely, 440 boys and 206 girls; and in the private pay schools are 340 boys and 200 girls. On a gentle eminence, a short distance southward from the town, stands the county infirmary, a large and handsome building erected in 1832, comprising a centre and two wings, which extend rearward, and containing 11 wards, in which are 40 beds, 20 for males and 20 for females. Near it is the fever hospital, also a large and well-arranged building, erected in the same year, and divided into 8 wards, containing 20 beds : these two buildings cost £6500. In English-street is an hospital founded in 1731 by the Rt. Hon. Edward Southwell, ancestor of the late Lord de Clifford, who endowed it with £237 per ann. payable out of the lands of Listonder and Ballydyan, in the parish of Kilmore, now the property of David Ker, Esq. The building, which is of brick, underwent a thorough repair in 1826, at an expense of £1000, defrayed by Lord de Clifford : it comprises a centre and two wings, the former occupied as an asylum for six aged men and six aged women, who have two rooms and a garden and £5 per ann. each; and the latter as schools for ten boys and ten girls, who are clothed and educated for four years, and receive £3 per ann. each towards their support, and on leaving the school at the age of 15 are apprenticed : the schoolmaster receives a salary of £15, with house, garden, and fuel, and the schoolmistress £12, with similar advantages. In the same street are four good houses for clergymen's widows of the diocese, of which two were founded in 1730 by the Rev. H. Leslie, Rev. J. Mathews, and Rev. J. Hamilton, who endowed them with £40 per annum from lands in Ballybranagh; and two in 1750, by the Rev. Edward Mathews, D. D., who endowed them with £42 per ann. from lands in Tubermony, Grangetown, and Ballywarren, all in this parish : the management is vested in the Dean and Chapter. John Brett, Esq., in 1810, bequeathed £300 in trust, the interest to be distributed annually among the poor of the town. A society for clothing the poor in winter, and a mendicity society for assisting the aged and infirm and preventing vagrancy, have been established. Besides the abbey founded by St. Patrick, there were, prior to the dissolution, a priory of regular canons, called the priory of the Irish, founded in honour of St. Thomas, in 1138, by Malachy O'Morgair, Bishop of Down; the priory of St. John the Baptist, called the priory of the English, founded by John de Courcy for crossbearers of the order of St. Augustine; an abbey of Cistercian monks, founded in the 12th century by -- Bagnal, and a Cistercian nunnery, of both which no further particulars have been recorded; a Franciscan friary, founded about 1240 by Hugh de Lacy, or, according to some writers, by Africa, daughter of Godred, King of Man, and wife of John de Courcy; and an hospital for lepers, dedicated to St. Nicholas, which in 1413 was, with the hospital of St. Peter at Kilclief, granted in trust to certain individuals by royal charter : there are no remains of these ancient establishments, even their sites can scarcely be distinctly traced. There are several forts and raths in the parish; the most noted are the large rath or doon near the cathedral, which gave name to the town and county, and one at Ballykilbeg, finely planted by J. B. Johnston, Esq. In 1825, the head and horns of an elk of large size, the latter measuring 5 feet 11 inches between their extremities, and the head of a spear, were found in a marl-pit near the town. The celebrated Duns Scotus was born here in 1274 : he was educated at Oxford, and in 1307 was appointed Regent of Divinity in the schools of Paris; his works are very voluminous. For a description of the Struel wells, see the county article.

DOWNS, a village, in the parish of KILCOOLE, barony of NEWCASTLE, county of WICKLOW, and province of LEINSTER, 12 miles (N.) from Newtown-Mount-Kennedy; containing 171 inhabitants and 35 houses, the greater part of which are small thatched tenements. It has a station of the constabulary police; and fairs are held on Jan. 12th, May 4th, Aug. 5th, and Nov. 12th, chiefly for cattle and pigs. Here are the ruins of an old church. The " Glen of the Downs" is described under the head of Delgany.

DOWRY, or DOWRIE, a parish, in the barony of BUNRATTY, county of CLARE, and province of MUNSTER, 1 1/4 mile (E.) from Ennis, on the road from Clare to Spancel hill; containing 2099 inhabitants. It comprises 3684 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and consists chiefly of arable and pasture land of second and third rate quality : there are about 800 acres of bog, and a considerable portion of limestone crag. Sea-weed and sand brought up the river Fergus are much used for manure. The seats are Moriesk, the finely wooded demesne of the Rt. Hon. Lord Fitzgerald and Vesci; Well-Park, that of the Rt. Rev. Dr. McMahon, R. C. Bishop of Killaloe; Castle Fergus, of W. Smith Blood, Esq., and Tuoreem, of W. O'Connell, Esq. The parish is in the diocese of Killaloe; the rectory is part of the union of Ogashin, and the vicarage of that of Quinn : the tithes amount to £217. 11. 6 1/4., of which, £102. 9. 3. is payable to the rector, £92. 6. 1 3/4. to the vicar, and £23. 1. 6 1/2. to the prebendary of Tullagh. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Kilraghtis : the chapel is a small thatched building, but a new and very handsome structure is about to be erected on another site. A school supported by Mr. Howley having been lately discontinued, it is in contemplation to establish another on a more general plan.

DOWTH, a parish, in the barony of UPPER SLANE, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (S. E.) from Slane, on the river Boyne; containing 362 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises about 1600 statute acres, was a principal scene of the battle of the Boyne, and is the residence of the Netterville family, the head of which was ennobled by James I., with the title of Viscount Netterville of Dowth. The mansion called Dowth is in a demesne of more than 300 statute acres, in which is a large rath, also an extensive tumulus containing subterraneous passages in which a number of human and other bones have been found. The parish is in the diocese of Meath; the rectory is partly impropriate in W. D. Pollard, Esq., and partly appropriate to the vicarage of St. Mary, Drogheda; the vicarage forms part of the union of Duleek. The tithes amount to £92. 6. 2., and the glebe comprises 19 1/2 acres, valued at £30 per annum. The late Lord Netterville left 60 acres of land for the support of six aged women and six orphan boys : the castle built by Hugh de Lacy has been altered and repaired for their accommodation, and also for a school supported out of the same bequest. A considerable part of the old church remains : it was the burial-place of the Netterville family, and contains a monument of the late lord. Here is a cromlech, consisting of four large upright stones, with several others lying near.

DOWTHSTOWN, or DOUTHSTOWN, also called DOWESTOWN, a parish, in the barony of SKREEN, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 3 1/2 miles (S. by E.) from Navan, on the river Boyne and the mail coach road from Dublin to Enniskillen; containing 283 inhabitants. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, forming part of the union of Skreen; the rectory is impropriate in P. Metge, Esq. The tithes amount to £62, of which £41. 6. 8. is payable to the impropriator, and £20. 13. 4. to the vicar. The Hon. Gen. Taylor has a seat in the cottage style in a demesne of about 590 statute acres, of which about 240 are plantations.

DRAKESTOWN, a parish, in the barony of MORGALLION, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 3 3/4 miles (S.) from Nobber, on the road from Navan to Kingscourt; containing 982 inhabitants. It comprises 6582 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: the land is mostly in pasture, the surrounding country being generally good grazing land. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Meath, and is part of the union of Castletown-Kilpatrick : the tithes amount to £188. 3. 2., and there is a glebe of 4 acres, valued at £28 per annum. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church. About 40 boys are educated in a private school.

DRANGAN, a parish, in the barony of MIDDLE-THIRD, county of Tipperary, and province of MUNSTER, 4 1/2 miles (N. E.) from Fethard; containing 1804 inhabitants. It comprises 5300 statute acres of tolerably good arable and pasture land, as applotted under the tithe act; and is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Cashel, forming part of the union of Killenaule : the tithes amount to £325. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Cloneen; the chapel is a plain building. There are four pay schools, in which are about 150 boys and 170 girls; and in the village is a constabulary police station.

DRAPERSTOWN, or CROSS of BALLYNASCREEN, a market and post-town, in the parish of BALLYNASCREEN, barony of LOUGHINSHOLIN, county of LONDONDERRY, and province of ULSTER, 30 miles (S. E. by S.) from Londonderry, and 101 (N. by W.) from Dublin, on the road from Newtown-Stewart to Tubbermore; containing 412 inhabitants. In 1818, its name was changed from Cross to Draperstown, in consequence of its principally belonging to the Drapers' Company, under whose auspices a spacious market-house, hotel, and dispensary for their tenants, with surgeon's residence, are being built, chiefly in the Elizabethan style, and of freestone. The market is on Wednesday; and a fair for general farming stock is held on the first Friday in each month, and was established in 1792. The post-office is under Tubbermore, from which it is three miles distant; and here is a constabulary police station. The parochial church and school are situated in the town, and there is a general dispensary. --See BALLYNASCREEN.

DREENY. --See DRINAGH, county of CORK.

DREHIDTARSNA, or DREHEDHARSNIE, also called DROGHETARSNEY, a parish, in the barony of COSHMA, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 2 miles (S.W.by S.) from Adare; containing 358 inhabitants. This parish comprises 722 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, exclusively of the townland of Drehidtarsna, which is tithe-free: the land is of superior quality and well cultivated. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Limerick; the rectory is part of the union and corps of the prebend of St. Munchin in the cathedral of St. Mary, Limerick : the vicarage is in the gift of the Prebendary. The tithes amount to £64. 12. 3 1/2., of which £43. 1. 6. is payable to the prebendary, and the remainder to the vicar, who also receives £68 late currency from Primate Boulter's fund. The glebe-house was erected in 1828, on a glebe of 19 acres. The church is a small edifice with a tower; and on Sunday evenings a lecture is delivered in the glebe-house. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union of Adare. The parochial schools are chiefly supported by the vicar and the Earl of Dunraven.

DRIMNAGH, or DRIMNA, formerly a parish, in the barony of UPPERCROSS, county of DUBLIN, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (W. S. W.) from Dublin, on the road to Naas and on the Grand Canal. This ancient parish has merged into that of Clondalkin. There is a paper-mill at Lansdowne Valley; and near the Blue Bell is a woollen factory, at which coarse cloths are manufactured. In the direction of Crumlin stands Drimna Castle, formerly the head of a manor, of which the Barnewall family were lords from the time of John to that of James I., and which was a place of some consequence in the reign of Chas. I. It is the property of the Marquess of Lansdowne, and is an irregular pile, occupied by Mr. E. Cavanagh. The church is in ruins. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the district of Lucan, Palmerstown, and Clondalkin.

DRIMOLEAGUE.--See DROMDALEAGUE.

DRIMTEMPLE, a parish, partly in the half-barony of BALLYMOE, county of GALWAY, and partly in the other half-barony of BALLYMOE, county of ROSCOMMON, and province of CONNAUGHT, 4 miles (S. E. by S.) from Castlerea, on the road to Roscommon; containing 2383 inhabitants. It is surrounded by bog, and consists principally of pasture, although there is a considerable quantity of arable land. The seats are Dundermott, the residence of R. Blakeney, Esq.; Laragh, of Martin Connor, Esq.; Leabeg, of H. Browne, Esq.; Tenny Park, of T. T. Byrne, Esq.; Currisdoona, of F. T. Byrne, Esq.; and Bopeep Lodge, of H. French, Esq. In the village of Ballymoe are two mills, worked by Mr. Hurley, one grinding 100 tons of oatmeal, and the other 2000 barrels of wheat into flour annually. Petty sessions every Friday, and a fair on Feb. 1st, are held there. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Elphin, forming part of the union of Oran; the rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Essex. The tithes amount to £133. 6. 8., of which £100 is payable to the impropriator and £33. 6. 8. to the vicar. The church for the union is at Ballymoe, and was built in 1832 by aid of a gift of £900 from the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Ballintobber, and has a chapel at Ballymoe, a good slated building which cost £500. There are two public schools, in which about 60, and four private schools, in which about 170, children are educated. At Cloonadera are a fine Danish fort and a chalybeate spa.

DRINAGH, or DREENY, a parish, partly in the Western Division of the barony of EAST CARBERY, but chiefly in the Eastern Division of WEST CARBERY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 3 miles (S.) from Dunmanway, on the road from that place to Clonakilty; containing 4231 inhabitants. This parish comprises 12,4495 statute acres, of which 5696 are applotted under the tithe act, and are valued at £4926 per ann. : there is about an equal portion of arable and pasture land,4000 acres are reclaimable bog and mountain, and the remainder rocky mountain and irreclaimable bog. Great improvements have been recently made in agriculture by the opening of new lines of road. There are two lakes, the larger of which forms a boundary between the two baronies. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is appropriate to the vicars choral of the cathedral of St. Finbarr, Cork. The tithes amount to £483, half of which is payable to the appropriators and half to the vicar. There is a glebe of 7 acres. The church is a small neat edifice, in the early English style, erected in 1818, by aid of a gift of £900 from the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Dromdaleague, and contains a chapel. In the parochial school, principally supported by the vicar, and in another school, which has a grant of £26 per annum, about 80 children are educated, and in five private schools about 330. At Kilronan are some valuable lands granted by Chas. II. to the see of Dublin. Here are the ruins of an old church, erected by the Knights Templars.

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DRINAGH, a parish, in the barony of FORTH, county of WEXFORD, and province of LEINSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S. E.) from Wexford, on the southern shore of Wexford haven; containing 451 inhabitants. It comprises 1791 statute acres, chiefly under an improved system of tillage. Limestone is quarried near the shore of the harbour, and more than 20,000 tons are annually shipped. The seats are Somerset, that of G. Walker, Esq.; and Hermitage, of A. Meadows, Esq. It is in the diocese of Ferns, and is a rectory, forming part of the union of St. Patrick's, Wexford : the tithes amount to £90. 4. 0 1/2. The ruins of the church exist in the ancient burial-ground. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the district of Piercestown.

DRISHANE, a parish, partly in the detached portion of the barony of MAGONIHY, county of KERRY, and partly in the barony of DUHALLOW, but chiefly in that of WEST MUSKERRY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, on the road from Cork to Killarney, containing, with the town of Millstreet, 7036 inhabitants. It comprises 32,169 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £12,635. 16. 9. per ann. About a seventh part of the land is fertile and well cultivated, but the greater part consists of mountain pasture and bog : much of the former, however, affords good herbage for large herds of cattle and goats; and a considerable part of the district of Kladach, containing about 2200 acres of rough moorland, might be reclaimed at a moderate expense. Slate is found in several places, also white clay of a tenacious quality; and near Drishane Castle is a bed of good limestone. The gentlemen's seats are Drishane Castle, the residence of H. Wallis, Esq.; Coole House, of H. O'Donnell, Esq.; Mount Leader, of H. Leader, Esq.; Rathduane, of J. E. McCarty, Esq.; Coomlagane, of J. McCarthy O'Leary, Esq.; Coole, of H. O'Donnell, Esq.; and the glebe-house, of the Rev. F. Cooper. The parish is in the diocese of Ardfert; the rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Donoughmore, and the vicarage was united, in 1760, to that of Nohoval-daly, together forming the union of Drishane, in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £630, and are equally divided between the impropriator and the vicar; the tithes of the benefice amount to £455. There is a glebe-house with a glebe of 26 acres. The church, situated in Millstreet, is a large edifice with a square tower, in the Gothic style; A grant of £112. 17. 6. has been recently made by the Ecclesiastical Board for its repair. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of the union or district of Millstreet, which also comprises the greater part of the parish of Cullen : the chapel is at Millstreet, and there is also a chapel at Cullen. The parochial school, in Millstreet, is supported by H. Wallis, Esq., and the vicar. A school-house is about to be erected at Coomlegan, for which Mrs. McCarty, of Glyn, in 1811 bequeathed two acres of land and £40 per annum. There are also two private schools, and the number of children educated in the parish is about 150. Drishane Castle, which is in good repair, was erected by Dermot McCarty in 1436 : his descendant, Donagh McCarty, was engaged in the war of 1641, by which he forfeited the estate : in the demesne are the ruins of the old parochial church. Of Kilmeedy castle, which was built by one of the McCarty family, in 1445, to command the wild mountain pass from Macroom to Killarney, the ruins still remain in the valley, near the mail coach road. --See MILL-STREET.


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DROM, or DROMSPERANE, a parish, in the barony of ELIOGARTY, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 2 1/2 miles (S. W.) from Templemore, on the road from that place to Cashel; containing 1951 inhabitants. It comprises 4111 statute acres, and is in the diocese of Cashel; the rectory is impropriate in the Marquess of Ormonde; the vicarage forms part of the corps of the treasurership in the cathedral of St. Patrick, Cashel. The tithes amount to £221. 10. 9 1/4., of which £138. 9. 2 3/4. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, comprising this parish and Inch, in each of which is a chapel; that of Drom is a large handsome building, erected in 1829. There is a public school, in which about 180, and two private schools, in which about 170, children are educated. Here are some remains of the old church. A constabulary police force is stationed in the village.

DROMACOO, a parish, in the barony of DUNKELLIN, county of GALWAY, and province of CONNAUGHT, 8 3/4 miles (N. N. W.) from Gort, on the bay of Galway; containing 1044 inhabitants. It comprises 1723 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and is in the diocese of Kilmacduagh; the rectory is partly appropriate to the see, partly to the vicars choral of Christ-church cathedral, Dublin, and partly to the prebendary of Islandeddy; the vicarage forms part of the union of Kilcolgan. The tithes amount to £53. 11., of which £12. 12. is payable to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, £18. 18. to the vicars choral, £15. 15. to the vicar, and £6. 6. to the prebendary. In the R. C. divisions the parish, called Ballindirreen, from the place where the chapel is situated, is co-extensive with that of the Established Church. There are four private schools, in which are about 160 children. The ruins of the old church have been converted into a mausoleum for the family of St. George, whose mansion stands in the adjoining parish of Stradbally, though part of the demesne is within the limits of this parish.

DROMAGH. --See DROUMTARIFFE.

DROMAHAIRE, a village, in the parish of DRUMLEASE, barony of DROMAHAIRE, county of LEITRIM, and province of CONNAUGHT, 8 miles (S. E. by E.) from Sligo, on the road from Collooney to Manor-Hamilton; containing 336 inhabitants. A castle was built here in early times by a chieftain of this district, called O'Rourke, and named after him, part of which still exists, but most of it was used by Sir William Villiers in the erection of the castle of Dromahaire, under a patent dated in 1626, by which 11,500 acres of land, with power to empark 2000 acres, and hold two markets, was granted to the Duke of Buckingham. Of this castle, seven massive and ornamented stacks of chimneys remain, and the lodge occupied by Mr. Stewart, agent to G. L. Fox, Esq., occupies part of its site. At Creevlea a monastery for Franciscans of the Observantine order was established, in 1508, by Margaret ny Brien, wife of O'Rourke. This building was never completed, but the walls, in which are some curious figures, are entire, and the altar is nearly so. The effigy of the great O'Rourke lies at full length on a tomb over the burial-place of his family, and there are also curious figures over the graves of the Morroghs, Cornins, and others. The village, which, together with the entire neighbourhood, has been greatly improved under the auspices of Mr. Lane Fox, contained, in 1831, 64 houses : it has a penny post to Collooney and is a constabulary police station. A market is held on Monday in a neat market-house, and a fair on the 13th of every month, and petty sessions are held on alternate Wednesdays. A dispensary is partly supported by a subscription of £20 per annum from Mr. Lane Fox. On the side of a hill are the ruins of an old church, consisting of a nave and chancel, divided by a heavy tower supported by elliptical arches. The conventual buildings, of which the foundation is attributed to St. Patrick, formed two squares contiguous to the church.

DROMARAGH, or ANNESBOROUGH, a post-town and parish, partly in the barony of KINELEARTY, partly in that of LOWER IVEAGH, but chiefly in that of UPPER IVEAGH, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER; 5 miles (E. S. E.) from Dromore, and 72 miles (N. by E.) from Dublin, on the road from Banbridge to Ballynahinch; containing, with the district of Maghera hamlet, 10,129 inhabitants. It contains part of the lands granted by patent of Queen Elizabeth, in 1585, to Ever Mac Rorye Magennis, which were forfeited in the war of 1641, and afterwards granted by Charles II. to Col. Hill; they are included in the manor of Kilwarlin. According to the Ordnance survey, it comprises 21,192 3/4 statute acres, of which 6027 1/4 are in Lower Iveagh, 7024 1/2 are in Kinelearty, and 8141 are in Upper Iveagh. The greater part is arable land, and about 91 3/4 acres are under water; considerable improvement has been made in agriculture, and many even of the mountain tracts have been brought under tillage. The village, which is small, is called Annesborough, or Annesbury, in a patent, which granted a weekly market on Thursday, and a fair for three days in Sept.; the market has been changed to Friday, and is held chiefly for the sale of butter and linen yarn; and the fairs are now held on the first Friday in Feb., May, Aug., and Nov., for farming stock and pedlery. Petty sessions are held in the village every fourth Monday : here is a sub-post-office to Dromore and Comber. Woodford, formerly the residence Jas. Black, Esq., has extensive bleach-works, and was once the seat of a flourishing branch of the linen manufacture. Dromaragh, with part of the rectory of Garvaghey, constitutes a union and the only prebend in the cathedral of Christ the Redeemer at Dromore, in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes of the parish amount to £620.17. 5., and of the union, to £937. 4. 3. The glebe-house was erected in 1821, for which a gift of £100 and a loan of £1125 was obtained from the late Board of First Fruits. The ancient glebe, consisting of one moiety of the townland of Dromaragh, which was granted to the rector in pure alms by James I., is now in the possession of the Marquess of Downshire; 20 acres of the same, held at a rent of £42 per ann., constitutes the present glebe. The church is a small handsome edifice, with a tower and clock in good repair, built in 1811, at the expense of the parishioners. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recommended that this union be dissolved on the next avoidance of the prebend, and that Garvaghey be separated from it, and consolidated with its vicarage, and the 9 1/2 townlands now forming the perpetual cure of Maghera hamlet be constituted a distinct parish, leaving the remainder of Dromaragh to form the corps of the prebend. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, with the exception of the district of Maghera hamlet, which is united to the R. C. parish of Magheradroll: the chapel is a large handsome edifice at Finnis, built in 1833. At Artana is a meeting-house for Presbyterians of the first class, in connection with the Synod of Ulster. Here are 10 public schools, two of which are aided by an annual donation from Capt. Maginnis; also 11 private and eight Sunday schools. On the mountain of Slieve Croob is a cairn, having a platform at the top, on which eleven smaller cairns are raised; and in the townland of Finnis is a remarkable artificial cave, 94 feet long, 6 feet wide, and upwards of 5 feet in height, with a transept near the centre, 30 feet long; the walls are rudely arched near the top, which is covered with slabs of granite : in 1833, the Rev. H. Elgee Boyd, rector of the parish, caused it to be cleared out and an iron door fixed up to protect it from injury.

DROMARD, a parish, in the barony of TYRERAGH, county of SLIGO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 5 miles (W.) from Collooney, on the road from Sligo to Ballina; containing 2560 inhabitants. Cromwell took this place, and burnt the old bawn of Tanragoe. In the reign of William. III., the castle of Longford successfully resisted two attacks of a detachment of the troops under Major Vaughan; numerous skeletons of men and horses are constantly being dug up in the demesne, where the battle was fought. The parish comprises 4923 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and there is a considerable tract of unreclaimed mountain land. Here are quarries of limestone and granite of the best description. Fairs are held at Beltra on the Monday before Ash-Wednesday, May 21st, and August 20th. The principal seats are Tanragoe, the residence of Col. Irwin, a very old mansion which commands remarkably fine views of the bays of Sligo, Donegal, and Killybegs, and of Tellen Head, Benbullen, and Knocknaree; and the glebe-house, of the Rev. J. Stack : Longford House, the seat of Sir J. Crofton, Bart., was burnt in 1816. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Killala, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £200. The glebe-house was built in 1833, by aid of a gift of £350 and a loan of £450 from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises 15 1/2 acres. The church, a neat plain building with a square tower, was erected by the grandfather of Col. Irwin, and subsequently enlarged in 1818, by aid of a loan of £600 from the same board. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and has a good slated chapel at Altnelvick. Here is a school of about 40 boys and 40 girls, under the trustees of Erasmus Smith's charity; the school-house is a stone slated building, erected at an expense of about £250, on an acre of land given by Col. Irwin. The Rev. Dr. Benton, late rector of the parish, left £200 late currency, which is now vested in the Commissioners of Charitable Bequests, and the interest distributed among the poor at Easter. Near the river of Ballinley are the ruins of an old religious house; and there are some remains of the old church, near which is a holy well, dedicated to St. Patrick. In the demesne of Longford is an old R. C. chapel, now disused; it was built by the O'Douds, from whom the Croftons inherit the estate.

DROMCLIFFE, or OGORMUCK, a parish, in the barony of ISLANDS, county of CLARE, and province of MUNSTER, on the river Fergus, and on the road from Limerick to Galway; containing, with the assize, market, and post-town of Ennis, 14.083 inhabitants. This parish, including Inch, comprises 8387 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The land varies greatly in quality. There are about 240 acres of craggy pasture that might be easily converted into good arable land. At Cragleigh is some very fine close-grained black marble. The gentlemen's seats are Stamer Park, the residence of M. Finucane, Esq.; Abbeyville, of T. Crowe, jun., Esq.; Willow Bank, of E. J. Armstrong, Esq.; Greenlawn, of T. Mahon, Esq.; Hermitage, of W. Keane, Esq.; Cahircalla, of C. Mahon, Esq.; Beechpark, of R. Keane, Esq.; Ashline Park, of R. Mahon, Esq.; Cranaher, of B. Blood, Esq.; Brookville, of J. Mahon, Esq.; and Green Park, of the Rev. W. Adamson. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Killaloe, united in 1818, to those of Kilnemona, Kilraghtis, and Templemaly, forming the union of Dromcliffe, in the gift of the Bishop. The rectory is partly impropriate in R. Keane, Esq., and partly united, in 1803, to the rectories of Kilnemona and Kilmaly, in the patronage of the Marquess of Thomond. The tithes of the parish amount to £332. 6. 2 1/2., of which, £101. 10. 9 1/2. is payable to the impropriator, a similar sum to the rector, and the remaining £129. 4. 7 1/4. to the vicar; the tithes of the vicarial union are £285. 16. 10 3/4. The glebe contains four acres near the old church, which is in ruins: the present church at Ennis consists of part of the ancient Franciscan abbey. The site of the old glebe-house has been added to the churchyard, where, during the prevalence of the cholera, no less than 340 bodies were buried in one pit. In the R. C. divisions the greater part of the parish forms the union or district of Ennis, where the chapel is situated : the western part, called Inch, is the head of the district of that name, which also includes the parish of Kilmaly. A new chapel is now being built at Inch, and there is a chapel in Kilmaly. The number of children educated in the public schools, exclusively of the college, is 650; and there are seven private schools. Near the old church are the remains of one of the ancient round towers, of which about 50 feet are still standing. At Inch is a strongly impregnated chalybeate spring which is occasionally resorted to. --See ENNIS.

DROMCOLLOHER. --See DRUMCOLLOHER. DROMCREHY, or DRUMCREELY, a parish, in the barony of BURREN, county of CLARE, and province of MUNSTER, 6 miles (W.) from Burren, on the bay of Ballyvaughan, and on the road from Burren to Kilfenora; containing 1758 inhabitants. It comprises 6186 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of which a considerable portion is rocky mountain pasture, principally devoted to the grazing of sheep. The substratum is limestone, which in various places rises above the surface. Sea-weed, an abundance of which is procured in the bay, is the principal manure. The seats are Harbour Hill, the cottage residence of G. McNamara, Esq.: Sans Souci, of the Rev. J. Westropp; Ballyallaben, of J. O'Brien, Esq.; Mucknish, of J. S. Moran, Esq.; and Newtown Castle, of C. O'Loghlen, Esq. In the little creek of Pouldoody is a small oyster bed, the property of J. S. Moran, Esq., of Mucknish; the oysters taken there have long been celebrated for their delicious flavour, and are always disposed of by the proprietor in presents to his friends. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Kilfenora, united, in 1795, to the rectories and vicarages of Glaninagh, Rathbourney, and Killonoghan, together constituting the union of Dromcrehy and corps of the treasurership of Kilfenora, in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes of the parish amount to £115, and of the entire benefice, to £330. The church is in ruins; that of the union is in the adjoining parish of Rathbourney. In the R. C. divisions the parish is part of the union or district of Glenarragha, or Glynn. A school is aided by the Duke of Buckingham, and another is about to be established. In this parish are the ruins of the castles of Mucknish and Ballynacraggy, and some vestiges of that of Ballyvaughan : at Newtown is a castle of unusual form, consisting of a round tower resting on a square base, and said to have been formerly the residence of the Prince of Burren; it is in good preservation and" inhabited. On the lands called " The Bishop's Quarter" are the remains of a religious house, of which no particulars are recorded. --See BALLYVAUGHAN.

DROMDALEAGUE, or DRIMOLEAGUE, a parish, in the East Division of, the barony of WEST CARBERY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 7 miles (S. W. by S.) from Dunmanway, on the river Hen, and the road from Cork to Bantry; containing 4870 inhabitants. It comprises 17,565 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £5150 per annum; of these 124 are woodland, 8152 arable, 2689 pasture, 4756 barren, and 1844 mountain, waste, and bog. The surface is very uneven, rising into hills of considerable elevation, particularly in the northern part of the parish, which is mostly rocky and bare, though in some places affording herbage for numerous herds of young cattle. Agriculture is in a very backward state. There is an excellent slate quarry, though but little used. Dromdaleague House is the residence of the rector, the Rev. T. Tuckey. Fairs are held on May 20th, September 25th, and October 27th, principally for cattle, sheep, and pigs; and there is a constabulary police station. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cork, united to part of the rectory of Fanlobbus, and constituting the corps of the prebend of Dromdaleague, in the cathedral of St. Finbarr, Cork, and in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £450. The church is a small edifice built in 1790. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of a union or district comprising also the parish of Drinagh, in each of which is a chapel; that of Dromdaleague, a large cruciform edifice, is well built and roofed with slate. About 150 children are educated in the parochial and another school, the former aided by donations from Lord Carbery and the incumbent; and about 130 children are taught in three private schools: there is also a Sunday school. Near Dromdaleague House is a chalybeate spring, similar to that of Dunmanway. Two miles north from the church is Castle Donovan, erected by the head of the sept of that name in the reign of Henry IV.; a lofty square tower, with some other detached portions of the castle, rise in majestic grandeur in a pass between two lofty mountains.

DROMDEELY, or TOMDEELY, a parish, in the barony of LOWER CONNELLO EAST, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 1 1/2 mile (W. by S.) from Askeaton, on the south bank of the Shannon; containing 430 inhabitants. It comprises 1275 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act : the land, which is nearly all arable, is generally light and much intermingled with limestone. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Limerick, and in the gift of the Precentor of St. Mary's cathedral, Limerick; the rectory forms part of the union of Nantinan, and the corps of the precentorship : the tithes amount to £75, of which £50 is payable to the precentor, and £25 to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions, the parish forms part of the union or district of Askeaton. Several islands in the Shannon belong to it; the largest is Greenish (which see), containing 45 acres. There are ruins of the old church, and, not far distant, of Dromdeely castle, a small square tower built by the Mahonys, and which, since the final expulsion of the Geraldines in 1580, has been gradually falling into decay.

DROMDOWNA. --See DRUMDOWNEY.

DROMIN, a parish, in the barony of COSHMA, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 2 miles (S.) from Bruff, on the roads from Limerick to Cork, and from Croom to Kilmallock; containing 1454 inhabitants. This parish comprises 4007 acres, as applotted under the tithe act, the whole of which is fertile and well cultivated: about one-half is in tillage, the remainder being rich meadow and pasture land, on which great numbers of cattle are annually fattened. There is neither waste land nor bog; fuel is consequently scarce, and the poor suffer greatly for want of it. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Limerick, and in the patronage of John Croker, Esq., of Ballynaguard, being usually held with Athlacca; the tithes amount to £305. 9. 5., and the glebe comprises 24 acres. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district comprising also Athlacca, and parts of the parishes of Uregare and Glenogra, and containing two chapels, one in Dromin, and one in Athlacca. There is a private school, in which about 50 boys and 20 girls are taught.

The ruins of Dromin church stand on an eminence near the middle of the parish, not far from which are the remains of Meadstown castle, built by the sept of O'Hanlon, in the 15th century, the walls of which are nearly entire; it was dismantled by order of Cromwell in 1654. A part of this castle is occupied by a farmer, and has acquired some modern celebrity by being the birth-place of Daniel Webb, Esq., author of the " Harmonies of Poetry and Music."

DROMIN, a parish, in the barony of ARDEE, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 1 1/2 mile (N. W.) from Dunleer, near the road from Drogheda to Dundalk; containing 855 inhabitants, of which number, 141 are in the village. According to the Ordnance survey, it comprises 2042 1/4 statute acres. Rathcoole House, the seat of E. Tisdall, Esq., is situated in a neat demesne. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and forms part of the union of Collon: the tithes amount to £204. 9. 7., and the glebe comprises 9 3/4 acres. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Dunleer: the chapel adjoins the village. About 180 children are taught in a school under the patronage of the Rev. W. H. Forster, the incumbent, who pays the master £10 per ann. Contiguous to the village are the remains of the old church, and a churchyard; and near the chapel is a large rath.

DROMINEER, a parish, in the barony of LOWER ORMOND, county of TIPPERARY, and province of MUNSTER, 5 miles (N. W.) from Nenagh, containing 561 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the east by Lough Derg, comprises 1672 statute acres of arable and pasture land. The principal seats are Annabeg, the residence of J. R. Minnitt, Esq.; Shannon Vale, of J. Odell, Esq.; and Hazle Point, of Lieut. P. Bayly, R. N. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Killaloe, and one of the parishes that constitute the union of Ballynaclough : the tithes amount to £110. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Monsea. A school, endowed by the Countess of Farnham with £30 per ann., and an acre and a half of land, affords instruction to about 40 children; and about 80 more are taught in a private school. One of the principal stations of the Inland Navigation Company 011 the Shannon has been established near the castle of Dromineer, which is much dilapidated. Here is a Danish fort, occupying more than two acres, in the ditch surrounding which brass battle-axes, coins, large human bones, &c., have been discovered.

DROMISKIN, a parish, in the barony and county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, on the road from Drogheda to Dundalk; containing, with the post-town of Lurgan-green, 2621 inhabitants, of which number, 377 are in the village. According to the Ordnance survey it comprises 5312 statute acres, mostly of good quality and under an improved system of tillage; there is neither waste land nor bog. The principal seats are Dromisken House, the residence of the Brabazon family; the glebe-house, of the Rev. J. Smythe; and Miltown Grange, of Mrs. Fortescue. The living is a rectory and vicarage, recently separated from Darver, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of the Lord-Primate : the tithes amount to £573. 17. 7. The glebe-house was built in 1766, at an expense of £993. 10. The glebe comprises 21 acres, valued at £63 per annum. The church is a handsome structure, with a tower, rebuilt in 1823 by aid of a loan of £800 from the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divisions the parish is part of the union or district of Darver; the chapel is a neat building, erected in 1823, at a cost of £800. About 400 children are educated in the parochial and another school; the former is aided by the incumbent. The castle of Miltown is a quadrangular building, defended at the angles by round towers, 45 feet high, surmounted by tall graduated battlements. Near the summit of a rising ground, two or three furlongs distant, is an arched subterraneous vault, extending for a considerable length, and supposed to have been a secret entrance to the castle. About 30 yards from the church is the lower part of an ancient round tower, which is surmounted by a modern pointed roof and used for a belfry.

DROMKEATH. --See GREENMOUNT.

DROMKEEN, a parish, in the barony of CLAN-WILLIAM, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 3 miles (N.) from Pallas-Greine, on the road from Limerick to Tipperary; containing 528 inhabitants. It comprises 831 statute acres; the land is in general of good quality; about one-half is under tillage, and the remainder is meadow and pasture. There are some quarries of limestone worked for building, and for agricultural purposes. The principal seats are Williamsfort, the residence of H. Croker, Esq.; and Dromkeen, formerly the residence of the Burgh family, now occupied by the Rev. M. Lloyd. The remains of the ancient mansion show it to have been an extensive and important establishment; and not far distant are the walls of an old church, in which is inserted a tablet recording its repair, in 1717, by the Rev. Richard Burgh, Lord Bishop of Ardagh, of which family it had been the burial-place from time immemorial. The living is a rectory and perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Emly, united at a period prior to any known record to the rectory of Kilcornan, and the rectory and prebend of Ballynaclough in the cathedral church of St. Ailbe, together constituting the archdeaconry of Emly, in the patronage of the Archbishop of Cashel; the perpetual curacy is in the patronage of the Archdeacon. The tithes amount to £36. The lands belonging to the archdeaconry consist of the townlands of Kilcornan and Garry-Phebole, in the parish of Kilcornan, and comprise 323a. 3r. 24p., let on lease at an annual rent of £355. 19. 1.; and the entire revenue is returned by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners at £547. 19. 1. There is no glebe-house. The church is a neat cruciform structure, with an octagonal tower embattled and crowned with pinnacles, erected by a gift of £900 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1831. In the R. C. divisions the parish is partly in the union of Greine, or Pallas-Greine, but chiefly in that of Kilteely; in the latter portion is the chapel, a modem edifice near the parish church.

DROMLEAS. --See DRUMLEASE.

DROMLINE, a parish, in the barony of BUNRATTY, county of CLARE, and province of MUNSTER, 3 miles (S. E.) from Newmarket, on the river Shannon, and on the mail coach road from Limerick to Ennis; containing 1182 inhabitants. It comprises 2365 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and contains a portion of the rich corcass lands on the banks of the Shannon, and about 370 acres of the Bishop's mensal lands. The land is partly in pasture, but chiefly in tillage, and the system of agriculture has been much improved. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Killaloe, and forms the corps of the treasurership of the cathedral of Killaloe, and part of the union of Kilnasoolagh, in the gift of the bishop : the rectory is part of the sinecure union of Tradree, or Tomfinlogh, in the patronage of the Earl of Egremont. The tithes amount to £93. 8. 7 1/4., of which £55. 7. 8 1/4. is payable to the rector, and the remainder to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms a portion of the union or district of Newmarket : the chapel for this part of the district is a large building of modern date, situated near Ballycunneen. At Smithstown are the remains of an old castle, of which no particulars are recorded.

DROMOD, a parish, in the barony of IVERAGH, county of KERRY, and province of MUNSTER, 7 miles (S. by E.) from Cahirciveen, on the river Inny, near its influx into Ballinaskelligs bay; containing 4600 inhabitants. It comprises about 270 " reduced acres," as applotted under the tithe act, consisting chiefly of mountain pasture, waste, and bog, with patches of arable land intermixed, and is principally the property of the Marquess of Lansdowne and the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin. An abundance of sea-weed and sand is procured in Ballinaskelligs bay, and carried up the vale of the Inny for manure; and building stone is found in several places. Lough Currane, an extensive sheet of water about seven miles in circumference, contains several islands, and abounds with brown and white trout and salmon of superior quality. A considerable quantity of the latter is annually sent to London from the fish preserve at Waterville, the residence of James Butler, Esq., near the western extremity of the lake, at its outlet into the bay, and where salmon are sometimes kept for three months in the highest state of perfection. The lake is bounded on the south and east by ranges of lofty mountains, which are said to have been formerly covered with wood. At Kannagh is the seat of the Rev. George Hickson. At the village of Waterville are stations of the constabulary police and coast-guard, and petty sessions for the district are held there. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, episcopally united, previously to any existing record, to the rectory of Prior, and in the patronage of the Crown: the tithes amount to £226, and of the union to £346.19.9. The church is in ruins, but divine service is performed on Sundays in the parochial school-house. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church: the chapel is at Mastergiehy. Nearly 160 children are taught in the parochial and another school; the former is aided by the incumbent; the latter has a large school-house, with residences for the master and mistress, erected partly by a bequest of the late Gen. Count O'Connell, but chiefly at the expense of J. O'Connell, Esq., by whom it is principally supported. There is a private school, in which are 50 children. Among the islands in the lake of Currane is one called Church island, on which are the ruins of an ancient church with a fine Norman arch at the entrance, said to be dedicated to St. Finian : there are also vestiges of some other buildings, and it is supposed that there were originally seven churches on the island, similar to those of Inniscattery in the Shannon and Inniscalthra in Lough Derg. Over the river Inny was formerly a foot-bridge, consisting of a single arch of about 24 feet span and only a yard wide, which from its peculiar form was called the bow bridge : it was approached at each end by steps. There is no tradition as to the period of its erection, but about a century since the high-sheriff of the county held his court on it. At Waterville is a chalybeate spring, somewhat similar in its properties to that of Harrogate.

DROMORE, a market and post-town, a parish, and the seat of a diocese, in the barony of LOWER IVEAGH, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER, 16 miles (W. N. W.) from Downpatrick, and 66 1/2 (N.) from Dublin, on the mail coach road to Belfast, from which it is 14 miles distant; containing 14,912 inhabitants, of which number, 1942 are in the town. Its name, anciently written Druim-mor, signifies " the Great Ridge," Druim being the term applied to a long ridge-shaped hill, such as that above Dromore. Its origin may be traced from St. Colman, who founded here an abbey for Canons Regular, which afterwards became the head of a see, of which he was made the first bishop. This abbey had acquired extensive possessions early in the 10th century, and was frequently plundered by the Danes; it also suffered materially from the continued feuds of the powerful septs of the O'Nials, Magennises, and Macartans. In the 14th century, Sir J. Holt and Sir R. Belknap, being convicted of treason against Rich. II., were condemned to death, but on the intercession of the clergy, were banished for life to the ville of Dromore, in Ireland. At the Reformation the cathedral was in ruins, and the town had greatly participated in the devastations of the preceding periods; in this situation it remained till 1610, when James I. refounded the see by letters patent, rebuilt the cathedral, and gave to the bishop extensive landed possessions in this and several adjoining parishes, which he erected into a manor called " Bailonagalga," corrupted into Ballymaganles, a denomination or townland on which the town stands, with a court leet, twice in the year, a court baron every three weeks for pleas under £5, a free market every Saturday, and two fairs. An episcopal palace was commenced by Bishop Buckworth, but previously to its completion, the war of 1641 broke out, and the cathedral, the unfinished palace, and the town were entirely destroyed by the parliamentarian forces. From this time the town remained in ruins till the Restoration, when Charles II. gave the see in commendam to the celebrated Jeremy Taylor, with Down and Connor, by whom the present church, which is also parochial, was built on the site of the ruined cathedral. In 1688, a skirmish took place near the town between a party of Protestants and some of the Irish adherents of James II.

The town consists of a square and five principal streets, and contained, in 1831, 396 houses. There are two bridges over the Lagan; one, called the Regent's bridge, was built in 1811, and has a tablet inscribed to the late Bishop Percy, recording some of the leading traits of his character. Several bleach-greens were formerly in full work in the vicinity, and among others, that occupied by the late Mr. Stott, whose poetical effusions under the signature of Hafiz, in the provincial newspapers, attracted much attention; but all are now unemployed except one, in the occupation of Thos. McMurray and Co., connected with which is a manufacture of cambrics, and also a linen manufacture, established in 1832; another linen-factory was established at Ashfield, in 1828. The market is on Saturday, and is well supplied with all sorts of provisions, farming stock, and linen; and fairs are held on the first Saturday in March, May 12th, Aug. 6th, Oct. 10th, and Dec. 14th. A constabulary police force is stationed here; courts leet and baron are held for the manor, and petty sessions occasionally. In the bishop is vested, among other privileges, the power of appointing a coroner, escheator, and clerk of the market, and a bailiff.


Arms of the Bishoprick.

The BISHOPRICK of DROMORE is supposed to have been included in that of Armagh till the 13th century, as the only bishops whose names are recorded prior to 1227 are St. Colman, the founder; Malbrigid Mac Cathesaige, and Rigan. About 1487, the Archbishop of Armagh, in a letter to Henry VII., states that the revenues of this see did not exceed £40 per annum Irish, which was less by a third than sterling money, so that none would remain upon the bishoprick. Under the Church Temporalities Act, on this bishoprick or that of Down and Connor becoming vacant, they are to be united, and the remaining bishop is to be Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore; the temporalities of the see will then be vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. It is one of the ten dioceses that form the ecclesiastical province of Armagh, and is 35 1/2 English miles in length by 21 1/2 in breadth, including an estimated area of 155,800 acres, of which 1500 are in Antrim, 10,600 in Armagh, and the remainder in Down. The Earl of Kilmorey claims exemption from the bishop's jurisdiction for his lordship of Newry, as having been extra-episcopal before the Reformation; it belonged to the monastery at Newry, which was granted by Edward VI. to Sir Nicholas Bagnal, one of this nobleman's ancestors; yet in the Regal Visitation book of 1615, Nova Ripa alias Nieu Rie is among the parishes under the jurisdiction of the see of Dromore. In the ecclesiastical court at Newry, marriage licences, probates of wills, &c., are granted by Lord Kilmorey's authority under the ancient monastic seal. The bishop's lands comprise 18,424 statute acres; and the annual revenue of the bishoprick, on an average of three years ending Dec. 31st, 1833, was £4219. 12. The ancient chapter consisted of a dean, archdeacon, and prebendaries, but was remodelled by James I., and made to consist of a dean, archdeacon, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, and the prebendary of Dromaragh, to which offices several rectories and vicarages were annexed. The consistorial court, held at Dromore, consists of a vicar-general, two surrogates, a registrar, apparitor, and two proctors. The diocesan school, which was united with that of Down in 1823, is described in the article on Downpatrick, where it is situated. The total number of parishes in the diocese is 26, exclusively of Newry, and of benefices 25, including 2 perpetual cures, of which the deanery is in the patronage of the Crown; the vicarage of Donaghmore is in the gift of the Lord-Primate, and the vicarage of Aghalee in that of the Marquess of Hertford; the remainder are in the patronage of the Bishop. There is a church in each benefice, and two in Dromaragh and Clonallon; and five other places have been licensed for public worship by the bishop : the number of glebe-houses is 23. In the R. C. divisions the diocese is a separate bishop-rick and one of the nine suffragan to Armagh. It comprises 17 parochial benefices, containing 34 chapels, which are served by 27 clergymen, 17 of whom, including the bishop, are parish priests, and 10 are coadjutors or curates. The bishop's parish is Newry, where he resides, and in which is a handsome cathedral.

The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 20,488 1/4 statute acres, of which 18,212 are applotted under the tithe act. The lands are generally of good quality, and almost all are either under tillage or in pasture, and in a tolerable state of cultivation, or enclosed within demesnes : there is not more bog than is requisite to furnish a supply of fuel. Not far from the town is the episcopal palace, the residence of the Lord Bishop, the grounds of which were richly planted by Bishop Percy, who also clothed the surrounding hills with the flourishing woods that now ornament them : Shenstone's celebrated scat at Leasowes was the model on which he designed his improvements : St. Colman's well is in the demesne. Near the town also is Gill Hall Castle, the mansion and demesne of the Earl of Clanwilliam. This extensive property was originally granted by Charles II. to Alderman Hawkins, who, during the civil war, procured food, raiment, and lodging, in London, for 5000 Irish Protestants who had been driven from their country, and by his exertions £30,000, raised by subscription in England, was expended in clothing and provisions, which were sent over to Ireland for such as could not effect their escape. With the aid of four other gentlemen, he also raised a sum of £45,000 for the help of the distressed Irish both at home and in England; he afterwards resided for some time in Ireland, where he became possessed of the town of Rathfriland, forfeited with other property by the Magennisses, Lords of Iveagh, in the war of 1641. The other seats are Islanderry House, the residence of J. G. Waddell, Esq.; Altafort, of W. C. Heron, Esq.; Clanmurry, of W. McClelland, Esq.; the Villa, of J. Vaughan, Esq.; Quilly House, of R. Vaughan, Esq.; and Islanderry, of S. Fivey, Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, forming the corps of the treasurership in the cathedral church of Christ the Redeemer, Dromore, in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £910; there is neither glebe-house nor glebe. The church, situated on the north bank of the Lagan, close to the town, is a plain neat edifice, and was constituted the cathedral church by act of the 21st of George II.; it was thoroughly repaired, enlarged, and modernised in 1808, when the tower was taken down, and the original oaken roof replaced with one of slate, chiefly at the expense of Bishop Percy : the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £145 for its repair. Beneath the communion table is a vault, in which Dr. Taylor and two of his successors are interred, but the only inscription is on a small mural tablet to Bishop Percy, author of the key to the New Testament, translator of the Northern Antiquities, and editor of the " Reliques of Ancient English Poetry," who presided over the see from 1782 to 1811 : his remains are deposited in a vault in the transept added to the cathedral, where also are interred those of Mrs. Percy, the "Nancy," to whom his beautiful ballad is addressed. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parish of Garvaghy, in each of which is a chapel. There are places of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster and the Remonstrant Synod, both of the first class, and for Wesleyan Methodists. Nearly 1500 children are educated in the public schools of the parish, of which one is chiefly supported by Mrs. Saurin, and one by Mr. Douglass; and there are also eight private schools, in which are about 430 children, and twelve Sunday schools. Near the church are two good houses for clergymen's widows, erected in 1729, and endowed by the bishop and clergy of the diocese. The Countess of Clanwilliam, who died in 1817, bequeathed to the poor a sum now producing £10. 3., and a further sum to the dispensary, producing £3. 7. per annum. Near the town are the remains of an ancient castle, built by William Worsley, son-in-law to Bishop Tod, for the bishop's protection, being one of the conditions on which a considerable extent of the see lands was alienated to Worsley, and which led to the act for restraining bishops from leasing lands beyond a term of 21 years. At the eastern extremity of the town is a remarkable earthwork, called the " Great Fort" (or " folkmote," as such works are called by Spenser,) : it has a treble fosse on the north or land side, and a strong out-post to the south, continued in a regular glacis to the water's edge; and near Gill Hall is a fort of different character, and smaller, evidently erected to defend the pass of the river. In 1817 a cavern was discovered near the castle, hewn out of the solid rock, of rectangular form, and about 4 1/2 feet high, 24 feet long, and 2 1/2 feet wide; on the floor were several broken urns of coarse brown clay, charcoal, and calcined human bones. At Islanderry was found a canoe cut out of a solid oak, and near it a pair of oars. Celts, spear and arrow-heads of flint, with other ancient weapons of stone, brass, and bronze, have been found at Skeogh, among which were stone hatchets; many were in the museum of Bishop Percy, and many are now in the possession of Mr. Welsh, of Dromore. During the prelacy of Bishop Percy, a large and very perfect skeleton of an elk was found in one of the adjacent bogs; the distance between the tips of the horns was 10 feet 3 inches; it was placed in the bishop's palace, where it was carefully preserved. The valuable library belonging to Bishop Percy was purchased, after his death, by the Earl of Caledon, for £1000. Dromore formerly gave the title of Viscount to the Farnshaw family.

DROMORE, a parish, in the barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 8 miles (S. W.) from Omagh, on the road from that place to Enniskillen; containing 10,422 inhabitants. In the war of 1641 the insurgents were defeated in some skirmishes near this place, but revenged themselves by burning the church and killing many of the inhabitants, when the English were obliged to retire. According to the Ordnance survey, it contains 25,492 1/2 statute acres, the greater part of which is productive, but there are more than 4000 acres of bog and mountain land. The canal, by which it is intended to connect Loughs Foyle and Erne, will pass through this parish. The village, which comprises about 100 thatched houses, is a constabulary police station, and has a penny post to Omagh, and a dispensary. Fairs are held for farming stock on Feb. 1st, March 17th, Easter-Monday, Whit-Monday, May 1st, June 24th, Aug. 1st, Sept. 29th, Nov. 1st and 26th, and Dec. 26th. The principal seats are Lake-mount, the residence of J. Hamilton, Esq.; Fairy Hill, of A. Sproule, Esq.; and the Glebe-house, of the Rev. H. Lucas St. George. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes amount to £694. 1. 4. The glebe-house has been lately erected, and the glebe, comprises 589 acres. The church is a small plain building, erected in 1694. The R. C. parish is coextensive with that of the Established Church, and has a chapel in the village. At Gardrum is a Presbyterian meeting-house in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the first class; and at Toghardoo is a place of worship for Methodists. There are four public schools, in which about 450 children are educated; and sixteen private schools, in which are about 850 children; also a Sunday school. Here are some large and perfect forts; and it is stated that St. Patrick founded a nunnery here for St. Certumbria, the first Irish female who received the veil from his hands. At Kildrum was a religious house or church, which is supposed to have been the parochial church; but no vestige of the building can be traced, and the burial-ground is partially cultivated. The townlands of Shamragh and Agherdurlagh are called abbey lands, and are tithe-free. DROMORE-WEST, a village and post-town, in the parish of KILMACSHALGAN, barony of TYRERAGH, county of SLIGO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 18 miles (W.S.W.) from Sligo, and 113 (N. N. W.) from Dublin, on the mail coach road from Sligo to Ballina; containing 109 inhabitants. It consists of about 20 houses, and in the vicinity are several gentlemen's residences, of which Dromore House is the seat of John Fenton, Esq. Fairs are held on the first Thursday in Jan., June 6th, and Dec. 29th. A revenue police force has been stationed here, and there is a R. C. chapel.

DROMSPERANE. --See DROM.

DROMYN. --See DROMIN.

DROUMTARIFFE, or DRUMTARIFF, a parish, in the barony of DUHALLOW, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 2 1/2 miles (S. W. by S.) from Kanturk, on the river Blackwater, and on the new government road from Roskeen bridge to Castle Island; containing 5926 inhabitants. It comprises 14,971 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £9007. 17. 6 1/2. per annum : of which about 3000 acres consist of coarse mountain pasture and bog. The arable land is of middling quality. Since the construction of the new government roads, lime has been extensively used as manure, and the state of agriculture greatly improved. The extensive and valuable collieries of Dromagh and Disert. the property of N. Leader, Esq., afford constant employment to a considerable number of persons. Dromagh colliery has been worked for nearly a century. Within the last fifteen years a large capital has been expended by the late N. P. Leader, Esq., on useful works connected with the collieries, which are now in excellent order, and capable of supplying an extensive demand. Among other improvements, he erected a large boulting-mill, near the new bridge over the river Allua, which, in compliment to him, has been named Leader's bridge. At Clonbanin, Dominagh, and Coolclough are other collieries worked by different proprietors. About forty years since, it was contemplated to open a navigable communication between these collieries and the sea at Youghal, by means of a canal cut through the vale of the Blackwater; and part of the line between this place and Mallow, to the extent of 3 1/2 miles, was actually cut, and still remains visible. A railroad in the same direction has also been suggested, but no steps have yet been taken for accomplishing that object. Fairs are held at Dromagh on the 20th of May, Aug., and Nov., for general farming stock. The gentlemen's seats are Nashville, the residence of N. Leader, Esq.; Minchill, of J. C.Wallace, Esq.; and the Glebe-house, of the Rev. H. Bevan. Fort Grady, so called from an ancient rath or fort in its vicinity, and formerly the residence of the father of Viscount Guillamore, is now occupied as a farm-house. The parish is in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe; the rectory is impropriate in Lord Lisle; the vicarage was united, in 1760, to those of Cullen and Kilmeen, forming the union of Droumtariffe, in the gift of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £384. 12. 3 3/4., of which £184. 12. 3 3/4. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar : the entire tithes of the benefice amount to £720. The glebe-house is a neat and commodious building, erected in 1825, by aid of a gift of £400 and a loan of £400 from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises about 24 statute acres. The old church was burnt by Lord Broghill's troops, in 1652; the present church, at Dromagh, is a neat edifice, of hewn stone, with a square pinnacled tower, erected in 1822, by aid of a gift of £300 and a loan of £300 from the same Board. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms the principal part of the district called Coolclough, which also includes parts of the parishes of Cullen and Kilmeen. The chapel, near Dromagh, is a spacious and handsome structure, originally built on a site presented by the late Mr. Leader, who also contributed £150 towards the building; it has been recently rebuilt, in the Gothic style, under the superintendence of the Rev. J. Barry, P. P., and has now a handsome front of hewn limestone, with a spire rising 80 feet from the ground. The chapel at Derrinagree is an old building. There are three private schools, in which about 200 children are educated. In the midst of the collieries is the ancient Castle of Dromagh, once the chief residence of the O'Keefes, consisting of a square enclosure flanked by four circular towers: it is now the property of Mr. Leader, by whose father one of the towers has been raised and fitted up, and part of the enclosure converted into offices. The battle fought, in 1652, at Knockbrack, in the vicinity, between the forces of Lord Broghill and those of Lord Muskerry, is described under the head of Clonmeen, and the geological features of the district under that of the county of Cork.

DRUM, or DRUMMONAHAN, a parish, in the barony of CARRA, county of MAYO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 4 miles (S.) from Castlebar, on the mail coach road to Hollymount; containing 3497 inhabitants. A battle took place here, during the disturbances of 1798, between the English troops and a party of French who had landed at Kilcummin, and taken possession of the mansion and demesne of Ballinafad. The land is of good quality, and principally under tillage, but the system of agriculture is unimproved, and spade husbandry generally prevalent. There is a proportionate quantity of bog, and limestone is quarried both for building and for burning into lime. There are indications of iron ore but none has been worked. Great tracts of valuable grazing land might be obtained by draining the neighbouring bogs, and deepening the channel of the river. Ballinafad, the seat of Maurice Blake, Esq., is situated in a large and richly planted demesne; and Bridge-mount, the residence of Joseph Acton, Esq., is also in the parish. Besides the fairs at Belcarra, others are held at Donomona on May 26th and Oct. 17th. The parish is in the diocese of Tuam, and is a rectory, entirely appropriate to the vicars choral of the cathedral of Christ-Church, Dublin : the tithes amount to £160. The glebe-house was built in 1821, by aid of a gift of £337 and a loan of £120 from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises 17 acres. The church, which serves also for the appropriate parishes of Towaghty and Ballintobber, is a handsome edifice, in the Grecian style, erected by a loan of £923 from the same Board in 1830. The duty is performed by the curate of the adjoining parish of Balla. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Balla : the chapel, a large slated building, is at Belcarra. A school at Belcarra, in which are about 40 boys and 40 girls, is endowed with a house and two acres of land, given to it by the late Col. Cuffe; and there are two private schools in that village, in which are about 130 boys and 40 girls. At Geesedon, on the river Miranda, which abounds with pike, are an ancient burial-ground and the ruins of an old castle; and at Donomona are the remains of a castle, which was the ancient family seat of the Blakes, now of Ballinafad. --See BELCARRA.

DRUM, a market-town, in the parish of CURRIN, barony of DARTRY, county of MONAGHAN, and province of ULSTER, 2 1/2 miles (N.) from Cootehill, on the road to Clones, from both of which it has a penny-post : the population is returned with the parish. It occupies rather an elevated situation near Leysborough lake. In the vicinity is a quarry, from which the stone used in building the chapel of ease was obtained. It is a constabulary police station, and has fairs on the first Tuesday in every month. A chapel of ease to Currin church was built by a grant of £830 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1828. Here are two Presbyterian meeting-houses, a school, and a dispensary. --See CURRIN.

DRUM, or EDARDDRUIM, a parish, in the barony of ATHLONE, county of ROSCOMMON, and province of CONNAUGHT, 4 miles (S. W.) from Athlone, on the river Shannon, and on the road to Ballinasloe; containing 4957 inhabitants. An abbey was founded hero by St. Diradius, or Deoradius, brother of St. Canoc, about the close of the fifth century : and in the retreat of the army of St. Ruth from Aughrim, this is thought to have been the spot where a battle was fought. The parish contains 8965 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: the land, in general very poor, is chiefly under tillage; there is still a considerable quantity of bog, though much has been reclaimed. The seats are Thomas-town Park, the residence of Edmond H. Naghten, Esq.; Ardkenan, of Edward Naghten, Esq.; Johnstown, of J. Dillon, Esq., now occupied by Mr. Kelly; Summer Hill, of J. Gaynor, Esq.; and White House, of Mrs. Reilly. There is a constabulary police station at Cranough. It is in the diocese of Tuam; the rectory is partly impropriate in the Incorporated Society; the vicarage is episcopally united to that of Moore. The tithes amount to £180, one-half payable to the impropriators, and the other to the vicar. There is no church. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of St. Peter's, Athlone, in the diocese of Elphin : the chapel is in the old churchyard, in which are the ruins of a chapel, which was dedicated to St. Mary, and is said to have been erected by one of the O'Naghtens, in 550. About 200 children are taught in four private schools.

DRUMACHOSE, a parish, in the barony of KENAUGHT, county of LONDONDERRY, and province of ULSTER, on the river Roe, and on the road from Londonderry to Coleraine; containing, with the market and post-town of Newtown-Limavady, 5280 inhabitants. The greater part of this parish formed a portion of the grant made to the Haberdashers' Company, in the reign of James I.; part of it was given by the same monarch to Sir T. Phillips, upon which he built a castle, and founded the town of Newtown-Limavady; and part was confirmed to the see of Derry. In the war of 1641 it was the scene of much calamitous hostility, and the inhabitants were at length driven to seek an asylum in Derry, under protection of Col. Mervyn, who finally routed the Irish. In 1688 the town was besieged, and the inhabitants again retired to Derry; and on the retreat of the army of James II., in 1689, it was wasted with fire and sword. The parish, according to the Ordnance survey, comprises 11,683 statute acres (including 24 3/4 under water), of which 11,082 are applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £6032 per ann. Part of the land is very fertile and extremely well cultivated, particularly around Fruit Hill, Streeve, and other neighbouring places, and that portion towards the banks of the Roe is rich gravelly loam, well sheltered. On the mountain range of Cedy, the eastern limit of the parish, at the very summit, are about 1100 acres of mountain pasture. Here is abundance of excellent freestone and limestone, both of which are extensively worked, and there are indications of coal in several parts. The inhabitants combine the weaving of linen cloth with agricultural pursuits. There are two distilleries and a brewery, and two bleach-greens, one only of which is in full operation; there are also several corn, flour, and flax-mills. The scenery in various parts is highly interesting, the woods and plantations are thriving, and the country is ornamented with many handsome houses, of which the principal are Fruit Hill, the residence of Marcus McCausland, Esq.; Streeve Hill, of Marcus Gage, Esq.; Roe House, of W. Moody, Esq.; the Lodge, of R. Conn, Esq.; Bridge House, of D. Cather, Esq.; and the glebe-house, of the Rev. J. Olpherts. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Derry, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the tithes amount to £424. 12. 3 3/4. The glebe-house was erected in 1816 on a glebe of 6 1/2 acres purchased by the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe, of which the greater part is at Gortygarn, 2 miles distant, comprises 112a. 2r. 15p. of arable land. The church, a handsome Grecian structure with a square tower, was erected, in 1750, upon the site of a former edifice at Newtown; and a north aisle was added in 1825 by aid of a loan of £200 from the late Board. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, called Newtown-Limavady, comprising the parishes of Drumachose, Balteagh, Tamlaghtfinlagan, and parts of Aghanloo and Bovevagh, and containing three chapels, of which one is at Roe-mills, in this parish. There are places of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, the Seceding Synod, and the Remonstrant Synod, all of the second class; and also for Covenanters, original Burghers, and Wesleyan Methodists. About 360 children are taught in eight public schools, of which one is supported by Erasmus Smith's trustees and endowed with three acres of glebe, one chiefly by the rector, a female school built and supported by Mrs. McCausland, a female work school built and supported by Mrs. Olpherts, and a school supported by Mr. McCausland : there are also seven private and four Sunday schools. Near Fruit Hill are the extensive and beautiful ruins of the ancient church; and at the Dog-Leap is the site of the ancient castle of the powerful sept of O'Cahan.

DRUMBALLYRONEY, a parish, in the barony of UPPER IVEAGH, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER; on the road from Newry to Downpatrick; containing, with a part of the market and post-town of Rathfriland, 8544 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 12,338 1/2 statute acres, of which 1896 are bog, 80 mountain and water, and 10,445 are applotted under the tithe act, all of which is arable or pasture land in excellent cultivation. Here is a lake, called Lough Ballyroney, in the centre of which is a small island. The manufacture of linen and drugget is extensively carried on. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Dromore, united from time immemorial to that of Drumgooland, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is part of the corps of the deanery of Dromore. The tithes amount to £482, of which £321. 6. 8. is payable to the dean, and the remainder to the vicar; the gross tithes of the benefice amount to £630. 9. 9. The church, a small neat edifice with a tower, was erected by aid of a gift of £500, in 1800, from the late Board of First Fruits. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £200, and a loan of £300, in 1821, from the same Board : the glebe, given by the Countess of Clanwilliam in 1820, comprises 20 acres, subject to a rent of 15s. per acre. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union of Annaghlone, and has a small chapel near the Diamond. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians of the first class, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, and one for Covenanters. About 170 children are taught in two public schools, and there are eight private and four Sunday schools. The fine ruin of Seafin castle, which was for ages the strong hold of the Magennises, is situated on the Bann; and there are several other fortresses.

DRUMBANAGHER. --See KILLEVEY.

DRUMBEG, a parish, partly in the barony of UPPER BELFAST, county of ANTRIM, but chiefly in that of UPPER CASTLEREAGH, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER, 3/4 of a mile (N. E.) from Lisburn, on the road to Belfast; containing 2883 inhabitants. According to the Ordnance survey it comprised 2704 3/4 statute acres, of which 1186 3/4 were in Down, and 1518 in Antrim; of these, 2627 were applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £3367 per ann. : but a portion of the parish of Drumboe having been lately added to it under the Church Temporalities' Act, it now comprises 6868 acres. The soil differs greatly in quality, from a sandy loam to a stiff clay, but is very fertile. The Lagan navigation from Belfast to Lough Neagh passes through the parish. The principal seats, besides those noticed under the head of Dunmurry (which see), are Glenburn, the residence of F. Crossley, Esq.; Wilmont, unoccupied; Finaghey, of J. Charley, Esq.; Larkfield, of Henderson Black, Esq.; Drumbeg Rectory, of the Rev. J. L. M. Scott; Drum House, of W. H. Smyth, Esq.; and Belvidere Cottage, a neat and commodious residence, lately built on the . property of A. Durham, Esq. Ballydrain, the beautiful demesne of Hugh Montgomery, Esq., though not in this parish, is within 200 yards of the church, and with the adjoining grounds of Lakefield, the residence of Miss Richardson, and Lismoyne, of Mrs. Callwell, presents one of the finest landscapes in the neighbourhood of Belfast. A court leet and court baron are held every third week at Four Land Ends, for the manor of Drumbracklin, by a seneschal appointed by Narcissus Batt, Esq., lord of the manor, with jurisdiction for the recovery of debts under £20, extending over the townlands of Doneight and Lisnoe in the parish of Hillsborough, Ballyaulis in this parish, and Ballycairn, Ballylesson, Molough, and Knockbreccan in Drumboe. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Down, and in the gift of the Bishop; a part of the rectorial tithes is impropriate in W. Charley, A. Durham, and Narcissus Batt, Esqrs., as lessees under the Marquess of Donegal. The tithes now amount to £336. 16. 6., of which £94. 13. 65. is payable to the impropriators, and the remainder to the incumbent: the glebe-house was built in 1826, by a gift of £415 and a loan of £46 (British) from the late Board of First Fruits, exclusively of £450 expended by the incumbent in building and improvements; the glebe comprises eight statute acres. The church was rebuilt by subscription in 1795, by aid of a gift of £461 (British) from the same Board : it has a tower surmounted by a spire, which having been blown down in 1831, was rebuilt at the expense of J. Charley, Esq. About 300 children are educated in five public schools, two of which are on Erasmus Smith's foundation. DRUMBOE, a parish, in the barony of UPPER CASTLEREAGH, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER, 4 miles (N. E.) from Lisburn, on the river Lagan, and on the old road to Belfast; containing 6429 inhabitants. Twelve townlands of the ancient parish having been lately annexed to Drumbeg, it now comprises 9629 statute acres, chiefly arable, with a very small proportion of woodland, and, except lands belonging to gentlemen who farm their own property, in a very indifferent state of cultivation, though lately much improved : there is a large tract of bog. The weaving of cotton is carried on for the manufacturers of Belfast; and at Edenderry is a bleachgreen. The Lagan opens a communication with Belfast, Lisburn, and Lough Neagh. The principal seats are Edenderry, the residence of W. Russel, Esq.; Edenderry House, of C. Dunlop, Esq.; Belvidere, of A. Durham, Esq.; New Grove, of J. Russel, Esq.; and the elegant lodge and greater part of the demesne of Purdysburn, the splendid residence of Narcissus Batt, Esq. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Down, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the tithes amount to £517. The glebe-house was built in 1816, by a gift of £415 (British), and a loan of £46, from the late Board of First Fruits, exclusively of £200 expended by the incumbent: the glebe comprises 6 1/2 acres. The church, a handsome Grecian edifice with a lofty tower surmounted by a copper dome, was erected, in 1788, by subscription, aided by a grant of £500 from the same Board, a donation of 150 guineas from Mr. Hull, of Belvidere, and of 100 guineas from the Marquess of Downshire. There are places of worship for Presbyterians, Independents, and Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists. Nearly 600 children are educated in the several public schools of the parish; that at Purdysurn was built at the expense of Mr. Batt, who supports the school and also provides residences for the master and mistress, who have about 150 pupils; and the master of a school at Ballymacbrennard receives £20 per annum from the trustees of Erasmus Smith's fund, and has an acre of land given by the Marquess of Downshire. There are also six private schools, in which are about 400 children. Not far from the church is the Giant's Ring, a circular entrenchment enclosing more than S plantation acres, perfectly level; in the centre of the enclosure is a large cromlech, or Druids' altar, consisting of seven upright stones supporting a table stone of nearly circular form and sloping towards the east: the land is now let, and the earth-work is being removed for the purpose of cultivation. In the burial-ground close to the supposed site of the ancient church was an abbey, said to have been founded by St. Patrick, and of which St. Mochumna was the first abbot; there is also an ancient round tower. In the parish are eight large raths, the most conspicuous of which, on the summit of Tullyard, is constructed of earth, loose stones, and vitrified substances, similar to the cairns of Scotland. It is supposed by some writers that there was anciently a fortified town here.

DRUMBOE. --See DUNBOE, county of LONDONDERRY.

DRUMCANNON, a parish, in the barony of MIDDLETHIRD, county of WATERFORD, and province of MUNSTER, on the high road from Waterford to Tramore; containing, with the post-town of Tramore, 4835 inhabitants. It is situated on the northern and western shores of the bay of Tramore, and comprises 7137 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The surface is rather undulating, and rises into two hills of considerable elevation, called Carriglong and Pickardstown. The land, notwithstanding its exposure to the sea, is productive, and the system of agriculture is improving; there is a considerable portion of peat bog, and at Pickardstown is a quarry of flagstone, but not worked to any great extent. At the head of the bay of Tramore is a tract of about 1000 plantation acres, called the Back Strand; it is partly defended from the encroachment of the sea by a bar raised by the opposing influences of the tide and the land streams, and stretching from Newtown Head towards Brownstown Head, to the latter of which it is in contemplation to extend it by an artificial embankment. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Waterford, partly impropriate in the Misses Hardy, and in the patronage of the Archbishop of Cashel: the tithes amount to £600, of which, £70 is payable to the impropriators and the remainder to the incumbent. The glebe-house was built at the same time, and both by aid of a gift of £250, and a loan of £938, from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church, situated in Tramore, was built in 1809; it is a small edifice, and application has been made for its enlargement. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, called Tramore, and comprising also the parish of Corbally; the chapel is at Tramore, and there is another in Corbally. Here is a school endowed with £10 per ann. by the late Mrs. Quinn and £3 from R. P. Ronayne, Esq.; also a school supported by local subscriptions : in these are about 60 boys and 70 girls; and there are also three private schools, in which are about 80 boys and 20 girls, and a Sunday school. An alms-house for 12 poor men and 12 women has been founded at Tramore, under the will of the late Mrs. Catherine Walsh, of that town; and the late J. Power, Esq., of Newtown, bequeathed property amounting to about £3000 for charitable uses, which has not yet been rendered available.

DRUMCAR, a parish, in the barony of ARDEE, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 1 1/2 mile (N. by E.) from Dunleer, on the river Glyde, and near the high road from Dublin to Belfast; containing 1634 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 4041 1/2 statute acres, of which, 3712 are applotted under the tithe act, and 18 1/2 are in the river Glyde. The soil is fertile and the lands are mostly under tillage; the system of agriculture is in a highly improved state; there is neither waste land nor bog. Two streams, abounding with salmon and trout, unite at a bridge, and form what is thence called the river of Drumcar. Drumcar, the seat of J. McClintock, Esq., is an elegant mansion, beautifully situated in an extensive and richly wooded demesne, commanding a fine view of the Carlingford and Mourne mountains and the sea; and at Annagasson is the residence of R. Thompson, Esq., pleasantly situated on the sea shore. Petty sessions are held every fortnight, near the seat of Drumcar. The parish is in the diocese of Armagh; the rectory is impropriate in the Lord-Primate, having been purchased by Primate Marsh, for the endowment of such clergyman as his lordship may appoint to it, and subject to the payment of £50 per annum to the perpetual curate of Moylary under certain provisions of the testator's will. The vicarage forms part of the union of Dunleer. The tithes amount to £343, of which £292 is payable to the lord-primate and £51 to the vicar; the glebe comprises 11 acres. The ruins of the parish church form an interesting relic on the" demesne of Mr. McClintock; the Protestant parishioners attend the church at Dunleer, and divine service is performed every Sunday evening by the curate in the school-room at Drumcar; the old churchyard is still used as a burial-ground. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Dysart : there is no regular chapel, but a house has been given to the priest, in which he officiates. A school is supported by Mr. and Lady McClintock, who pay a master for teaching more than 100 children, and other expenses, amounting to £50 per annum. A school is also supported by Mr. Thompson, in which 40 children are instructed. A religious house appears to have existed here at a very early period.

DRUMCLIFFE, a parish, in the Lower half-barony of CARBERY, county of SLIGO, and province of CON-NAUGHT, 3 1/4 miles (N. N. W.) from Sligo, on the mail coach road to Londonderry, through Ballyshannon; containing 13,956 inhabitants. This place anciently called Cnoc na teagh, was once a large town. A monastery was founded here, in 590, by St. Columba, who appointed his disciple, St. Thorian, or Mothorian, abbot, and to his office episcopal jurisdiction was united : the see was subsequently united to Elphin. St. Torannan, a succeeding abbot, who died in 921, was afterwards regarded as the patron saint of the place. A religious house was also founded at Cailleavinde by St. Fintan, a disciple of St. Columb. The parish comprises 17,038 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The land is principally light and under tillage, and there is abundance of bog. On the north-west side of Magherow lies the Serpent Rock, so called from the great variety of its curious fossils, representing serpents, fishes, &c. Here are quarries of limestone; and at Glencar is a remarkable waterfall, 300 feet high; but when the wind is south, the water is prevented from descending. At Raughley is a good harbour, designed by Mr. Nimmo, and executed at the joint expense of the Government and Sir R. G. Booth, Bart. Petty sessions are held at Summerhill every Wednesday; and a manor court is held at Ardharman, under Sir R. G. Booth's patent. The principal seats are Lissadell, the residence of Sir R. Gore Booth, Bart.; Craig House, of the Hon. R. King; Dunally, of Col. Parke; Ellen-villa, of J. C. Martin, Esq.; Summerhill, of R. Irwin, Esq.; Elsinore, of R. Young, Esq.; Mount Shannon, of H. H. Slade, Esq.; Cottage,of J. Gethin, Esq.; Willoughbrook, of W. Ormsby Gore, Esq.; and Millbrook, of J. Simpson, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Elphin, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is impropriate in Owen Wynne, Esq. The tithes amount to £720, of which half is paid to the impropriator and half to the vicar. The glebe-house stands on a glebe of 40 acres. The church is a handsome building in the Gothic style, with a square tower ornamented with minarets, erected by aid of a loan of £600, in 1809, from the late Board of First Fruits, on part of the site of the ancient abbey : the church service is also performed every Sunday in the school-house at Lissadell. In the R. C. divisions this parish is divided into two parts, Drumcliffe and Rathcormac : and has three chapels. There is a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists at Drum, and another at Ballinford; and also one for Primitive Methodists. Schools at Milltown and Castletown are supported by Sir R. G. Booth, Bart.; at Drum, by J. Wynne, Esq.; and there are two other public schools. In these about 500 children are educated, and in twelve private schools about 700 are taught; there are also four Sunday schools. There are some remains of the monastic buildings, and close to the shore are the ruins of the ancient castle of the Gore family, which settled here in the reign of William. III. : there is also a portion of an ancient round tower; and near the church are two remarkable crosses, one handsomely carved, the other mutilated. In the demesne of Summerhill is an extensive Danish fort, called Lisnalwray; and, near Lissadell demesne, a cromlech weighing several tons. There are also many ancient forts, one having a chamber under ground; and at Raughley are chalybeate springs. --See CARNEY.

DRUMCOLLOHER, a parish, in the barony of UPPER CONNELLO EAST, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 9 miles (S.W.) from Charleville, on the road to Newcastle : the population of the village, in 1831, was 658; the remaining part of the parish is returned with Corcomohide. It comprises 2908 1/4 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act; about one-fourth is under tillage, producing excellent crops, and the remainder is meadow and pasture land; the hills are cultivated nearly to their summits, and there is neither waste land nor bog : they are on the south side of the village, forming a natural boundary between the counties of Limerick and Cork, and are supposed to contain three several strata of coal, but no attempt has been yet made to work them. The general substratum of the parish is limestone, and several quarries have been opened in various parts for agricultural purposes and for building. The village is a constabulary police station, and has a daily penny post to Charleville. Fairs are held on March 15th, May 2nd, June l7th, Aug. 24th, Nov. 5th, and Dec. 3rd; they are in general large and well attended. The parish is in the diocese of Limerick; the rectory is appropriate to the vicars choral of the cathedral church of St. Mary, Limerick; and the vicarage forms part of the union or parish of Corcomohide, with which the tithes are returned. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parishes of Killaliathan and Cloncrew, and part of Nonegay; the chapel is a small plain edifice. A male and female school are supported by L. White and R. J. Stevelly, Esqrs., under the superintendence of the vicar. Not far from the village are the ruins of the old parish church, which was a small and very ancient edifice.

DRUMCOLLUM, a parish, in the barony of TIRAGHRILL, county of SLIGO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 10 miles (N. by W.) from Boyle, on the road to Sligo; containing 1652 inhabitants. It comprises 2807 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: the soil is generally good, but there is much marsh and bog. Here is Lisconney, the residence of B. O. Cogan, Esq. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Elphin, forming part of the union of Boyle; the rectory is appropriate to the prebend of Kilmacallane in Elphin cathedral. The tithes amount to £83. 1. 65 1/2., which are paid to the incumbent of Boyle, who is also prebendary of Kilmacallane. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Riverstown. About 50 children are educated in a public school. There is a burial-place, in which are the ruins of a church, said to have been founded by St. Columb.

DRUMCONDRA. --See CLONTURK.

DRUMCONRA, or DRUMCONRATH, a parish, in the barony of LOWER SLANE, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (W. S. W.) from Ardee, on the mail road from Dublin to Londonderry; containing 2967 inhabitants, of which number, 420 were in the village. This place was the scene of an action, in 1539, between the English of the Pale and the northern Irish under O'Nial. A considerable party of the latter, detached from the main army, had taken an advantageous position at Bellahoe, in order to oppose the passage of the river by the Lord-Deputy Grey and his forces, who were inarching to attack the insurgents, but after an obstinate conflict, the English threw them into disorder; and their commander being killed, they retreated in dismay, and communicating the panic to the main body, the whole army of the Irish fled in every direction with so much precipitation, that 400 only of their forces fell in the pursuit. This victory broke up the northern confederacy, which had been raised to oppose the progress of the Reformation in Ireland. The parish comprises 7566 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: about 1500 are good grazing land, 300 bog, and the remainder, with the exception of a small quantity of waste land, is under tillage; the soil is fertile, the system of agriculture improved, and the parish generally in a good state of cultivation. There are several quarries of limestone, and a good quarry of building stone near the village; and on the townland of Kellystown, near Bella-hoe, is a quarry of white marble, which is not worked at present. Aclare, the seat of H. Corbet Singleton, Esq., is pleasantly situated in a demesne comprising about 325 statute acres, one-fourth of which is underwood. Aclare Lodge is the neat residence of G. Moore Adams, Esq., and Newstone, the property of A. Forbes, Esq. A large portion of the lake of Bellahoe, which is a mile and a half in length and half a mile in breadth, and in which are two picturesque islands, is within the limits of the parish. The village is a constabulary police station, and has a penny post to Ardee.

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Meath, and in the patronage of the Crown : the tithes amount to £507. 13. 10 1/4.; the glebe-house has seven acres of glebe attached to it. The church, a plain neat structure, was erected in 1766. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £261 for its repair. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also Ardagh and Loughbraccan. The chapel, a spacious modern building, is situated near the village. In the parochial school are about 20 boys and 20 girls; and there are two private schools, in which are about 50 boys and 30 girls. Alderman W. Forbes bequeathed to the poor a rent-charge of £10 late currency, secured on the Newstone estate. Near the village is a large rath, commanding a very extensive view of the bay of Dundalk, with the several adjacent counties; it has been recently planted by H. C. Singleton, Esq., and forms a prominent and pleasing feature in the scenery of the place.

DRUMCREE, a parish, in the barony of O'NEILLAND WEST, county of ARMAGH, and province of ULSTER; " containing, with the post-town and district parish of Portadown, 12,355 inhabitants. According to the Ordnance survey, it comprises 13,385 3/4 statute acres : there is a very large tract of bog, most of which is valuable. The weaving of linen and cotton is carried on to a great extent. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of the Lord-Primate : the tithes amount to £650. A large and handsome glebe-house was erected by the Rev, C. Alexander, in 1828, aided by a gift of £100 from the late Board of First Fruits : the glebe comprises 567 acres, of which 93 are bog. The parish church is a large ancient building, with a tower and spire; and a chapel of ease was built at Portadown, in 1826. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and has a small chapel at Drumcree. There are places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists at Portadown and Scotch-street, and for Primitive Methodists at Derryanville, Scotch-street, and Drumnakelly. Two large and handsome schools have been erected and endowed by the Rev. C. Alexander, who also principally supports three others. The school at Mullantine was built and is supported by Lady Mandeville; and at Ballyworken, Sir F. W. Macnaghten, Bart., has endowed one with a house and four acres of land for the master. In these schools about 370 children are educated, and about 60 are educated in two private schools. Roger Marley, Esq., bequeathed £30 per annum to the poor, payable out of a farm at Drumanally; and Mrs. Johnston, in 1809, left for their use the interest of £100. At Battentaggart are considerable remains of an extensive mansion, erected by the Bolton family, in the reign of James I. A very ancient bell was found some years since in the churchyard of Drumcree. --See PORTADOWN.

DRUMCREE, a post-town, in the parish of KILCUMNEY, barony of DELVIN, county of WESTMEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 5 miles (S. E.) from Castle-Pollard, on the road to Athboy; containing 37 houses and 197 inhabitants. It has an improving appearance, and contains the parish church, (a neat plain edifice with a square tower), the parochial school-house, and a dispensary. The post is a sub-office to Castletown-Delvin and Castle-Pollard. A manorial court is held here twice a year by the seneschal of Robert Smyth, Esq. --See KILCUMNEY.

DRUMCULLIN, a parish, in the barony of EGLISH, or FIRCALL, KING'S county, and province of LEINSTER, 5 miles (S. W. by S.) from Frankford, on the road to Parsonstown; containing 3113 inhabitants. At a very early period, a religious establishment existed here, of which St. Barrindeus was abbot about the year 590. Nearly one-half of the parish is bog, but the land near Droughtville is considered some of the best pasture ground in the barony. A spacious lake covers an extensive flat at the foot of a range of thickly planted hills. Contiguous to it is a castle, which can at pleasure be insulated by its waters : it was reduced to its present state of ruin by Cromwell's forces. There are limestone quarries near, in which the fossil remains are abundant and nearly perfect. There are two fairs at Killion; and petty sessions are held at Thomastown every second Thursday. The seats are Droughtville, the principal residence of the Drought family, in a demesne comprising peculiar groups of conical hills, which form a picturesque and pleasing scene; Thomastown, of Capt. Bennett; Dove Grove, of J. Berry, Esq.; Dove Hill, of --Holmes, Esq.; Clonbela, of -- Moloy, Esq.; and Killion, of R. Cassiday, Esq. The parish is in the diocese of Meath; the rectory is impropriate in the Marquess of Downshire, and the vicarage forms part of the union of Fircall. The tithes amount to £228. 18. 5., of which £147. 13. 10. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar : there is a glebe of 216a. 3r. 6p., valued at £180. 1. per annum. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Eglish; the chapel, situated at Rath, is a large plain building. There is a school at Killion, which has a house and an acre of land, rent-free, from Mr. Cassiday, and in which are about 40 boys and 25 girls : Mrs. Holmes maintains one at Dove Hill: there are also four pay schools, one of which at Thomastown, has a house rent-free from Mr. Bennett, and in which about 130 children are educated. Adjoining Droughtville, are the remains of the old church of Drumcullin, having a fine entrance arch of curious workmanship. Near Pallis Inn, in this vicinity, are the ruins of a castle; and, towards Frank-ford, are four other fortified places in a similar state of decay. The plains around are supposed to have been the scene of different sanguinary encounters as within a spade's depth, vast quantities of human bones have been found: each surrounding height has vestiges of ancient fortifications; and on a very strong rath, which commands the whole district, there is an entire fort, most difficult of access, defended by a regular and double course of works, still in good preservation : this rath, being now planted, presents a very striking appearance, At Ballincar is a spa, of the same nature as that of Castleconnell, near Limerick; the water is of a yellow hue, and famous for healing scorbutic ulcers : another spa of the same kind is at Clonbela.

DRUMDOWNEY, or DRUMDOWNA, a parish, in the barony of ORRERY and KILMORE, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 3 miles (W. by N.) from Mallow, near the road to Kanturk; containing 164 inhabitants. This parish, which comprises only 356 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £489. 11. 11. per ann. was formerly more extensive; but the remainder has merged into the adjoining parish of Buttevant : a considerable portion of it is occupied by the wood of Drumdowney. The land is good and chiefly in tillage; limestone is in general use for manure, and the state of agriculture is improving. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cloyne, and forms part of the union of Ballyclough; the rectory is impropriate in Col. Longfield. The tithes amount to £58. 10., of which £28. 10. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Kilbrin, also called Ballyclough.

DRUMGATH, a parish, in the barony of UPPER IVEAGH, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER, on the road from Downpatrick to Newry; containing, with the greater part of the post-town of Rathfriland (which is separately described), 4448 inhabitants. According to the Ordnance survey, it comprises 5330 1/2 statute acres, of which about 100 are bog. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Dromore, and patronage of the Bishop; the rectory forms part of the union of Clonallon, and corps of the chancellorship of Dromore cathedral. The tithes amount to £258, of which £168. 13. 4. is payable to the chancellor, and £89. 6. 8. to the vicar. There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 150 acres. The church, which is in Rathfriland, is a neat building, for the repair of which the late Board of First Fruits lent £150, in 1829, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently given £119. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and has chapels at Rathfriland, Barnmeen, and Drumgath. In Rathfriland is a large and handsome meeting-house for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the first class, and a second is now being built; there is also one in connection with the Seceding Synod, of the second class, and one each for Covenanters, Wesleyan Methodists, and the Society of Friends. About 350 children arc educated in two public and two private schools. Some ruins of the ancient church exist in a large burial-ground, and a curious antique bell was found in a bog in 1764.

DRUMGLASS, a parish, in the barony of DUNGANNON, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, on the road from Armagh to Coleraine; containing, with the market and post-town of Dungannon (described under its own head), 5926 inhabitants. According to the Ordnance survey it comprises 3503 3/4 statute acres, of which 30 are waste land and the remainder arable and pasture, the greater part of which is fertile and well cultivated, particularly near the town. The surrounding country is ornamented with several gentlemen's seats, the principal of which are Northland Lodge, the residence of the Earl of Ranfurly, proprietor of the town and manor; Dungannon House, of E. Evans, Esq.; Millton, of J. Falls, Esq.; the Castle, of T. K. Hannington, Esq.; Killymeel, of J. Shiel, Esq.; and the seat of J. W. S. Murray, Esq. Here are extensive collieries worked by the Hibernian Mining Company under lease from the Lord-Primate. The upper and best seam is about a foot thick; under it is a thin stratum of iron-stone, and then a seam of coal two feet thick. About 180 persons are employed, who raise 500 tons weekly. A drift is being made from these works to coal beds on the Earl of Ranfurly's estate, about a mile distant; and a line of railway has been marked out from the collieries to the Tyrone canal at Coal Island. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, and in the patronage of the Lord-Primate : the tithes amount to £200, and there is a glebe-house with a glebe of 59 acres near it, and one of 347 acres in the parish of Donaghmore. The church, which is in Dungannon, is a large and handsome edifice, for the repair of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £307. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, called Dungannon, comprising the parishes of Drumglass, Tullaniskin, and Killyman, and containing four chapels, one of which is at Dungannon. There are meeting-houses for Presbyterians, connected with the Synod of Ulster and the Seceding Synod, both of the second class, and one for Wesleyan Methodists. A royal free school was founded by Charles I. at Dungannon, at which place is the parochial school, endowed with £10 per ann. by the rector; and an infants' school was established in 1833. In these and two other public schools about 400 children are educated, besides about 280 in eleven private schools.

DRUMGOOLAND, a parish, in the barony of UPPER IVEAGH, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER, 4 miles (N. E.) from Rathfriland, on the road from Castlewellan to Banbridge; containing 10,281 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 19,653 statute acres, of which, 133 3/4 are under water, 3240 are mountain and bog, and the remainder is cultivated with great labour and expense, and in some parts is very productive : many of the inhabitants are employed in linen-weaving. Ballyward, a large handsome house, situated in a beautiful demesne, is the residence of C. F. Beers, Esq.; the Cottage, of Capt. Tighe; and Ballymacaveny, of the Rev. J. B. Grant. The parish is in the diocese of Dromore : the rectory is partly appropriate to the see and partly to the deanery of Dromore, and partly consolidated with the vicarage, which, from time immemorial, has been united to the vicarage of Drumballyroney, together forming the union of Drumgooland, in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £495.3. 0 1/2., of which £380. 2. Si. is payable to the incumbent, £59 to the bishop, and the remainder to the dean; and the gross value of the benefice, tithe and glebe inclusive, is £570. 16. 0 1/2. The church is a large handsome edifice, in the early English style, erected, by aid of a gift of £900 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1822; it contains a handsome monument erected by the parishioners to the memory of the Rev. T. Tighe, forty-two years rector of this parish. There is another church in Drumballyroney, where there is a good glebe-house, and a glebe of 20 plantation acres, valued at £30 per annum. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms two unions or districts, called Upper and Lower Drumgooland : the chapel for the former is at Leitrim; in the latter there are two, one at Gargary, the other at Dechamet. There are two meeting-houses for Presbyterians in connection with the Seceding Synod, one at Drumlee (of the first class), the other at Closkilt. There is a school for hoys and girls at Ballyward, built and principally supported by C. F. Beers, Esq.; the parochial school, adjoining the ruins of the old church, is supported by the vicar and Miss Beers; and there are six other public, and five private, schools, also three Sunday schools. In this parish are several large and nearly perfect raths and forts; at Legananney is a large cromlech, of which the table stone is supported by three large upright stones; at Mullaslane are four large upright stones; a fifth, but smaller, stands not far off, and in the adjoining field is a single upright stone of enormous size. In the gable of the school-house at Drumgooland is a large, perfect, and ancient stone cross, which formerly stood in the churchyard, but, having been thrown down and broken, it was built into the wall by the late rector : the shaft and cross are of porphyry, and the plinth of granite.

DRUMGOOLSTOWN, a village, in the parish of STABANNON, barony of ARDEE, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (E.) from Ardee, on the road to Castle-Bellingham; containing 117 inhabitants. It consists of 20 houses and is a constabulary police station.

DRUMGOON, a parish, partly in the barony of TULLAGHGARVEY, but chiefly in that of CLONKEE, county of CAVAN, and province of ULSTER, on the road from Kingscourt to Clones; containing, with the post-town of Cootehill, 12,029 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 15,475 statute acres, including 604 under water, of which 8122 are in Clonkee. Slate and lead ore abound here, but have been only partially worked; and the linen manufacture was formerly carried on to a great extent, but of late it has much declined : there is a large flour-mill and bakery. Bellamont Forest, the seat of C. Coote, Esq., stands in a forest on the banks of a beautiful lake adjoining the demesne of Lord Cremorne. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Kilmore, and in the patronage of the Rev. J. Hamilton; the tithes amount to £513. 9. 9. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £375 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1820, and was rebuilt by a loan of £1384. 12. and a gift of £92. 6. from that Board in 1831 : the glebe comprises 343 acres. The church, situated in Cootehill, is a large handsome structure with a tower and spire, rebuilt by aid of a loan of £3200, in 1817, from the late Board. There is also a chapel of ease, a neat plain edifice, erected in 1834, about three miles distant from the church. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and contains three chapels, one at Cootehill, another about a mile from it and a third at Muddabawn. There are two Presbyterian meeting-houses, one in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the third class, and the other with the Seceding Synod, of the second class; also places of worship for the Society of Friends, Moravians, and Wesleyan Methodists. There are thirteen public schools, in which are about 1080, and fourteen private schools, in which are about 640, children; also an infants' school, and Sunday schools held in each meeting-house. A Society for the sale of blankets and clothing at half price is supported by ladies. The Bible Society has a repository here. Remains of an old encampment exist at Drumgoon; there are also several Danish raths, or forts. Large horns of the elk are often found, a pair of which ornament the porch of the glebe-house. The remains of the old parish church are on the town-land of Drumgoon. --See COOTEHILL.

DRUMHOLM, DRIMHOLM, or DRUMHOME, a parish, in the barony of TYRHUGH, county of DONEGAL, and province of ULSTER, 4 miles (N.) from Ballyshannon; containing 8502 inhabitants. St. Ernan, who died about 640, was abbot of a monastery here, where Flahertach O'Maldory, King of Tyrconnell, was buried in 1197. The parish is situated on Donegal bay, and, according to the Ordnance survey, comprises 35,433 statute acres, of which 15,482 are applotted under the tithe act. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Raphoe, forming the corps of the prebend of Drumholm in Raphoe cathedral, and is in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is impropriate in Col. Conolly. The tithes amount to £735. 3. 6 3/4., of which £245. 1. 2 3/4. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. The glebe-house was erected in 1792, by aid of a gift of £100 from the late Board of First Fruits. The glebe comprises 531 plantation acres, of which 400 are cultivated, and the remainder is a rabbit burrow. A church was built at Ballintra, in 1795, at an expense of £1098, of which £500 was a gift from the same Board, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £252. 13. 9. for its repair. Another church was built at Rossnowlough, in 1830, by aid of a grant of £600 from the late Board of First Fruits, which also granted £350 towards building a chapel at Golard. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and has a large plain chapel near Ballintra. There are places of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, and for Wesleyan Methodists. About 690 children are educated in the public schools, and 20 in a private school; there are also eight Sunday schools. --See BALLINTRA.

DRUMKEEN, a village, in the parish of KILLURY, barony of CLANMAURICE, county of KERRY, and province of MUNSTER, 11 miles (W. S. W.) from Tralee; containing 70 houses and 386 inhabitants.

DRUMKEERAN, or DRUMCHEERAN, a parish, in the barony of LURG, county of FERMANAGH, and province of ULSTER, 1/4 of a mile (N.) from Kesh, on the road from Enniskillen, by Pettigo, to Donegal; containing 8522 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the south-west by Lough Erne, and on the southeast by the river Ederny, which falls into the lough a little below the town of Kesh. It comprises, including islands, according to the Ordnance survey, 27,159 statute acres, of which 3498 are part of Lower Lough Erne; the land generally is of inferior quality and principally in pasture; but the system of agriculture is improving : there is no waste land, but a large extent of bog, which partly supplies the town of Enniskillen with fuel. There is abundance of limestone for agricultural purposes, and some good quarries of freestone for building. The gentlemen's seats are Clonelly, the residence of F. W. Barton, Esq., and Drumrush, of the Rev. J. Delap. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £415. The glebe-house is a large and handsome residence; the glebe comprises 270 acres. The church, a plain building with a tower, was formerly a chapel belonging to Vaughan's endowed school, the governors of which presented it to the parishioners, on the separation of Drumkeeran from the parish of Magheraculmony: the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £105 for its repair. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, called Blackbog, comprising also parts of the parishes of Magheraculmony and Templecarne, and containing three chapels, situated respectively at Edendycrummin, Blackbog, and Banna. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the third class; also two places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. The late George Vaughan, Esq., bequeathed, in 1758, an estate now producing £1000 per ann., for the foundation and endowment of a school for boarding, clothing, and educating Protestant children, under the direction of 13 trustees: there are 60 boys and 24 girls at present in the school, who, when of age, are apprenticed with a fee to the master, and a premium is given to each on the expiration of his indenture, on producing a certificate of good conduct. There is also a parochial school: a large school-house has been built in the Elizabethan style by the Rev. Mr. West, who as a landlord has done much for the improvement of husbandry; and about 450 children are taught in nine private schools. There are several raths, and some chalybeate and sulphureous springs, one of which issues from a rock in the centre of the river.

DRUMKERIN, a village, in the parish of INNISMAGRATH, barony of DROMAHAIRE, county of LEITRIM, and province of CONNAUGHT, 5 1/4 miles (S. E.) from Dromahaire, on the road from Carrick-on-Shannon to Manor-Hamilton; containing 51 houses and 284 inhabitants. It has a penny post to Carrick-on-Shannon, a market on Wednesday, and twelve fairs on Jan. 27th, the second Wednesday in February, March 8th, April 4th, May 27th, June 24th, July 18th, Aug. 18th, Sept. 16th, Oct. 19th, Nov. 11th, and Dec. 9th. Petty sessions are held here every fortnight, on Wednesday.

DRUMKEY, a parish, in the barony of NEWCASTLE, county of WICKLOW, and province of LEINSTER, 3 a mile (N. W.) from Wicklow, near the road from Dublin; containing 254 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the east by the sea and part of the Murrough of Wick-low, and comprises 1679 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. It is in the diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, and is a rectory and vicarage, forming the corps of the prebend of Wicklow in the cathedral of St. Patrick : the tithes amount to £65. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Wicklow. Here is a private school, in which are about 30 children.

DRUMKRIN, or ST. MARY'S DRUMCRIN, a parish, in the barony of DARTRY, county of MONAGHAN, and province of ULSTER, 10 miles (N.) from Cavan; containing 3751 inhabitants, and comprising 7469 statute acres. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, partly united by act of council, in 1804, to the rectory and vicarage of Galloon, and partly to that of Currin; on the avoidance of the latter benefice, that part of the parish which is not united to Galloon will, with the exception of Hermitage and Lisnadish, which will remain annexed to Currin, be incorporated with the parish of Drummully. The tithes amount to £184. In the R. C. divisions it is in the union or district of Drummully, and has a chapel at Drumslow. About 130 children are educated in two public schools, and about 200 in five private schools.

DRUMLANE, a parish, in the barony of LOWER LOUGHTEE, county of CAVAN, and province of ULSTER, on the road from Clones to Ballyconnell; containing, with part of the post-town of Belturbet, 8547 inhabitants. A monastery was founded here in the 6th century, by St. Edan, Bishop of Ferns, which became subject to the abbey of St. Mary at Kells. The cemetery was formerly the place of interment of the chieftains of Breffny, and is still a favourite place of burial. Within its limits are the remains of an ancient round tower, built of limestone and red grit. According to the Ordnance survey, the parish comprises 20,066 1/4 statute acres, of which 3074 are water, and 16,583 are applotted under the tithe act. Of these, about 400 are bog, 50 woodland, and the remainder arable or pasture. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Kilmore, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is appropriate to the vicars choral of Christ-Church cathedral, Dublin. The tithes amount to £500, of which two-thirds are payable to the appropriators, and one-third to the vicar. There is a glebe-house, which was built by a loan of £675 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1819, and a glebe of 340 statute acres. The church is a neat building with a square tower, erected in 1819 by a loan of £1500 from the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms the two unions or districts of Drumlane and Milltown, and has chapels at Staghell and Milltown. Here is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. About 500 children are educated in seven public, and the same number in seven private, schools.

DRUMLARGAN, a parish, in the barony of (UPPER DEECE, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 1 3/4 mile (S. by E.) from Summerhill, on the road to Kilcock and Dublin; containing, in 1831, 148 inhabitants, but the population has since decreased. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Meath, and forms part of the union of Raddonstown : the tithes amount to £36. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Summerhill. There are remains of a rath, which seems to have connected the fortifications and religious houses surrounding Kilmore with the outposts of Lynch's castle, at Summerhill, the noble remains of which are yet standing in Lord Longford's demesne.

DRUMLEASE, a parish, in the barony of DROMAHAIRE, county of LEITRIM, and province of CON-NAUGHT, on the road from Manor-Hamilton to Sligo; containing, with the village of Dromahaire (which is described under its own head), 3901 inhabitants. An abbey was erected here by St. Patrick, who placed St. Benignus over it; the site is said to have been that occupied by the parish church. The parish comprises 14,403 statute acres : there is a considerable quantity of bog. Limestone abounds, and at Dromahaire is a good marble quarry. Besides the fairs at Dromahaire, twelve monthly fairs are held at Newtown, where there are also fairs on the 25th of Feb., May, Aug., and November. The gentlemen's seats are Shriff Villa, the residence of Capt. H. Palmer; Bellvue, of P. Carter, Esq.; and Dromahaire Lodge, of D. Stewart, Esq., agent of G. L. Fox, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Kilmore, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is appropriate to the see. The tithes amount to £130, of which, £86. 13. 4. is payable to the bishop, and £43. 6. 8. to the vicar. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £100, and a loan of £900, in 1834, from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners; the glebe comprises 577 acres. The church is a neat edifice, in a picturesque situation, rebuilt by aid of a loan of £1000 in 1817, from the late Board of First Fruits, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £154. 19. 6. for its repair. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also a small portion of Clonlogher; the chapel is in the townland of Luglustran. There is a place of worship for Primitive Methodists. About 420 children are taught in the four public schools of the parish, and there are five private schools, in which are about 450 children. Near the villa of Shriff is an ancient burial-ground, used by the Roman Catholics By the side of Loughgill are the ruins of a fine old castle; and there are remains of religious houses near Dromahaire, and at the Lodge. There are a sulphureous and a chalybeate spring. Crystal spars abound in the rocks of the mountains.

DRUMLISH, a village, in the parish of KILLOE, barony and county of LONGFORD, and province of LEINSTER, 5 1/2 miles (N.) from Longford, on the road from Mohill to Edgeworth's-town; containing 112 houses and 574 inhabitants. A customary market is held on Tuesday, principally for oats; and fairs are held on Jan. 6th, March 17th, May 14th, June 24th, Aug. 6th, Sept. 19th, Nov. 1st, and Dec. 2nd. Here is a constabulary police station; and the parish church and the R. C. chapel are situated in the village.

DRUMLOMAN, or DRUMLUMNUM, a parish, in the barony of CLONMAHON, county of CAVAN, and province of ULSTER, 2 1/2 miles (E. by N.) from Granard; containing 8007 inhabitants. It comprises, according to to the Ordnance survey, 17,147 3/4 statute acres, of which 1003 are water, including 541 1/4 in Lough Sheelin, 140 1/4 in Lough Gowna, and 121 in Lough Kinale. It is in the diocese of Ardagh, and is a vicarage, forming part of the union of Granard; the rectory is impropriate in the representatives of the late Dean Blundell. The tithes amount to £526. 3. 1., of which £221. 10. 9. is payable to the impropriators, and £304. 12. 3. to the incumbent. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £ 161 for repairing the church. The glebe comprises 150 acres, valued at £234.8. per annum. There are four schools, one of which is supported by Lord Farnham, and in which about 900 children are taught; also two private schools, in which are about 170 children. Here was anciently an hospital, the endowments of which were granted by James I. to Sir Edward Moore.

DRUMMAUL, a parish, in the barony of UPPER TOOME, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER; containing, with the post-town of Randalstown (which is described under its own head), 9737 inhabitants. During the revolution of 1688, this parish was frequently the head-quarters of the Earl of Antrim's regiment, which marched hence to the attack of Londonderry; and in the disturbances of 1798, the insurgents were driven from Antrim into Randalstown, in this parish, by the king's troops. The parish is situated on the river Main, and on the northern shore of Lough Neagh; it is intersected by the road from Belfast to the eastern parts of the counties of Derry and Tyrone, and by the mail roads from Belfast to Coleraine, and from Antrim to Cookstown. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 32,394 statute acres, of which, 11,472 are in Lough Neagh, and 171 1/4 in the river Main. The land, with the exception of a few farms, is in a very indifferent state of cultivation; the system of agriculture is, however, beginning to improve; there are bogs containing about 2800 acres. The beautiful demesne of Shane's Castle, which contains nearly 2000 acres, the property of Earl O'Neill, and for many years the principal seat of his family, is situated on the margin of Lough Neagh, and the grounds and plantations extend far on both sides of the river Main : the mansion was. destroyed by fire in 1816, and is now in ruins; the park, which is well stocked with deer, is ornamented with fine timber. Millmount, the seat of G. Hand-cock, Esq., agent to Earl O'Neill; Hollybrook and Sharoogues are also in this parish. Coal and ironstone were formerly obtained here, and there are remains of extensive forges and smelting-furnaces at Randalstown. There are quarries of basaltic stone, from which materials are obtained in abundance both for building and for the roads. The spinning of cotton and weaving of calico were extensively carried on at Randalstown, there are excellent sites for bleach-greens and beetling-engines at Hollybrook, and a considerable quantity of linen is woven in various parts of the parish. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Connor, and in the gift of the Marquess of Donegal, in whom the rectory is impropriate: the tithes amount to £996.6.6., of which £546.6.6. is payable to the impropriator, and £450 to the vicar. The church, which is at Randalstown, is a neat edifice in the ancient English style, with an octagonal spire of freestone : it was built in 1832, on the site of a church erected in 1709, and cost £1800, of which, Earl O'Neill subscribed £300, besides giving a fine-toned organ; his lordship has also built, a beautiful mausoleum for his family close to the church, the family burial-place having been at Edenduff-Carrick since 1722. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, called Drummaul or Randalstown, comprising the parishes of Drummaul and Antrim, and parts of Connor, Templepatrick, Donegore, and Kilbride; there are three chapels, of which that of Drummaul is a large handsome building near Randalstown. In that town there is a Presbyterian meeting-house in connection with the Synod of Ulster, and one connected with the Seceding Synod, both of the first class; and the Covenanters have a meeting-house at Craigmore. There is a parochial school at Randalstown for children of both sexes, aided by a grant from Earl O'Neill, and six other schools in the parish; also another school at Randalstown. In these schools about 330 children are educated, besides which about 440 are taught in seven private schools, and there are also eight Sunday schools. There are some remains of the ancient church at Drummaul, and the site of an old church at Edenduff-Carrick, or Shane's-Castle. Adjoining the gardens of Shane's-Castle are some very fine columnar masses of basalt, similar to those of the Giant's Causeway, but less perfect in their form and less regular in their divisions; they descend into Lough Neagh, and disappear under the water. There are chalybeate springs in various parts of the parish.

DRUMMONAGHAN. --See DRUM, county of MAYO.

DRUMMULLY, a parish, partly in the barony of DARTRY, county of MONAGHAN, but chiefly in that of COOLE, county of FERMANAGH, and province of ULSTER, 4 miles (W. by S.) from Clones, on the road from Dublin to Enniskillen; containing 667 inhabitants. According to the Ordnance survey it comprises 7639 statute acres, including part of Drumkrin; of these, 2520 are in Monaghan and 5119 in Fermanagh. The soil is generally good, and there is no waste land, but abundance of bog and limestone; about 600 acres are under water. Among the seats are Cara, the residence of J. Hassard, Esq.; Lake View, of D. Smith, Esq.; and Farm Hill, of C. Crowe, Esq. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher and patronage of the Bishop; on the demise of the incumbent of Currin, a considerable part of Drumkrin, which is now held with that parish, will be united to Drummully. The tithes amount to £19, and the glebe comprises 154 acres. The church is a small building. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a district, including Drummully, Drumkrin, and Galloon, and has two chapels in the last-named parish : about 60 children are educated in a public and 100 in a private school.

DRUMOD, a village, in the parish of ANNADUFF, barony of MOHILL, county of LEITRIM, and province of CONNAUGHT, 5 miles (S.) from Drumsna, on the road from Dublin to Sligo; containing 29 houses and 162 inhabitants. This village originated in the establishment of works for smelting iron ore, which were carried on successfully till the supply of fuel failed in 1798, since which period the ore, which is reckoned of good quality, has been sent to England. It is a constabulary police station; petty sessions are held every Thursday, and cattle fairs on Jan. 3rd, March 28th, May 14th, June 29th, Aug. 13th, Oct. 10th, and Dec. 10th. Here is a chapel of ease, which was erected at the expense of F. Nesbitt, Esq. --See ANNADUFF.

DRUMPHEY. --See FENAGH.

DRUMQUIN, a market-town, in the parish of EAST LONGFIELD, barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 7 miles (W.N.W.) from Omagh, on the river Roe, and on the nearest road from Londonderry to Enniskillen; containing 406 inhabitants. It consists of one street and some detached houses, which, with the exception of a few of recent erection, are indifferently built and thatched; and was founded by Sir John Davis, about 1617, on a tract of 2000 acres of land granted to him by James I. in 1611, under the name of Clonaghmore, on which he located 16 British families. He also built castles at Kerlis and at Gavelagh, on the Derg, at which latter place he had another grant of 2000 acres; and between the two castles constructed an excellent road, seven miles in a straight line over mountains and bogs, which in several places still remains perfect. There is a daily penny post to Omagh. The market, on Thursday, is well supplied with provisions and yarn; and fairs are held on Jan. 17th, March 21st, May 2nd, June 9th, Aug. 15th, Sept. 17th, Nov. 9th, and Dec. 12th, for general farming stock : those held in March and June are large and well attended. Here are a meeting-house for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, a large male and female school, and a dispensary.

DRUMRAGH, a parish, in the barony of OMAGH, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, on the mail coach road from Dublin to Londonderry; containing, with the post-town of Omagh, 11,289 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 20,164 statute acres, of which l6l 3/4 are under water, and 15,630 are applotted under the tithe act. About seven-eighths of the land are arable and pasture, and one-eighth waste and bog : the land in the middle portion of the parish is very good, and under a tolerable system of cultivation; but the higher grounds, approaching the mountains, are wet and cold, though capable of great improvement by draining. The inhabitants unite the spinning of linen yarn and the weaving of cloth with their agricultural pursuits. There are several large and handsome houses in and around Omagh : the principal in the rural portion of the parish are New Grove, the residence of Sam. Galbraith, Esq.; and Riverland, of the Rev. Robert Burrowes, D.D. A court baron is held at Ballynahatty, every third Wednesday, for the manor of Touchet (anciently called Fintonagh), for the recovery of debts under 40s. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Derry, and in the patronage of the Provost and Fellows of Trinity College, Dublin. The tithes amount to £600. The glebe-house is situated five miles from the church, upon a glebe comprising 550 acres. The church, situated in Omagh, a large handsome edifice, with a tower and spire, which were added at the expense of Dr. Knox, Bishop of Derry, was erected in 1777 by the Mervyn family, and was greatly enlarged in 1820. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church : there is a chapel at Omagh, and another at Drumragh. There are places of worship for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the first and third classes, and of the second class, in connection with the Seceding Synod; also for Wesleyan and Primitive Methodists. About 400 children are taught in the seven public schools of the parish, of which one is endowed with a house and 2 acres of land, and one for girls is supported by Mrs. Spiller; there are also eleven private schools, in which are about 450 children, and eight Sunday schools. The old parish church is now a fine ruin, having the side walls and gables entire. --See OMAGH.

DRUMRANEY, or DRUM RATH, a parish, in the barony of KILKENNY WEST, county of WESTMEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 1/4 miles (W.) from Bally-more, on the road from Athlone to Mullingar; containing 3494 inhabitants. A monastery was founded here in 588, in honour of St. Enan, which was burnt by the Ostmen in 946, and by Brian McCinneide, in 995. The parish comprises 7290 statute acres, of which about 405 are bog, 3645 arable, and 3240 pasture; agriculture has much improved within the last few years. Limestone abounds, and lead ore is supposed to exist. The gentlemen's seats are Dorrington House, the residence of R. Jones, Esq.; Walterstown, of St. George Gray, Esq.; and Lissenode, of J. Russell, Esq. In the hamlet of Walterstown is a constabulary police station. The parish is in the diocese of Meath; the rectory and vicarage form part of the union of Ballyloughloe, the incumbent of which presents to the perpetual curacy of Drumraney. The tithes amount to £290.15. 4 1/2., payable to the incumbent of the union : the income of the perpetual curate is £100 per annum, of which £60 is paid by the incumbent, and £40 out of Primate Boulter's augmentation fund. Two townlands, called High and Low Baskin, pay tithes to the parish of Castlelost; they are impropriate in Lord Kilmaine, and extend over about 500 acres. The glebe-house was erected in 1814, by aid of a gift of £450, and a loan of £50 from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises 32 acres. The church, a neat building in good repair, was built in 1811, by aid of a gift of £500 from the same Board. In the R. C. divisions this parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church : there is a chapel at Drumraney. About 100 children are taught in the three public schools of the parish, of which one was built by H. K. Digby, Esq.; and there are three private schools, in which are about 120 children. There are several raths; also remains of old forts and towers at High Baskin, Donomona, and near Dorrington; and at Killininny, Ballycloughdough, Ardnagard, and Walterstown, are remains of castles, formerly belonging to the Dillons, whose burial-place was anciently at Drumraney. Here is a holy well, dedicated to St. Enan; his festival is celebrated on the Sunday after Sept. 18th.

DRUMRATT, a parish, in the barony of CORRAN, county of SLIGO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 3 miles (S.) from Ballymote, on the road from Boyle to Bally-mote; containing 1606 inhabitants. It is on the confines of the county of Roscommon, and comprises 3682 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The lands are principally under tillage, and there is a due portion of good grazing land, with a sufficient tract of bog for fuel. Limestone is quarried for agricultural purposes. Abbeyville is the residence of J. Fleming, Esq. It is in the diocese of Achonry; the rectory is impropriate in Sir H. Montgomery, Bart., and the vicarage forms part of the union of Emlyfadd. The tithes amount to £204. 13. 11., of which £95. 3. 3. is payable to the impropriator, and £109. 10. 8. to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Tumore; the chapel is at Culfader. There are two private schools, in which are about 90 boys and 40 girls. An abbey was founded here by St. Fechin, of which the last abbot of whom there is any record, died in 1016; it afterwards became the parish church, and there are still some remains.

DRUMREILLY, a parish, partly in the barony of TULLAGHAGH, county of CAVAN, and province of ULSTER, and partly in that of DROMAHAIRE, but chiefly in that of CARRIGALLEN, county of LEITRIM, and province of CONNAUGHT, 2 1/2 miles (E. by N.) from Ballinamore, on the road to Killeshandra; containing 9278 inhabitants. This parish was separated from Templeport by act of council in 1835, and comprises 4373 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, besides a great portion of mountain. There are large grazing farms, and a vast quantity of bog. Limestone is found here. The parish is intersected by Lake Gorradise, on which stands Gorradise, the residence of W. C. Percy, Esq., and Bush Hill, of C. Gerard, Esq.; and in the vicinity is Corduff, the property of W. Penrose, Esq. There is a small island in the lake, called Robbers island. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Kilmore, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the rectory is appropriate to the see. The tithes amount to £300, of which £200 is payable to the bishop, and £100 to the vicar. There is no glebe-house : the glebe comprises 365 acres, of which 282 are profitable land, valued at £322. 15. 6 1/2. per annum. The church is a plain structure, in good repair, built in 1737, by William Gore, Esq. In the R. C. divisions it is divided into three parochial benefices, Upper Drumreilly, Lower Drumreilly, and Ballinagleragh, containing three chapels, besides a fourth annexed to Lower Drumreilly, called the mountain chapel. About 500 children are educated in seven public, and 110 in two private schools; there is also a Sunday school.

DRUMSHALLON, a parish, in the barony of FERRARD, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (N.) from Drogheda, on the coast road to Dundalk; containing 1048 inhabitants. This parish was distinguished as the site of a monastery founded at Druimineascluinn, now Drumshallon, by St. Patrick, for Canons Regular, of which the abbot Tiarnach, who died in 876, and some of his successors were generally styled Bishops: in 969, being in the possession of the Danes, it was plundered by Muirceartagh, Prince of Oileach, and son of Donell, King of Ireland, on which occasion many of the Danish occupants were killed. The priory of the Holy Trinity, now Christ-Church, Dublin, had a cell of three canons at this place; but Albert, Archbishop of Armagh, desirous of reforming the state of religion, suppressed it, as preserving no regular order or discipline. The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 3585 1/2 statute acres, including 372 acres in the detached townland of Labanstown on the sea coast, and 9f acres in Lough Kircock. Drumshallon is the residence of Gorges Henzill, Esq. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, partly appropriate to the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, Dublin, and partly forming part of the corps of the precentorship in that cathedral, annexed to which are lands here comprising 494a. 1r. 29p. statute measure, let on lease to Mr. Henzill, at a rent of £46. 3. 1., with an annual renewal fine of £77. 10. 9 1/4. : the tithes amount to £178. 17. 4 1/2., wholly payable to the precentor. The Protestant parishioners attend divine service in the church of Ballymakenny, the incumbent of which is paid £10. 10. per annum by the appropriators, for performing the occasional duties of this parish. In the R. C. divisions the parish is partly in the union or district of Termonfechin, and partly in that of Moylary; the chapel is at Fieldstown. The parochial school is under the patronage of the Countess de Salis, and aided with £12. 12. per annum, from the appropriators; and there is a private school, in which are about 40 boys and 20 girls.

DRUMSHAMBO, a village, in the parish of KILTOGHART, barony and county of LEITRIM, and province of CONNAUGHT; 6 3/4 miles (N. by E.) from Carrick-on-Shannon; containing 479 inhabitants. It is situated near the southern extremity of Lough Allen, not far from the point where the Shannon emerges from it, and close to that where the new line of navigation from Battle-bridge enters it. Works for smelting and manufacturing the iron ore found in the neighbourhood were formerly carried on here, and were continued in operation till 1765. The iron-stone was chiefly collected from the eastern shore of Lough Allen, and in the beds of the streams that descend from the Slieve-an-erin mountains to the lake, where small workings are also visible; vast woods, which formerly clothed the neighbouring valleys, supplied charcoal, and limestone as a flux was quarried close to the works, which appear to have consisted only of one small square blast furnace, from which the iron was carried to the neighbouring village, where it was forged into bars. The village is a constabulary police station, and has a penny post to Carrick-on-Shannon. Fairs are held on Feb. 15th, April 1st, May 16th, June 13th, July 18th, Aug. 16th, Oct. 6th, and Nov. 16th. The second church for the parish is in this village, and was erected by a loan of £1107. 13. from the late Board 9f First Fruits in 1829. It is a gothic structure ornamented with a tower and pinnacles : there are also a R. C. and a Wesleyan Methodist chapel. A loan fund has recently been established here. –See KlLTOGHART.

DRUMSNA, a post-town, in the parish of ANNADUFF, barony and county of LEITRIM, and province of CON-NAUGHT, 3 1/2 miles (S. E.) from Carrick-on-Shannon, and 72 3/4 miles (W. N. W.) from Dublin, on the river Shannon and on the mail road to Sligo; containing 427 inhabitants. It comprises about 70 slated houses, several of which are large and handsome, and is a constabulary police station. Petty sessions are held every Tuesday, and fairs on May 20th, June 22nd, Aug. 25th, Oct. 7th, and Dec. 13th. The vicinity presents some of the most beautiful scenes in the county; in one direction are seen the windings of the Shannon through a fertile district, the projection of a wooded peninsula on its course, the heights of Sheebeg and Sheemore, with the more lofty mountain of Slieve-an-erin in the distance; and in the other, the luxuriant and varied swell of Teeraroon, the adjacent part of the county of Roscommon. A pleasing walk through the woods, from which is discovered the windings of the Shannon and the lofty mountains to the north and west, conducts to a sulphureous spring issuing from the verge of a small lake. A little to the south of the town an expansion of the river forms Lough Boffin. The seats in its immediate vicinity are, Mount Campbell, the handsome residence of Vice Admiral Sir James Rowley, Bart., which is divided by the Shannon from Charlestown, that of Sir Gilbert King, Bart. In the latter is an avenue of fine limetrees through which the town is seen to great advantage. On the hill above the town is the pleasant residence of the Messrs. Walsh, commanding extensive views of the river and surrounding country; and a little below the town, on the Roscommon shore, is Clonteen, a lodge belonging to the Marquess of Westmeath. --See ANNADUFF.

DRUMSNATT, a parish, in the barony of MONAGHAN, county of MONAGHAN, and province of ULSTER, 4 3/4 miles (S. W.) from Monaghan, on the road from that place to Clones; containing 3411 inhabitants. According to the Ordnance survey it comprises 5019 1/4 statute acres, of which 4436 are applotted under the tithe act: the land is moderately fertile and chiefly under tillage. The principal seats are Thorn hill, the residence of J. Johnson, Esq.; Brookvale, of Capt. Johnston; and the Glebe-house, of the Rev. A. Mitchell. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Clogher, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is impropriate in Sir T. B. Lennard, Bart. The tithes amount to £189. 4. 7 1/2, of which £106. 3. 1. is payable to the impropriator, and £83. 1. 65. to the vicar. There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of 22 acres. The church, for the repairs of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners lately granted £316, is a plain modern structure with a tower. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, comprising the parishes of Drumsnatt and Kilmore, and containing two chapels, of which that for Drumsnatt is at Kilnaclay. About 450 children are educated in four public, and 190 in three private schools; and there is a Sunday school.

DRUMTULLAGH, a grange, in the barony of CAREY, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER, on the road from Ballycastle to Coleraine; containing 1468 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 3753 1/2 statute acres, and is ecclesiastically regarded as forming part of the parish of Derrykeighan.

DRUNG, a parish, in the barony of TULLAGHGARVEY, county of CAVAN, and province of ULSTER, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Cavan, on the road from that place to Cootehill; containing 6015 inhabitants. According to the Ordnance survey it comprises 11,475 statute acres, including 78 of water. Here are several quarries of good building stone, and it is supposed that various minerals exist, but no mines have been worked. The principal seats are Rakenny, the residence of T. S. Clements, Esq., and Fort Lodge, of J. Smith, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Kilmore, united from time immemorial to that of Laragh, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is impropriate in the Marquess of Westmeath. The tithes amount to £475. 15. 11 1/2., of which £202. 4. 7 1/2. is payable to the impropriator, and £273. 11. 4 1/2. to the vicar; the entire tithes of the benefice amount to £610. 18. 6 1/2. There is a glebe-house, with several glebes, comprising 695 acres, and valued at £606. 16. 3. per annum. The church is a handsome building, lately repaired by a grant of £130 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and contains two chapels, one at Dunnannah and the other at Bannow. About 350 children are educated in three public, and 320 in seven private schools, besides those who are taught in three Sunday schools. There are several raths, one of which is called Fort William, part of King William's army having occupied it after encamping near Ballyhaise on a spot since called Camp Hill. --See BALLINECARGY.

DUAGH, a parish, partly in the barony of IRAGHTICONNOR, hut chiefly in that of CLANMAURICE, county of KERRY, and province of Munster, on the river Feale, 3 miles (E. S. E.) from Listowel; containing 3750 inhabitants, of which number, 210 are in the village. It extends to the confines of the county of Limerick, and comprises 19,129 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, a large portion of which consists of coarse mountain pasture and bog. A kind of brown flagstone is found in several places. The gentlemen's seats are Duagh House, the residence of M. Fitzmaurice, Esq., pleasantly situated on the Feale, and Duagh Glebe, of the Rev. R. Hickson; part of the beautiful demesne of Ballinruddery (a seat of the Knight of Kerry) also extends into this parish. It is in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, and is a vicarage, held by faculty with that of Kilcarragh, in the patronage of Robert Hickson, Esq.: the tithes amount to £124.12. 5. The glebe-house was erected in 1829, when £415 was granted as a gift and £184 as a loan by the late Board of First Fruits; it stands on a glebe of 23 acres, which, with a glebe of 12 1/2 acres in the parish of Kilcarragh, is subject to a rent of £37.10. The church, a small plain structure, was built in 1814, by aid of a gift of £800 from the same Board. In the R. C. divisions Duagh forms a union or district of itself, with the exception of a small portion which is attached to that of Listowel; a new chapel has been lately erected. In the school superintended by the parish priest, and two other pay schools, more than 100 children are taught.

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DUBLIN (County of), a maritime county of the province of LEINSTER, bounded on the east by the Irish Sea, on the north and west by the county of Meath, on the west and south-west by that of Kildare, and on the south by that of Wicklow. It extends from 53° 10' to 53° 37' (N. lat.), and from 6° 4' to 6° 36' (W. lon.), and comprises an area, according to the Ordnance survey, of 240,204 statute acres, of which 229,292 acres are cultivated land, and the remainder unprofitable bog and mountain. The population, in 1821, exclusively of the metropolis, was 150,011, and in 1831, 183,042.

The earliest inhabitants of this tract of whom we have any authentic notice were a native people designated by Ptolemy Blanii or Eblani, who occupied also the territory forming the present county of Meath, and whose capital city was Eblana, presumed on good authority to have been on the site of the present city of Dublin. By some writers it is stated that in subsequent remote ages the part of the county lying south and east of the river Liffey formed part of the principality of Croigh Cuolan; while that to the north was included in the principality of Midhe, or Meath. The Eblani, whatever may have been their origin, probably enjoyed peaceable possession of the soil until the commencement of the Danish ravages, and the seizure and occupation of Dublin by these fierce invaders. At this era, the tract now described experienced its full share of calamities, until the celebrated battle of Clontarf, which terminated in the overthrow of the military power of the Ostmen in Ireland. But that this people had made extensive settlements within its limits, which they were subsequently allowed to retain as peaceable subjects of the native Irish rulers, is proved by the fact that, at the period of the English invasion, a considerable part of the county to the north of the Liffey was wholly in their possession, and from this circumstance was designated by the Irish Fingall, a name signifying either the "white foreigners" or "a progeny of foreigners';" the word "fine" importing, in one sense, a tribe or family. The country to the south of Dublin is stated, but only on traditional authority, to have been called, at the same period, Dubhgall, denoting the territory of the " black foreigners," from its occupation by another body of Danes. Though all Fingall was granted by Henry II. to Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath, yet the number of other proprietors, together with the circumstance of its being the centre of the English power in Ireland, prevented the county, which was one of those erected by King John in 1210, from being placed under palatine or other peculiar jurisdiction. It originally comprised the territories of the O'Birnes and O'Tooles in the south, which were separated from it and formed into the present county of Wicklow, so lately as the year 1603. At an early period, the jurisdiction of the sheriff of Dublin appears even to have extended in other directions far beyond its present limits; for, by an ordinance of parliament, about the close of the 13th century, preserved in the Black Book of Christ-Church, Dublin, it was restricted from extending, as previously, into the counties of Meath and Kildare, and into some parts even of the province of Ulster.

It is in the diocese and province of Dublin, and, for purposes of civil jurisdiction, is divided into the baronies of Balrothery, Castleknock, Coolock, Nethercross, Newcastle, Half Rathdown, and Upper Cross, exclusively of those of St. Sepulchre and Donore, which form parts of the liberties of the county of the city. The irregularities of form in the baronies are very great: that of Newcastle is composed of two portions, that of Nethercross of six, and that of Uppercross of five, of which three constituting the parishes of Ballymore-Eustace, Ballybought, and Tipperkevin, on the confines of Wicklow and Kildare, are wholly detached from the rest of the county : the irregularities of the two latter baronies are owing to their constituent parts having been formerly dispersed church lands, enjoying separate jurisdictions and privileges, but ultimately formed into baronies for the convenience of the civil authority. The county contains the ancient disfranchised boroughs and corporate towns of Swords and Newcastle; the sea-port, fishing, and post-towns of Howth, Kingstown, Balbriggan, and Malahide; the fishing-towns of Rush, Skerries, and Baldoyle; the inland post-towns of Cabinteely, Lucan, Rathcool, and Tallaght; the market-town of Ballymore-Eustace, and the town of Rathfarnham, each of which has a penny post to Dublin; besides numerous large villages, in some degree suburban to the metropolis, of which, exclusively of those of Sandymount, Booterstown, Blackrock, Donnybrook (each of which has a penny post), Dolphinsbarn, Irishtown, Rathmines, and Ringsend, which are in the county of the city, the principal are those of Finglas, Golden-Ball, Dalkey, Drumcondra, Stillorgan, Raheny, Dundrum, Roundtown, Ranelagh, Artaine, Clontarf, Castleknock, Chapelizod, Glasnevin (each of which has a twopenny post to Dublin), Donabate, Portrane, Garristown, Belgriffin, St. Doulough's, Old Connaught, Killiney, Bullock, Lusk, Newcastle, Saggard, Balrothery, Little Bray, Clondalkin, Coolock, Crumlin, Golden-Bridge, Island-Bridge, Kilmainham, Milltown, Merrion, Phibsborough, Sandford, and Williamstown. Two knights of the shire are returned to the Imperial parliament, who are elected at the county court-house at Kilmainham : the number of electors registered under the 2d of William IV., c. 88, up to Feb. 1st, 1837, is 2728, of which 788 were £50, 407 £20, and 622 £10, freeholders; 18 £50, 427 £20, and 423 £10, leaseholders; and 12 £50, 30 £20, and 1 £10, rent-chargers : the number that voted at the last general election was 1480. Prior to the Union, the boroughs of Swords and Newcastle sent each two members to the Irish House of Commons. A court of assize and general gaol delivery is held every six weeks, at the court-house in Green-street, Dublin; and at Kilmainham, where the county gaol and court-house are situated, are held the quarter sessions, at which a chairman, who exercises the same powers as the assistant barrister in other counties, presides with the magistrates. The local government is vested in a lieutenant, 17 deputy-lieutenants, and 88 magistrates, with the usual county officers. The number of constabulary police stations is 30, and the force consists of 6 chief and 29 subordinate constables and 113 men, with 6 horses, the expense of maintaining which is defrayed equally by Grand Jury presentments and by Government. The Meath Hospital, which is also the County of Dublin Infirmary, is situated on the south side of the city, and is supported by Grand Jury presentments, subscriptions, and donations, and by an annual parliamentary grant; there are 25 dispensaries. The amount of Grand Jury presentments for the county, in 1835, was £23,458. 2. 7., of which £2188. 9. 10. was expended on the public roads of the county at large; £6904. 14. 0. on the public roads, being the baronial charge; £8365. 7. 0. for public establishments, officers' salaries, &c.; £3106. 8. 8. for police; and £2895 towards repayment of advances made by Government. In military arrangements, this county is the head of all the districts throughout Ireland, the department of the commander-in-chief and his staff being at Kilmainham; it contains six military stations, besides those within the jurisdiction of the metropolis, viz., the Richmond infantry barrack, near Golden-Bridge on the Grand Canal, Island-bridge artillery station, the Portobello cavalry barrack, the Phoenix-park magazine and infantry barrack, and the recruiting depot on the Grand Canal, all of which are described in the account of the city, affording in the whole accommodation for 161 officers, 3282 men, and 772 horses; there are, besides, 26 martello towers and nine batteries on the coast, capable of containing 684 men; and at Kilmainham stands the Royal Military Hospital, for disabled and superannuated soldiers, similar to that of Chelsea, Hear London. There are eight coast-guard stations, one of which (Dalkey) is in the district of Kingstown, and the rest in that of Swords, with a force consisting of S officers and 64 men.

The county stretches in length from north to south, and presents a sea-coast of about thirty miles, while its breadth in some places does not exceed seven. Except in the picturesque irregularities of its coast, and the grand and beautiful boundary which the mountains on its southern confines form to the rich vale below, it possesses less natural diversity of scenery than many other parts of the island; but it is superior to all in artificial decoration; and the banks of the Liffey to Leixlip present scenery of the most rich and interesting character. The grandeur of the features of the surrounding country, indeed, give the environs of the metropolis a character as striking as those, perhaps, of any city in the west of Europe. The mountains which occupy the southern border of the county are the northern extremities of the great group forming the entire adjacent county of Wicklow : the principal summits within its confines are the Three Rock Mountain and Garrycastle, at the eastern extremity of the chain, of which the former has an elevation of 1586 feet, and the latter of 1869; Montpelier hill; the group formed by Kippure, Seefinane, Seechon, and Seefin mountains, of which the first is 2527 feet high, and Seechon 2150; and the Tallaght and Rathcoole hills, which succeed each other north-westward from Seechon, and. beyond the latter of which, in the same direction, is a lower range, composed of the Windmill, Athgoe, Lyons, and Rusty hills. From Rathcoole hill a long range diverges south-westward, and enters the eastern confines of Kildare county, near Blessington. In the mountains adjoining Montpelier and Kilmashogue are bogs, covering three or four square miles; but the grandest features of these elevations are the great natural ravines that open into them southward, of which the most extraordinary is the Scalp, through which the road from Dublin to the romantic scenes of Powerscourt enters the county of Wicklow. From their summits are also obtained very magnificent views of the city and bay, and the fertile and highly improved plains of which nearly all the rest of the county is composed, and which form part of the great level tract that includes also the counties of Kildare and Meath. The coast from the boldly projecting promontory of Bray head, with its serrated summit, to the Killiney hills is indented into the beautiful bay of Killiney. Dalkey Island, separated from the above-named hills by a narrow channel, is the southern limit of Dublin bay, the most northern point of which is the Bailey of Howth, on which is a lighthouse. The coast of the bay, with the exception of these two extreme points, is low and shelving, but is backed by a beautiful and highly cultivated country terminating eastward with the city. Much of the interior of the bay consists of banks of sand uncovered at low water. About a mile to the north of Howth is Ireland's Eye, and still farther north, off the peninsula of Portrane, rises Lambay Island, both described under their own heads. Between Howth and Portrane the coast is flat, and partly marshy; but hence northward it presents a varied succession of rock and strand; off Holmpatrick lie the scattered rocky islets of St. Patrick, Count, Shenex, and Rockabill.

The soil is generally shallow, being chiefly indebted to the manures from the metropolis for its high state of improvement. It is commonly argillaceous, though almost every where containing an admixture of gravel, which may generally be found in abundance within a small depth of the surface, and by tillage is frequently turned up, to the great improvement of the land. The substratum is usually a cold retentive clay, which keeps the surface in an unprofitable state, unless draining and other methods of improvement have been adopted. Rather more than one-half of the improvable surface is under tillage, chiefly in the northern and western parts, most remote from the metropolis : in the districts to the south of the Liffey, and within a few miles from its northern bank, the land is chiefly occupied by villas, gardens, nurseries, dairy farms, and for the pasturage of horses. Considerable improvement has taken place in the system of agriculture by the more extensive introduction of green crops and improved drainage, and by the extension of tillage up the mountains. The pasture lands, in consequence of drainage and manure, produce a great variety of good natural grasses, and commonly afford from four to five tons of hay per acre, and sometimes six. The salt marshes which occur along the coast from Howth northward are good, and the pastures near the sea side are of a tolerably fattening quality; but more inland they become poorer.

The only dairies are those for the supply of Dublin with milk and butter, which, however, are of great extent and number. The principal manures are lime and limestone gravel, of which the latter is a species of limestone and marl mixed, of a very fertilising quality, and found in inexhaustible quantities. Strong blue and brown marl are found in different parts, and there are likewise beds of white marl; the blue kind is preferred as producing a more durable effect: manures from Dublin, coal ashes, and shelly sand found on the coast, are also used. The implements of husbandry are of the common kind, except on the farms of noblemen and gentlemen of fortune. The breed of cattle has been much improved by the introduction of the most valuable English breeds, which have nearly superseded the native stock. The county is not well wooded with the exception of plantations in the Phoenix Park and the private grounds of the gentry : there are various nurseries for the supply of plants. The waste lands occupy 10,912 statute acres : the largest tract is that of the mountains on the southern confines, extending about fifteen miles in length and several in breadth. The scarcity of fuel, which would otherwise press severely on the industrious classes, from the want of turf nearer home, which can be had only from the mountains in the south and the distant commons of Balrothery and Garristown on the north, is greatly diminished by the ample supplies brought by both canals and by the importation of English coal.

The county presents several interesting features in its geological relations. Its southern part from Blackrock, Kingstown, and Dalkey forms the northern extremity of the great granitic range which extends through Wicklow and part of Carlow. The granite tract is bordered by a range of incumbent mica slate, which extends eastwards from Shankill and the Scalp to the hills of Killiney, and on the western side commences near Rathfarnham, passes to the south of Montpelier hill, and occupies the upper part of the hollow which separates Seefinane mountain, on the east, from Seechon on the west: in this hollow are displayed some curious intermixtures of the strata of mica slate, granite, and quartz. In the descent from Seechon mountain, both south-westward and north-westward, towards Rathcool, the mica slate passes into clay slate, containing frequent beds of greenstone, greenstone slate, and greenstone porphyry, and occasionally likewise of quartz. The Tallaght hills consist of clay slate, greenstone, and greenstone porphyry, interstratified; the latter rocks more particularly abounding in the eastern quarter. Rathcoole hills,and the range extending from them south-westward, are composed of clay slate, clay slate conglomerate, and grauwacke slate, alternating with each other. The low group west of Rathcoole is composed of clay slate, grauwacke, grauwacke slate, and granite, of which the last is found remarkably disposed in subordinate beds in the prevailing grauwacke slate of Windmill hill, whence some of them may be traced westward to near Rusty hill. This county contains the only strata of transition rocks known to exist in the eastern part of Ireland. They appear in detached portions along the coast from Portrane Head, by Loughshinny, Skerries, and Balbriggan to the Delvan stream, the northern limit of the county. The rest of the county, comprising nearly the whole of its plain surface, is based on floetz limestone, commonly of a blueish grey colour, often tinged with black, which colour in some places entirely prevails, especially where the limestone is interstratified with slate clay, calp, or swinestone, or where it abounds in lydian stone. The black limestone in the latter case is a hard compact rock, often of a silicious nature, requiring much fuel for its conversion into lime. Calp, or "black quarry stone," which is generally of a blackish grey colour and dull fracture, and may be considered as an intimate mixture of limestone and slate clay, forms the common building stone of Dublin; it is quarried to a great extent at Crumlin and Rathgar. Besides carbonate of lime, it includes considerable quantities of silex and alumen, traces of the oxydes of iron and manganese, and a small proportion of carbon, which gives to it its dark colour : by exposure to the air it undergoes a gradual decomposition. The elevated peninsula of Howth consists of irregular alternations of clay slate and quartz rock, both pure and intermixed, on its southern coast the strata present some extraordinary contortions. The only metallic ore at present found in considerable quantity is lead, once abundantly raised near the commons of Kilmainham, and at Killiney; a much more productive vein on Shankill is now being worked by the Mining Company of Ireland. White lead is found in small quantities; the ore is smelted and refined at Ballycorus, in the immediate vicinity of the mine : on Shankill is a tower for the manufacture of shot. At Loughshinny is a copper mine, and at Clontarf a lead mine, both now abandoned. On the south-western side of Howth, grey ore of manganese and brown iron-stone have been obtained in considerable quantities; and a variety of earthy black cobalt ore has been found there. Coal is supposed to exist near the northern side of the county, and unsuccessful trials have been made for it near Lucan. Among the smaller minerals may be enumerated schorl or tourmaline and garnet, frequently found in the granite; beryl, a variety of emerald, which occurs in several places; and spodumene, which is in great request from its containing eight per cent. of a newly discovered alkali, called lithia, is procured at Killiney, as is also a mineral closely resembling spodumene, designated killinite by Dr. Taylor, its discoverer, from its locality. The limestone strata usually abound with petrifactions, specimens of which, remarkable for their perfection and variety, may be obtained at St. Doulough's, and at Feltrim, about seven miles north-east of Dublin. The shores of the county, particularly from Loughlinstown to Bray, abound with pebbles of all colours, often beautifully variegated, which bear a polish, and are applied to a variety of ornamental uses.

The manufactures are various, but of inferior importance. The most extensive is that of woollen cloth, carried on chiefly in the liberties and vicinity of Dublin. The manufacture of paper is carried on in different parts, more particularly at Rockbrook and Templeoge. There are also cotton-works, bleach and dye-works, and ironworks, besides minor establishments, all noticed in their respective localities. The banks of the numerous small streams by which the county is watered present divers advantageous sites for the erection of manufactories of every kind within a convenient distance of the metropolis. The great extent of sea-coast affords facilities for obtaining an abundant supply of fish. Nearly 90 wherries, of which the greater number belong to Skerries and Rush, and the others to Howth, Baldoyle, Malahide, Balbriggan, and Ringsend, are employed in this occupation : there are also about twenty smacks and five seine nets occupied in the salmon fishery between Dublin and Kingstown; the former, in the season, are likewise engaged in the herring fishery; and at Kingstown and Bullock are also a number of yawls, employed in catching whiting, pollock, and herring. On the river Liffey, from Island-Bridge to the light-house at Poolbeg, there is a considerable salmon fishery. The harbours are mere fishing ports, except that of Dublin, and its dependencies Howth and Kingstown, upon the improvement of both of which vast sums have been expended, with but partial success.

The chief river is the Anna Liffey (" the water of Liffey"), which has its principal source at Sally gap, in the Wicklow mountains, and taking a circuit westward through Kildare county, enters that of Dublin near Leixlip, where it is joined by the Rye water from Kildare, and pursues a winding eastern course nearly across the middle of it, descending through a deep and rich glen by Lucan and Chapelizod : below the latter it flows through some pleasing scenes on the borders of Phoenix Park : at Island-Bridge it meets the tide, and a little below it enters the city, to the east of which it discharges its waters into the bay of Dublin. The river is navigable for vessels of 300 tons up to Carlisle bridge, the nearest to the sea; for small craft that can pass the arches, up to Island-Bridge, and for small boats beyond Chapelizod: so circuitous is its course, that although the distance from its source to its mouth, in a direct line, is only ten miles, yet, following its banks, it is no less than forty. Numerous streams, which supply water to many mills, descend into the Liffey : the principal are the Dodder, the Brittas or Cammock, and the Tolka; a stream called the Delvan forms the northern boundary of the county at Naul. The two great lines of inland navigation commence in Dublin city, but as they run in parallel directions within a few miles of each other during some parts of their course, the benefits anticipated from them have not been realised to the utmost extent. The Grand Canal was originally commenced in the year 1755, by the corporation for promoting inland navigation in Ireland: in 1772, a subscription was opened, and the subscribers were incorporated by the name of the Company of Undertakers of the Grand Canal, who, by the completion of this work, have connected the capital both with the Shannon and the Barrow. Its entire cost was £844,216, besides £122,148 expended on docks: one-third was defrayed by parliament. The Royal Canal, incorporated by a charter of George III., in 1789, and afterwards aided by a grant of additional powers from the legislature, is navigable from Dublin to Longford and Tarmonbarry, near the head of the navigable course of the Shannon, an extent of 92 miles : its construction cost £776,213, which was wholly defrayed at the public expense. The roads and bridges are for the most part in excellent order, being frequently repaired at great expense. The Circular Road is a turnpike, nearly encompassing the metropolis, beyond which the Grand and Royal canals for a considerable distance run nearly parallel: from these limits of the city the great mail-coach roads branch in every direction, and all, excepting the south-east road through Wicklow to Wexford, are turnpikes.

Of the ancient round towers which form so remarkable a feature in the antiquities of Ireland, this county contains three, situated respectively at Lusk, Swords, and Clondalkin. There is a very fine cromlech at Glen Druid, near Cabinteely, and others at Killiney, Howth, Mount Venus (in the parish of Cruagh), Glen South-well or the Little Dargle, and Larch hill, which last is within a circle of stones; and there are numerous raths or moats in various parts. The number of religious houses existing at various periods prior to the Reformation was 24, of which there are at present remains only of those of Larkfield and Monkstown; but there are several remains of ancient churches. Although always forming the centre of the English power in Ireland, the unsettled state of society caused the surface of the county, at an early period, to be studded with castles, of which the remains are still numerous; these, with the ancient castles yet inhabited, and the principal gentlemen's seats, are noticed in their respective parishes. Among the minor natural curiosities are some chalybeate springs, of which the best known are, one at Golden-Bridge, one in the Phoenix Park, and one at Lucan. Southwell's Glen, about four miles south of the metropolis, is worthy of notice as a remarkably deep dale, lined with lofty trees, and adorned by a waterfall. From the district of Fingal, which is the ancient name of a large tract of indefinite extent to the north of Dublin, the distinguished family of Plunkett derives the titles of Earl and Baron.


Arms.

DUBLIN, the metropolis of Ireland, and a city and county of itself, in the province of LEINSTER, situated in 53° 21' (N. Lat.) and 6° 17' (W. Lon.), 339 miles (N. W.) from London; containing, in 1831, 265,316 inhabitants, of which number, 204,155 are within the boundary of the civic jurisdiction, and the remainder in the county of Dublin.

The existence of this city, under the name of the city Eblana, was first noticed by Ptolemy, the Roman geographer, who lived about the year 140. Shortly after it is mentioned by the native historians, as being fixed on as the eastern boundary of a line of demarcation drawn westwards across the island to Galway, for the purpose of putting an end to a war between two rival monarchs, Con-Cead-Cathach, King of Ireland, and Mogha Nuagad, King of Munster; the portion of the island to the north of the boundary line being assigned to the former, the southern portion to the latter, of the contending parties. The city originally occupied the summit of the elevated ridge that now forms its central portion, extending from the Castle westwards towards Kilmainham, and was at first called by the native Irish Drom-Col-Coille, or the "Hill of Hazel wood," from the number of trees of that species which grew on it. The correctness of this conjecture as to the origin of the name is confirmed by the fact that, on clearing away the foundations of the old chapel royal in the castle, some years since, to prepare for the erection of the beautiful structure that now supplies its place, they were ascertained to have been laid on piles of hazelwood. Another ancient name, still retained by the natives, is Bally-Ath-Cliath-Duibhlinne, the "Town of the Ford of Hurdles on the Blackwater," given to it in consequence of the people having access to the river by means of hurdles laid over its marshy borders, before it was embanked. By the Danish settlers in the district of Fingal, to the north of the city, it was called Divelin, and by the Welsh it is still called Dinas Dulin.

The only circumstance on record connected with the city, during a long interval, is that the inhabitants of Leinster were defeated in a great battle fought at Dublin, by Fiacha Sraotine, monarch of Ireland, in 291. After which its annals present a total blank until the year 448, when, according to Josceline, Alphin Mac Eochaid, King of Bally-Ath-Cliath, was converted to Christianity by the preaching of St. Patrick, and baptised by him at a spring on the southern side of the city, near the tower of the cathedral afterwards dedicated to that saint, and still known by the name of St. Patrick's well. The Black Book of Christ-Church, a manuscript of high antiquity and repute, states that St. Patrick celebrated mass in one of the arches or vaults built by the Danish or Ostman merchants as a depository for their goods, long before the fleets of that nation appeared on the coast with the intention of taking military occupation of the country. It was not till the beginning of the ninth century that these marauders, who afterwards harassed all the northern coasts of Europe by their predatory invasions, divested themselves of the character of merchants, in which they had hitherto maintained an intercourse with the people of Ireland, to assume that of conquerors. In 836, the Ostmen or Easterlings, by which name the Danes were then known, entered the Liffey in a fleet of sixty ships in aid of their countrymen, who had ravaged the land and even fixed themselves in some districts several years before. Dublin now submitted to them for the first time; and they secured themselves in the possession of it by the erection of a strong rath, which enabled them not only to overawe the city but to extend their power through Fingal, to the north, and to Bray and the Wicklow mountains to the south. The district from that time was the principal Danish settlement in Leinster; Fin-Gal, to the north of the river, having acquired its name, as being the territory of the " White Strangers," or Norwegians; and the tract to the south being distinguished by the appellation of Dubh-Gal, or the territory of the " Black Strangers," from the Danes.

But the invaders did not enjoy their newly gained acquisition in tranquillity. On the death of their king Tor-magnus or Turgesius, who, after having reigned despotically over a great part of the island for more than 40 years, was defeated and put to death, in S45, by Malachy, King of Ireland, the Danes were driven out of Dublin, and the city plundered by the Irish of Meath and Leinster. In the year following, however, they regained possession of it and secured themselves by adding new fortifications to those already constructed, and were still further strengthened by the arrival of Amlave, or Aulaffe, who, having landed in 853 with a powerful reinforcement of Danes and Norwegians, assumed the supreme authority over all the Danish settlers; and in the hope of enjoying quiet possession of his newly acquired dignity, he concluded a truce with the neighbouring Irish chieftains, but it continued only for three years. The annals of the remainder of this century are occupied with recitals of reciprocal attacks of the Irish and the foreigners, in which the one party failed to expel the invaders, and the other was equally unsuccessful in enlarging the bounds of their authority, or even of fixing it on a permanent basis in the capital of the district that acknowledged their sway : in one of those conflicts, Clondalkin, the favourite residence of Aulaffe, was burnt and upwards of one hundred of his principal followers were slain; in another he retaliated on the enemy, by plundering and burning the city of Armagh. So firmly did the Danish king feel himself fixed in his restored dominion, that he proceeded with his son Ivar, in a fleet of 200 vessels to aid his countrymen Hinguar and Hubba, then contending against the Saxons in the West of England, and returned next year laden with booty. On the death of Aulaffe, which took place the year following, his son Ivar succeeded him in the government of Dublin, where the opinion of his power was such that the Irish annals give him the title of King of the Normans of all Ireland. A few years after, the men of Dublin fitted out an expedition under the command of Ostin Mac Aulaffe against the Picts of North Britain, in which they were successful. Encouraged by these instances of good fortune, they again invaded South Wales, but were driven out with great loss; to wipe off which disgrace they made an incursion into Anglesey, a few years after, and ravaged it with fire and sword. During all this period hostilities were carried on between them and the Irish with little intermission. The annals of the tenth century state that Dublin was four times taken by the Irish, and the Danes expelled from it, but they invariably returned in strength sufficient to re-establish themselves, and often to retaliate severely on their enemies. This century is remarkable for other events connected with Dublin. Aulaffe Mac Godfrid, the king, was defeated in Northumberland by Athelstan, King of England; and about the middle of the century, the Ostmen of Dublin embraced Christianity. The first public proof of their conversion was the foundation of the monastery of the Blessed Virgin, near Ostmanstown, on the northern bank of the Liffey. About the same time, Edgar, King of England, is said to have subdued Wales, the Isle of Man, and part of Ireland, particularly the city of Dublin, of which mention is made in his charter dated at Gloucester, in 964.

Towards the close of the century, the power of the Danes in this part of Ireland began to decline. In 980, they were defeated in a memorable battle at Taragh by Melaghlin, King of Ireland, who, following up his success, ravaged Fingal with fire and sword, and compelled the inhabitants of Dublin to pay a tribute of an ounce of gold for every capital messuage and garden in the city. Reginald, the Danish king, was so much affected by his losses that he undertook a pilgrimage to the Isle of Iona, where he died. The last year of the century was rendered still more memorable by the capture of Dublin by the celebrated Brian Boroimhe, King of Munster, who, after exacting hostages to secure his conquest, permitted the Danes to retain possession of it, a concession of which they immediately took advantage by strengthening it with several additional fortifications. Still, however, their power, though diminished, was not destroyed; for, in the commencement of the ensuing century, Brian Boroimhe, in order effectually to crush them, found it necessary to form a confederacy of most of the subordinate kings of Ireland. The result was the celebrated battle of Clontarf, fought in 1014, in which the Danes were totally defeated, and the shattered remains of their army forced to shut themselves up in Dublin. But the triumph of the conquerors was diminished by the death of their leader, who received a mortal wound at the moment of victory: his son, a number of his nobles, and 11,000 of his soldiers shared his fate. The Danes still kept possession of the city. In 1038, Christ-Church was founded by Sitric the king, and by Donat, the first Danish bishop of Dublin; Aulaffe, Sitric's son, who succeeded him, fitted out a large fleet in order to reinstate Conan, the prince of North Wales, who had fled to Ireland to escape from the cruelties of Grufydd ab Llewelyn, an usurper, and had afterwards married Sitric's daughter. The expedition, though at first so successful as to have gained possession of Grufydd's person by stratagem, ultimately failed; for the Welsh, on hearing of his capture, assembled in great numbers, rescued Grufydd, and drove Conan and his Danish auxiliaries to their ships with great slaughter. A second expedition fitted out the ensuing year was equally unfortunate : the greater part of Conan's fleet was destroyed by a tempest and himself driven back on the Irish shore. He made no further attempt to regain his throne, but spent the remainder of his life with his father-in-law in Dublin.

The city was soon after exposed to the assaults of a new enemy. In 1066, Godred Crovan, King of Man, obtained possession of it and overran a large portion of Leinster, over which he assumed the title of king, which he retained till his death, together with that of Man and of the Hebrides. On his demise the sovereign power again devolved on the Danes, who elected Godfrey Meranagh to succeed him. The Danes, though constantly exposed to the hostilities of the natives, against whom they had great difficulty in maintaining their position in the country, increased their difficulties by their internal dissensions. In 1088, those of Dublin besieged the city of Waterford, which was also inhabited by a colony of the same nation, entered it by storm and burnt it to the ground; and in the following year, the united Danish forces of Dublin, Wicklow, and Waterford proceeded to Cork with a similar intention, but were routed on their march thither and forced to return with considerable loss. For some time after the district appears to have been subject to the kings of Ireland, as no mention is made of any Danish ruler there. At the same time it appears that the kings of England endeavoured to obtain some influence in the affairs of Ireland, for it is stated that Rodolphus, Archbishop of Canterbury, by the orders of Henry I., consecrated one Gregory Archbishop of Dublin, in 1121, and that this act was done with the concurrence of Turlogh O'Brien, then King of Ireland. Afterwards, however, Dermod Mac Murchad, or Mac Murrough, King of Leinster, exercised paramount authority in the city. He founded the nunnery of St. Mary de Hogges, and the priory of Allhallows, both in its immediate vicinity, and, after overrunning all the surrounding country, forced the Danish residents there to acknowledge his supremacy, which he retained until the commencement of the reign of Roderic O'Conor, King of Ireland, who, on his attainment of the supreme monarchy, was recognised as King of Dublin by the inhabitants, and they in return received from him a present of four thousand oxen.

After the reduction of Wexford by the English forces, who landed at Bannow bay, in 1169, under the command of Robert Fitz-Stephen, to assist Dermod Mac Murrough in the recovery of Leinster, the combined force marched upon Dublin. The garrison, intimidated by the reports of the numbers and ferocity of the assailants, sued for peace, which was granted on the payment of tribute secured by hostages. Asculph Mac Torcall, the Danish king, was suffered to retain the government, and Dermod retired with his English auxiliaries to the southern part of Leinster, where he was joined by Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, who had landed with a reinforcement of fifteen or sixteen hundred men, and taken Waterford by storm from the Danes. The combined army thus enforced resolved upon another attack on Dublin, either in consequence of a second revolt, or, as the Irish writers assert, to gratify the vindictive feelings of Dermod, who hoped thus to revenge the injury and insult of his former expulsion. Roderic, King of Ireland, hearing of the intended movement, levied an army of 30,000 men, which he posted at Clondalkin to oppose the invaders; but on their nearer approach he disbanded his troops, and retired across the Shannon. The citizens perceiving themselves thus abandoned, again had recourse to treaty; but while they were preparing to select the hostages required of them, Milo de Cogan, one of the English leaders, forced his way into the place. Asculph and most of the Danes took shelter on board their fleet, and the city was, after much slaughter, taken possession of by the English.

Roderic now made a second attempt to expel the strangers, for which purpose he invested Dublin with an army of double the number he had formerly collected, and reduced the place to such straits, that Strongbow deputed Laurence O'Toole, the archbishop, to treat with him for a surrender. The terms offered by the Irish king were not only the surrender of all the towns held by the English, but their total evacuation of the country. When these humiliating conditions were reported, Milo de Cogan protested against thus relinquishing the earnings of so many hard-fought battles, and proposed a general sally upon the enemy. His advice was adopted. The English forces, leaving behind them in the city their Irish auxiliaries, on whose fidelity they had less reliance, and led on by Milo, proceeded to Roderic's head-quarters at Finglass, which they assaulted so suddenly that he was obliged to escape half dressed from a bath, and his whole army was dispersed.

Strongbow being soon after called to England, Asculph Mac Torcall, during his absence, arrived in the harbour of Dublin with a fleet of 60 ships and an army of 10,000 men levied in the isle of Man, the Orkneys, and Norway, and proceeded at once to storm the city. His main body was led on by John de Dene, a Norwegian of great military repute, who was repulsed by Milo de Cogan, with the loss of 500 men; and the Danes being unexpectedly attacked in the rear by another body of the garrison, which had made a sally from a different quarter, they were utterly routed, and their king Asculph made prisoner and put to death. . The relics of the Danish army which escaped the sword were cut in pieces by the peasantry through the country, in revenge for their former cruelties, so that scarcely 2000 gained their ships, most of whom were destroyed by a tempest during their voyage home. This defeat put an end to the Danish power in these parts. An attempt made, soon after, to seize on the city by Tiernan O'Rourke, the chieftain of Breffny, who thought that the garrison, exhausted by its late struggle, though successful, would be incapable of making a vigorous resistance to the large force he was bringing against it, also failed.

The arrival of Henry II., who landed at Waterford with a large fleet and a numerous train in 1172 caused a great change in the state of the city. He had compelled Strongbow to surrender to him all his conquests in Ireland : the lands were restored, to be held by feudal tenure, but the fortified places were retained in the king's hands. Henry, after having received the homage of most of the petty chieftains of the south, arrived in Dublin, in the beginning of winter, and celebrated the feast of Christmas there in great splendour; on which occasion a pavilion of hurdles, after the Irish fashion, was erected in the eastern suburb, where the court was held, and where several of the native princes did homage to him. Hugh de Lacy and William Fitz Aldelm were commissioned to receive the homage of Roderic, King of Ireland, who declined crossing the Shannon. Being unexpectedly hurried away to oppose a revolt of his own sons in Normandy, Henry quitted the city, for Wexford, whence he embarked for England on Easter-Monday, leaving Hugh de Lacy in charge of the place as governor, with twenty men at arms, and Robert Fitz-Stephen and Maurice Fitz-Gerald with the same number, as wardens and constables. Milo de Cogan, to whose intrepidity the English had been indebted for their conquest, accompanied Henry on his departure. Previously to his leaving the city, the king granted it a charter, entitling it to the same privileges as Bristol then enjoyed : the original is still preserved in the archives of the corporation. By a subsequent charter of the same king, the citizens are freed from payment of toll, passage, and pontage, throughout England, Normandy, Wales, and Ireland. Three years after Henry's departure, Strong-bow made an incursion into Munster, in which he was accompanied by the Ostmen of Dublin, but was surprised on his march by Donald, Prince of Ossory, and defeated, with the loss of 400 of the citizens. Elated with this success, Roderic O'Conor ravaged the country even to the walls of Dublin. Shortly after, Strongbow died of a mortification in his foot, and was buried in Christ Church, where his monument is still preserved. Previously to his death he had founded the extensive and wealthy preceptory of Knights-Templars, on the site on which the Royal Hospital now stands. In the same year, Vivian, the pope's legate, held a synod in the city, at which he caused the title of Henry II. to the lordship of Ireland to be proclaimed; and denounced an excommunication against all who should refuse allegiance to him. In 1185, John, Earl of Morton, the favourite son of Henry II., having been invested by his father with the lordship of Ireland, arrived in Dublin, attended by a train of young noblemen; but a series of insurrections taking place, he was recalled.

From the period -of the arrival of the English and their conquest of Dublin, the city was considered to be the most appropriate position to secure their possessions and to facilitate their intercourse with their native country. To promote this object, instructions were given by John, shortly after the commencement of his reign, to Meyler Fitz-Henry, to erect a castle on the eastern brow of the hill on which the city stood, for which purpose 300 marks were assigned; an order was also issued to compel the inhabitants to repair and strengthen the fortifications. The necessity of a precautionary measure of this nature was confirmed by a calamity which befel the city in 1209, in which year the citizens, while amusing themselves according to custom on Easter-Monday in Cullen's wood, near the southern suburbs, were attacked unawares by the Irish of the neighbouring mountains and driven into the town, after the slaughter of more than 500 of their number. The day was for a long time after distinguished by the name of Black Monday, and commemorated by a parade of the citizens on the field of the conflict, were they appeared in arms and challenged their enemies to renew the encounter. The castle, however, was not completed till 1220, during the government of Henry de Loundres, Archbishop of Dublin and Lord-Justice. King John on his visit to Ireland in 1210, established courts of judicature on the model of those in England, deposited an abstract of the English laws and customs in the Exchequer, and issued a coinage of pence and farthings of the same standard as the English. Henry III. granted several charters, which were confirmed and extended by Edward I., who also fixed a standard for coin in England, according to which that of Ireland was to be regulated: during his reign there were four mints in Dublin, besides others at Waterford and Drogheda. About the close of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century a great part of the city was destroyed by fires, one of which consumed many of the public records, which had been lodged in St. Mary's abbey. An attempt to found an university, made in 1311 by Archbishop Leck, who procured a papal bull for this purpose, failed in consequence of the unsettled state of the country, but was revived with more success in 1320 by Alexander de Bicknor, the next archbishop. In 1312, the mountain septs of the O'Byrnes and O'Tooles made an incursion into Rathcool and Saggard, when the chief force of the city had been despatched into Louth, or Orgial, to quell an insurrection of the Verdons, but on its return the southern invaders were forced to retire into their fastnesses. Three years after, when David O'Toole and some others of his sept made a similar attempt, by placing an ambush in Cullen's wood, the citizens issued out against them with their black banner displayed, and did execution on them for several miles.

The year 1315 is remarkable for the invasion of Edward Bruce, brother of Robert Bruce, King of Scotland, who landed at Carrickfergus at the head of 6000 men, to establish his claim to the crown of Ireland by force of arms. The citizens, on hearing that he was advancing southwards and had taken Greencastle, in Carlingford bay, one of the border fortresses of the English pale, sent out a strong party by sea, recovered the place, and brought the governor to Dublin, where he was starved to death in prison. This success, however, did not put a stop to the advance of Bruce, who marched upon Dublin with the intention of besieging it. The citizens, on his approach, set fire to the suburb of Thomas-street, in consequence of which St. John's Church without Newgate, and the Magdalene chapel were burnt. The church of the Dominicans was also pulled down, in order to use the stones for repairing and extending the city walls on the north side towards the river. The gallant determination of the citizens had its effect. Bruce, after destroying St. Mary's abbey and plundering the cathedral of St. Patrick, drew off his army and marched westward into Kildare. In consideration of the sufferings and losses of the citizens, Edward II. remitted half of their fee-farm rent. At the close of the century the city was twice visited by Rich. II.; at first, in 1394, when he marched hither from Waterford, about Michaelmas, at the head of an army of 30,000 foot and 4000 horse, and remained till the beginning of the ensuing summer. His second visit, which took place in 1399, was cut short by the unwelcome news of the insurrection of the Duke of Lancaster, afterwards Henry IV., which hurried him back to England.

During the reign of Henry IV. the citizens adhered firmly to him throughout the civil war excited by the Earl of Northumberland and Owain Glyndwr, and caused a diversion in his favour by fitting out a fleet with which they invaded Scotland, and, after several landings on the coast, proceeded in like manner along that of Wales, whence they carried away the shrine of St. Cubic and on their return placed it in the cathedral of Christ-Church. In consequence of these services they obtained from the king a confirmation of all their former charters, and the present of a gilded sword to be borne before the mayor in public, in the same manner as before the lord mayor of London. The border war between the citizens and the Irish of the neighbouring mountains was carried on with great fury during this and the succeeding reigns. In 1402, John Drake, the provost, led out a strong party against the O'Byrnes, whom he defeated with a slaughter, as some writers say, of 4000 men, but according to others of 400, and compelled them to surrender the castle of Newcastle-MacKynegan. In 1410, the lord-deputy made another incursion into the territory of the O'Byrnes, but was forced to retreat in consequence of the desertion of a large body of his kernes; and in 1413 the O'Byrnes gave the citizens a signal defeat and carried off many prisoners. In 1431, Mac Murrough, King of Leinster, made an incursion into the vicinity of Dublin, defeated the troops sent out to oppose him, and carried off much booty; but the citizens having collected a fresh body of troops, pursued the enemy the same evening, attacked them unawares, and routed them with great loss. The city was much disturbed, about this time, by the contentions between the Kildare and Ormonde families. To decide one of their disputes, in which Thomas Fitzgerald, prior of Kilmainham, had accused the Earl of Ormonde of treason, a trial by combat was appointed at Smith-field, in Oxmantown; but the quarrel being taken up by the king was terminated without bloodshed. The mayor and citizens, having taken part with the Fitz-geralds in these broils, and grossly insulted the Earl of Ormonde, and violated the sanctity of St. Mary's abbey, were compelled to do penance, in 1434, by going barefoot to that monastery and to Christ-Church and St. Patrick's cathedrals, and craving pardon at the doors. In 1479, the fraternity of arms of St. George, consisting of thirteen of the most honourable and loyal inhabitants in the counties of Dublin, Meath, Kildare, and Louth, was formed by act of parliament, for the defence of the English pale : the mayor of Dublin was appointed one of the commanders of the force raised in the city; the fraternity was discontinued in 1492. A bull for the foundation of an university in the city was published by Pope Sextus in 1475, but was never carried into effect.

When Lambert Simnel claimed the crown of England, in the beginning of the reign of Henry VII., his title was recognised in Dublin, where he was crowned in Christ-Church, in the presence of the lord-deputy, the lords of the council, the mayor, and all the citizens; after the ceremony was concluded, he was carried in state to the castle, according to the Irish custom, on the shoulders of Darcy of Platten, a man of extraordinary stature. On Simnel's defeat at Stoke, the mayor and citizens made a humble apology to the king for the part they had taken in the affair, pleading the authority and influence of the lord-deputy, the archbishop, and most of the clergy. Their pardon was granted through Sir Richard Edgecumbe, who was specially deputed by Henry to administer the oaths of fealty and allegiance to the Irish after the insurrection : this officer entered Dublin on the 5th of July, 1488, for the fulfilment of his mission, and embarked for England at Dalkey, on the 30th of the same month, after having successfully accomplished the objects for which he had been deputed. In 1504, the mayor and citizens contributed their share to the victory gained by the Earl of Kildare, lord-deputy, over the Irish and degenerate English of Connaught, at Knock tow, near Galway. A few years after, the revival of the controversy between the Earls of Kildare and Ormonde again subjected the citizens to ecclesiastical censures. The two Earls had a meeting in St. Patrick's cathedral, for the ostensible purpose of compromising their feud; the citizens attended the former as his guard, and on some cause of complaint between them and the Earl of Ormonde's soldiers, they let fly a volley of arrows, some of which struck the images in the rood-loft. In atonement for this sacrilegious violation of the building, the mayor was sentenced to walk barefoot before the host on Corpus Christi day yearly, a ceremony which was kept up till the Reformation.

During the early period of the reign of Henry VIII., the people of Dublin gave several instances of loyalty and courage. In 1513 they attended the lord-deputy in a hosting against O'Carrol, which terminated without any remarkable action, in consequence of the death of their leader. In 1516 they routed the O'Tooles of the mountains, slew their chief, and sent his head a present to the mayor : a second expedition, however, was less successful; the O'Tooles drove them back with loss. Afterwards, in 1521, they performed good service under the Earl of Surrey against O'More, in Leix, and O'Conor in Meath. But the most remarkable event connected with the city, during the reign of Henry VIII., arose out of the rebellion of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, commonly called the Silken Knight, from the fantastical fringes with which the helmets of his followers were decorated. This young nobleman had been appointed lord-deputy in the absence of his father, the Earl of Kildare, who was summoned to appear before Henry, to answer some charges brought against him, as chief governor of Ireland; and on a false report that his father had been imprisoned and put to death in London, he proceeded, without making further inquiry into the truth of the allegation, at the head of his armed followers, to St. Mary's abbey, where the council was sitting, threw down the sword of state, and notwithstanding the paternal remonstrances of the primate, Archbishop Cromer, bade defiance to the king and declared himself his open enemy. After ravaging Fingal, where he seized and put to death Alan, then archbishop of Dublin, the enemy of his family, he laid siege to the castle, but after several ineffectual attempts to carry it by storm he surrendered to Lord Leonard Grey, and was ultimately sent to England, where he was executed with five of his uncles, who not only had taken no part in the insurrection, but had been active in dissuading him from engaging in it. In recompense for the citizens' gallant defence, the king granted them the dissolved monastery of All Hallows, without Dames Gate, confirmed a grant of £49. 6. 8. made by Rich. II., and released them from an annual rent of £20.

In 1547, the Byrnes and O'Tooles, presuming on the weakness of the government during the minority of Edward VI., made frequent inroads into the neighbourhood of Dublin, to the great annoyance of the inhabitants. The close vicinity of the mountains and the difficulties of the passes through which they were accessible, rendered the defence of the suburbs difficult, and retaliation hazardous; but at length Sir Anthony St. Leger, lord-deputy, with a body of the standing army, and a considerable number of the city militia, made a successful inroad into their fastnesses, defeated them in a great battle, killed their chief, and brought sixteen of the Fitzgeralds prisoners to Dublin, where they were all executed as traitors. In 1552, the mayor, at the head of the armed citizens, being joined with the townsmen of Drogheda, marched against the O'Reillys of Cavan, whom they put down : but, on their return, the victory was likely to be sullied by a dispute between the two commanders, as to the honour of leading the vanguard; which was at last terminated in favour of the mayor of Dublin, by an order confirming his right of leading the van when going out, and the rear when returning home

In the first year of Queen Mary's reign, the citizens marched out against the Cavanaghs, who with a large army were devastating the southern part of the county of Dublin, and whom they routed, killing many and compelling the remainder to shut themselves up in Powers-court castle, whence, having been at length forced to surrender at discretion, after an obstinate resistance, they were taken to Dublin, and 74 of them executed : the rest were pardoned.

Queen Elizabeth, in the beginning of her reign, caused the castle to be fitted up as a residence for the lord-lieutenant, who, previously to this arrangement, had resided at Thomas Court. In 1579, the public records were arranged in Birmingham tower, Dublin Castle; and three years afterwards the courts of law were transferred from the castle to St. Mary's abbey, which occupied nearly the site of the buildings in which they are now held on the north side of the river. In 1586, the king's exchequer, then held without the eastern gate on the ground now called Exchequer-street, was plundered by a party of Irish from the mountains. The year 1591 is memorable for the foundation of Trinity College. In 1599, the Earl of Essex arrived in Dublin at the head of a large army, and after his removal Sir Charles Blount, afterwards Lord Mountjoy, who had been appointed to succeed him in the command of the army raised against the Earl of Tyrone, landed there with 6000 men : but his operations gave rise to no circumstances peculiarly affecting the city.

In 1607, the Government was thrown into the greatest alarm by a letter found on the floor of the council-chamber in the castle, containing intimations of a conspiracy entered into by the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell, and other northern chieftains, to seize the city and excite a general insurrection against the English government. Instant measures were employed to arrest the imputed leaders, several of whom were taken and executed, but the two Earls had sufficient notice of the designs against them to save themselves by flight; their immense estates were confiscated. In 1613, a parliament was held in Dublin, after a lapse of 27 years: it was the first in which representatives were sent from all the counties, and is still more remarkable for a dispute respecting the election of a speaker between the Protestant and Roman Catholic parties, which terminated in the triumph of the former, and the secession of the latter from the House of Commons. In 1614, a convocation was held here, which established the thirty-nine articles of religion; and a subsequent convocation, in 1634, adopted a body of canons for the regulation of the Established Church.

After a period of 40 years of uninterrupted tranquillity, both to the city and the nation, the prospect of its further continuance was destroyed by the discovery of a plot to seize the castle, on the 23rd of October, 1641, as the first movement of a general insurrection against the English Government. The plan was disclosed by an accomplice, on the evening before the day it was to have been put into execution, and thus frustrated as far as the city was concerned. So little had the occurrence of such an event been apprehended that, in the year before, a large portion of the city walls was allowed to fall to ruin. To aid in their repairs, and to meet the other urgent necessities of the state, the citizens were called upon by proclamation to send in their plate, on promise of repayment, an expedient which produced only £1200 towards the relief of the public exigencies. Next year the mayor was invited to the council, to confer on a project for raising £10,000, half in money and the remainder in provisions, to enable the king's army to take the field; but such was the poverty of the place, that the project was relinquished as impracticable. On an alarm of an intended attack on Dublin, by the Irish forces of Owen Roe O'Nial and General Preston, in 1646, the Marquess of Ormonde, then lord-lieutenant, determined to strengthen the city by a line of outworks thrown up on its eastern side, between the castle and the college. On this occasion the women set a remarkable example of public spirit, the Marchioness of Ormonde and other ladies placing themselves at their head, and the whole assisting in carrying baskets of earth to the lines. Famine, however, proved the city's best safeguard. The Marquess had caused the country to be laid waste, and the mills and bridges to be destroyed for several miles round, so that the besieging army, amounting to 10,000 foot and 1000 horse, was forced to retire without any attempt of importance. So confident was Ormonde now of his own strength, that he refused admission to commissioners sent by the English parliament with 1400 men, but the very next year he was compelled, by extreme necessity, to surrender the place to them, rather than suffer it to fall into the hands of the Irish; after which, Owen Roe O'Nial, being baffled in another attempt upon the city, revenged himself by ravaging the surrounding country with such fury that from one of the town steeples 200 fires were seen blazing at once. The Marquess of Ormonde returned in 1649, with a determination to regain possession of the city. He first fixed his head-quarters at Finglas, but afterwards removed to Rathmines, on the south side. An unexpected sally of the garrison, to destroy some works he was throwing up at Bagotsrath, led to a general engagement, in which his troops, struck with an unaccountable panic, gave way. with such precipitation, that he had scarcely time to make his escape. The city remained in the hands of the parliament during the remainder of the war. At the close of the same year, Oliver Cromwell landed here with a well-appointed army of 13,000 men : after remaining a short time to refresh his troops, and to arrange his affairs, he left it for Drogheda, which he took, and treated those by whom he was opposed with a degree of cruelty seldom paralleled in the annals of modern warfare. In 1652, the war having been declared at an end, a high court of justice was erected in Dublin, for the trial of persons charged with murder and other atrocities not tolerated by the rules of war, by which, among many others of less note, Sir Phelim O'Nial, the first and principal leader of the insurrection in Ulster, was condemned and executed. In 1659, a party of general officers, well inclined to the Restoration, surprised the castle, and having secured the parliamentary commissioners of Government, who resided there, declared for a free parliament; they then, upon the petition of the mayor and aldermen, summoned a convention, and though the castle was again surprised by Sir Hardress Waller, for the parliament, he was forced to surrender it, after a siege of five days, and Charles II. was formally proclaimed. Charles, immediately after his restoration, rewarded the services of the citizens by the donation of a cap of maintenance, a golden collar of office, and a foot company to the mayor, and some years after, a pension of £500 was allowed him in lieu of the company. In 1663, several discontented officers, among whom was the notorious Col. Blood, formed a plan to seize the castle, which was discovered by one of the accomplices.

About this period the city began to increase rapidly in extent, and in the number and elegance of its public buildings. The ground to the north of the river, formerly considered as a separate jurisdiction, under the name of Oxmantown, was connected with the city by four new bridges, and has since formed an integral part of it: it had hitherto been but a single parish, but was, some years after, in consequence of the increase of houses and inhabitants, subdivided into three. Numerous improvements were successively carried into effect, and the increase of population kept pace with them. In 1688, King James visited Dublin, where he held a parliament, which passed acts to repeal the act of settlement, to attaint a number of Protestants, and to establish an enlarged system of national education. He also established a mint, in which a quantity of base metal was coined. The year 1690 is marked by the decisive battle of the Boyne, after which James passed one night in Dublin Castle, during his precipitate retreat from the kingdom; in 1701, an equestrian statue of William. III. was erected on College Green, to commemorate that victory. On King William's arrival, his first act was to repair in state to St. Patrick's cathedral, to return public thanks for the success which had crowned his arms. Previously to the battle of the Boyne, Sir Cloudesly Shovel, who commanded at sea for the latter monarch, took a frigate out of Dublin harbour, in which much of the plate and valuables of the Roman Catholic nobility and gentry had been embarked, under an apprehension of the event which so soon after decided the fate of their cause in Ireland.

During the period between the revolution and the legislative union, the city increased in an unprecedented manner in extent, wealth, and splendour. The effects are attributable partly to the long period of peace from the former of these eras to the commencement of the American war, but more so to the parliamentary grants which were expended on objects of utility. Afterwards, the regulation which made the lord-lieutenant a fixed resident in Dublin, instead of being a periodical visitor for a few months every second year, when he came over from England to hold a parliament; the shortening of the duration of these assemblies, the removal of the restrictions by which the national industry and the spirit of commercial speculation had been shackled, combined with the general extension of literature and science throughout the western kingdoms of Europe, tended to promote this effect. In 1798, the Leinster provisional committee of the United Irishmen were seized, with all their papers, and Lord Edward Fitzgerald, the chief leader of the insurgents, was arrested, after a desperate conflict with his captors, and lodged in prison, where he shortly after died of his wounds. The following statement will show the increase of population from about the middle of the 17th century till the legislative union : in 1682 the number of inhabitants was 64,483; in 1728, 146,075; in 1753, 128,570; in 1777, 138,208; and in 1798, 182,370.

The local events of the period which has elapsed since the Union are too numerous to particularise in a condensed narrative. The principal occurrences are the public meetings and associations for the attainment of political objects, organised insurrections, tumults resulting from those causes and embittered by the acrimony of party spirit, and visitations of famine, during which the working classes suffered great distress. Two events, however, deserve more particular notice. In 1803, a sudden and alarming insurrection broke out in the city : it was planned and carried into effect by Robert Emmet, a young gentleman of respectable family, who, at his own sole expense and with the aid of a few associates of desperate fortune, secretly formed a depot of arms and ammunition in a retired lane off Thomas-street, whence he issued early in the night of the 23rd of July, at the head of a band chiefly brought in from the neighbouring counties of Kildare and Wicklow, and was proceeding to the castle, when the progress of his followers was checked by the coming up of Lord Kilwarden, chief justice of the king's bench, who, on hearing a rumour of insurrection at his country seat, had hurried to town in his carriage with his daughter and nephew. Both the males were killed; the lady, being allowed to pass in safety, gave the alarm at the castle, and detachments being immediately sent out, the undisciplined multitude was at once dispersed with some loss of life, and the leaders, who had escaped to the mountains, were soon after taken and executed. On the accession of George IV., in 1820, his majesty received a deputation from Dublin, consisting of the lord mayor and city officers, on his throne : this was the first address from the city thus honoured. The next year, on the 12th of August, the king's birth-day, he landed in Ireland, and after remaining till Sept. 3rd, partly at the Phoenix Lodge," and partly at Slane Castle in Meath, during which time he visited most of the public institutions of Dublin, and held a chapter of the order of St. Patrick, at which nine knights were installed, he sailed from Dunleary (since called Kingstown) amidst the enthusiastic acclamations of an unprecedented multitude.

EXTENT AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE CITY.

The city, which was originally confined to the summit of the hill, on the eastern brow of which the castle now stands, and whose circuit within the walls was little more than a mile round, and its suburbs confined to the few adjacent streets, now occupies a space covering 1264 acres, and is about nine miles in circumference. It is situated, at the western extremity of Dublin bay, and at the mouth of the Liffey, which passes nearly through the middle of it. The hill, which now forms the central part of the city, stands in the lowest part of the basin of the Liffey, which rises gradually on the southern side into the beautiful line of the Wicklow mountains, that skirt the boundary of the county, and still more gradually on the north and west till it loses itself in the extended plains of Fingal and Kildare. It is somewhat more than three miles long in a direct line from east to west, and of nearly equal breadth from north to south, and contains upwards of 800 streets and 22,000 houses : the foot-paths are well flagged, and the carriage ways partly paved and partly Macadamised. The paving, lighting, and cleansing of the public avenues is regulated by an act passed in the 47th, and amended by one of the 54th, of George III., authorising the lord-lieutenant to appoint three commissioners, who are a corporation under the title of the " Commissioners for Paving, Cleansing, and Lighting the City of Dublin :" the total annual expenditure averages about £30,000. Several local acts have been passed for the supply of gas-light, and there are four companies,--the Dublin Gas Company, the Hibernian Gas-light Company, the Oil Gas Company, and the Alliance Company. An ample supply of water is obtained by pipes laid down from reservoirs on both sides of the river to the houses and the public fountains, under a committee appointed in pursuance of acts passed in the 42nd and 49th of George III., the expense of which is defrayed by a rate called the pipe-water tax, producing about £14,000 annually. Three basins have been formed; one at the extremity of Basin-lane, in James-street, half a mile in circumference and surrounded by a broad gravel walk, formerly a favourite promenade; another at the upper end of Blessington-street, encompassed by a terrace, for the supply of the northern side of the city; and the third on the bank of the canal, near Portobello harbour, for the sup-ply of the south-eastern part. Considerable improvements have been made by the Commissioners "for opening wide and convenient streets," appointed under an act of the 31st of George II., whose powers were subsequently extended by various successive acts till the 51st of George III. Their funds, till recently, were derived from a tonnage upon coal and a local rate, called " the wide street tax," the former of which ceased in 1832, and the funds arising from the latter amount to about £5500 per ann. Among the chief improvements are the opening of a passage from the Castle to Essex bridge, an enlargement of the avenue from the same place to the Parliament House (now the Bank of Ireland), the opening of Westmoreland-street and Sackville-street, the clearing away the buildings that interfered with the free thoroughfare along the quays on both sides of the river, the entrance into the city by Great Brunswick-street, besides various improvements in the vicinity of the cathedrals of Christ-Church and St. Patrick. In short, the city may be said to have been new-moulded since the year 1760, through the instrumentality of this Board, as there is no portion of it which does not exhibit in a greater or smaller degree the results of its labours in improvements tending to augment its beauty or to add to its salubrity. A circular road nearly nine miles in circuit, carried round the city, affords great facilities of communication throughout all the outlets, and also walks and drives of much beauty. Some portions of this road, however, particularly on the southern side, are already absorbed into the city by the continued extension of the streets; and most of the other parts, particularly on the eastern side, are likely, from the same cause, shortly to lose their distinguishing characteristic of an encircling avenue. On the north side of this road is the Royal Canal, and on the south, the Grand Canal; both terminating in docks near the mouth of the Liffey: and beyond these are, on the north, a small river called the Tolka, formerly called Tulkan and Tolekan, which empties itself into the sea at Ballybough bridge; and on the south, the river Dodder, which, curving northward, terminates with the Liffey at the harbour, forming two striking natural boundaries towards which the city is gradually extending itself. The city is now closely connected with the harbour of Kingstown by a railway formed under an act of parliament of the 1st and 2nd of William IV., which was opened in Dec. 1834. The number of passengers conveyed upon it during the months of May, June, July, and August, 1836, was 523,080 : the greatest number conveyed in one day was 13,000.

In addition to the splendid line of communication afforded by the quays on both sides of the river, there are several noble avenues of fine streets, among which, that from the northern road is peculiarly striking, especially on entering Sackville-street, which is conspicuous for its great width, the magnificence and beauty of the public buildings which embellish it, and the lofty monument to Admiral Viscount Nelson, which stands in its centre. It consists of a fluted Doric column on a massive pedestal, inscribed on each side with the name and date of his lordship's principal victories, and over that which terminated his career is a sarcophagus : the whole is surmounted with a colossal statue of the Admiral, surrounded by a balustrade, to which there is an ascent by a spiral staircase in the interior. The structure was completed at an expense of nearly £7000. On the southern side of the city, the avenue from Kingstown is equally imposing. Both meet in College-green, a spacious area surrounded with noble buildings, and having in its centre an equestrian statue of William. III., of cast metal, upon a pedestal of marble. Of the public squares, St. Stephens-green, situated in the south-eastern quarter, is the most spacious, being nearly a mile in circuit: in the centre is an equestrian statue of George II., finely executed in brass by Van Nost; Merrion-square, to the east of the former, is about three-quarters of a mile in circuit; on the west the lawn of the Royal Dublin Society. Fitzwilliam-square has been recently built and is much smaller than either of the others; the houses are built with much uniformity in a neat but unornamented style; some of them have basements of granite and the upper stories of brick. Mountjoy-square, in an elevated and healthy situation in the north-eastern part of the city, is more than half a mile in circuit; the houses are uniformly built and present an appearance very similar to those in Fitzwilliam-square. Rutland-square is on the north side of the river, at the upper end of Sackville-street: three sides of it are formed by Gran-by-row, Palace-row, and Cavendish-row, the fourth by the Lying-in Hospital and the Rotundo. The areas of the several squares are neatly laid out in gravel walks and planted with flowering shrubs and evergreens. A line drawn from the King's Inns, in the north of Dublin, through Capel-street, the Castle and Aungier-street, thus intersecting the Liffey at right angles, would, together with the line of that river, divide the city into four districts, strongly opposed to each other in character and appearance. The south-eastern district, including St. Stephen's-green, Merrion-square, and Fitzwilliam-square, is chiefly inhabited by the nobility, the gentry, and the members of the liberal professions. The north-eastern district, including Mount-joy and Rutland-squares, is principally inhabited by the mercantile and official classes. The south-western district, including the liberties of St. Sepulchre and Thomas-court, and formerly the seat of the woollen and silk manufactures, is in a state of lamentable dilapidation, bordering on ruin : and the north-western district; in which are the Royal barracks and Smithfield (the great market for hay and cattle), presents striking indications of poverty.

BRIDGES.

The Liffey is embanked on both sides by a range of masonry of granite, forming a continuation of spacious quays through the whole of the city, and its opposite sides are connected with nine bridges, eight of which are of elegant design and highly ornamental. Carlisle bridge, the nearest to the sea, and connecting Westmoreland-street on the south with Sackville-street on the north, is a very elegant structure of three arches : it is 210 feet in length and 48 feet in breadth, and was completed in 1794. Wellington bridge, at the end of Liffey-street, 140 feet long, consists of a single elliptic arch of cast iron, and was erected in 1816, for the

accommodation of foot passengers only, at an expense of £3000, which is defrayed by a halfpenny toll. Essex bridge, connecting Capel-street with Parliament-street, and fronting the Royal Exchange, was built in 1755, on the site of a former structure of the same name, at an expense of £20,661; it is a handsome stone structure of five arches, 250 feet in length and 51 in width, after the model of Westminster bridge, London. Richmond bridge, built on the site of Ormond bridge, which had been swept away by a flood, was commenced in 1813; it connects Winetavern-street with Montrath-street, and was completed at an expense of £25,800, raised by presentments on the city and county, and opened to the public on St. Patrick's day, 1816; it is built of Portland stone, with a balustrade of cast iron, and is 220 feet long and 52 feet wide, consisting of three fine arches, the keystones of which are ornamented with colossal heads, on the one side representing Peace, Hibernia," and Commerce; and on the other, Plenty, the river Liffey, and Industry. Whitworth bridge supplies the place of the old bridge built by the Dominican friars, which had been for a long time the only communication between the city and its northern suburbs : the first stone was laid in 1816, by the Earl of Whitworth, then lord-lieutenant; it is an elegant structure of three arches, connecting Bridge-street with Church-street. Queen's bridge, a smaller structure of three arches of hewn stone, connecting Bridgefoot-street with Queen-street, is only 140 feet in length : it was built in 1768, on the site of Arran bridge, which was destroyed by a flood in 1763. Barrack bridge, formerly Bloody bridge, connecting Watling-street with the quay leading to the royal barracks, was originally constructed of wood, in 1671, and subsequently rebuilt, of stone. King's bridge, of which the first stone was laid by the Marquess Wellesley in 1827, connects the military road with the south-eastern entrance to the Phoenix Park, affording to the lord-lieutenant a retired and pleasant avenue from the Castle to his country residence; it consists of a single arch of cast iron, 100 feet in span, resting on abutments of granite richly ornamented, and was completed at an expense of £13,000, raised for the purpose of erecting a national testimonial in commemoration of the visit of George IV. to Ireland, in 1821. Sarah bridge, formerly Island bridge, but when rebuilt in its present form named after the Countess of Westmoreland, who laid the foundation stone in 1791, is a noble structure of a single arch, 104 feet in span, the keystone of which is 30 feet above low water mark : this bridge connects the suburban village of Island-Bridge with the north-western road and with one of the entrances to the Phoenix Park; from the peculiar elegance of its proportions, it has been distinguished by the name of the " Irish Rialto."

MANUFACTURE, TRADE, AND COMMERCE.

The woollen manufacture was carried on in Ireland at a very early period, and attained considerable celebrity both in the English and continental markets; but its first establishment in connection with Dublin did not take place till after the Revolution, when a number of English manufacturers, attracted by the excellent quality of the Irish wool, the cheapness of provisions, and the low price of labour, established regular and extensive factories in the liberties of the city. Soon afterwards the Coombe, Pimlico, Spitalfields, Weavers'-square, and the neighbouring streets, chiefly in the Liberties of the city, were built; and this portion of the metropolis was then inhabited by persons of opulence and respectability: but the English legislature, considering the rapid growth of the woollen manufacture of Ireland prejudicial to that of England, prevailed on King William to discourage it, in consequence of which the Liberties, by the removal of the more opulent manufacturers, soon fell into decay. The trade, however, continued to linger in that neighbourhood and even to revive in some degree by being taken, in 1773, under the protection of the Dublin Society; insomuch that, in 1792, there were 60 master clothiers, 400 broad cloth looms, and 100 narrow looms in the Liberties, giving employment to upwards of 5000 persons; but the effect was transitory : ever since, the trade has progressively declined, being at present confined to the manufacture of a few articles for home consumption. The working weavers suffered still further from the loss of time and suspension of their labours, caused by the necessity of tentering their cloths in the open air, which could only be performed during fine weather. To remedy this inconvenience, Mr. Pleasants, a philanthropic gentleman of large fortune, erected at his own cost a tenter-house near the Weavers'-square, in which that process might be performed in all states of the weather : the expense of its erection was nearly £13,000; a charge of 2s. 6d. is made on every piece of cloth, and 5d. on every chain of warp, brought in. The linen manufacture was carried on at a very early period for domestic consumption, long before it became the great staple of the country; in the latter point of view it owes its extension chiefly to the Earl of Strafford, who during his lieutenancy embarked £30,000 of his private property in its establishment. After the depression of the woollen trade, great encouragement was given by parliament to the linen manufacture as a substitute; and in the 8th of Queen Anne an act was passed appointing trustees, selected from among the most influential noblemen and gentlemen of large landed property in each of the four provinces, for the management and disposal of the duties granted by that statute for its promotion; and in 1728 a spacious linen hall was erected by a grant of public money under the direction of the Government, from whom the offices and warehouses are rented by the occupants : the sales commence every morning at 9 o'clock and close at 4 in the afternoon, but though the linen manufacture is still extensively carried on in some parts of Ireland, very little is made in the immediate vicinity of the city, and the sales at the hall are consequently much diminished. The cotton manufacture was first introduced about the year 1760, and was greatly promoted by Mr. R. Brook, who in 1779 embarked a large capital in the enterprise; it was further encouraged by grants from parliament and carried on with varying success in the neighbourhood of the city. Since the withdrawing of the protecting duties the trade has progressively declined in Dublin, and may now be considered as nearly extinct there.

The silk manufacture was introduced by the French refugees who settled here after the revocation of the Edict of Nantz; and an act of parliament was soon after passed by which the infant manufacture was placed under the direction of the Dublin Society. This body established an Irish silk-warehouse in Parliament-street, the management of which was vested in a board of 12 noblemen (who were directors), and a committee of 12 persons annually chosen by the guild of Weavers, to examine the quality of the goods sent in by the manufacturers, and to whom the Dublin Society allowed a premium of 5 per cent. on all goods sold in the warehouse. While the trade was thus managed, the sales on an average amounted to £70,000 per annum, and the manufacture attained a high degree of perfection; but by a subsequent act of parliament, passed in the 26th of George III., the society was prohibited from disposing of any portion of its funds for the support of an establishment in which Irish silks were sold, and from that period the silk-warehouse department was discontinued and the manufacture rapidly declined. However, the tabinets and poplins, for which Dublin had been so peculiarly celebrated, are still in request, not only in Great Britain, but in the American and other foreign markets; but the demand is limited, and the number engaged in the manufacture proportionably small. The tanning and currying of leather is carried on to a considerable extent; the number of master manufacturers in both branches exceeding 100. There are 16 iron foundries, in some of which are manufactured steam-engines and agricultural implements on an extensive scale : the number of brass foundries is 25. Cabinet-making is also carried on to a considerable extent. The same may be said of the coach-making trade; the demand for jaunting cars, a vehicle peculiar to the country, is very great. There are not less than 20 porter and ale breweries, several of which are on a very large scale, particularly the former, upwards of 120,000 barrels being brewed annually, a considerable portion of which is exported. There are 14 distilleries and rectifying establishments; some of these are likewise very extensive. There are also numerous establishments in the city and its vicinity for the manufacture and production of a variety of articles both for home consumption and exportation, amongst which may be noticed, flint glass, sail-cloth, canvas, turpentine, vitriol, vinegar, soap, starch, size, glue, paper, parchment, vellum, hats, also silk and calico-printing, and in Dublin is made the celebrated Lundyfoot snuff by Messrs. Lundy Foot & Co.

Several acts of parliament have at different periods been passed for improving the port of Dublin, the last of which, 26th of George III., constituted the present corporation for " preserving and improving the port of Dublin," commonly known by the name of the Ballast Board, in which was vested the care, management, and superintendence of the whole of the river and the walls bounding it. Its jurisdiction was subsequently extended by several successive acts; and the management of the port and harbour of Kingstown was also vested in this corporation; but in 1836, an act was passed by which the port was placed under the control of the Board of Works. The receipts on account of the port average about £30,000 per annum. The Ballast Board has the charge of all the lighthouses in Ireland, of which there are six connected with the port of Dublin.

The commerce of the port consists of various branches, of which the most important is the cross-channel trade, which has increased considerably, owing to the facilities afforded by steam navigation; the agricultural produce of the midland counties being brought hither for exportation, in return for which, groceries, and other commodities for domestic consumption are sent back. The first steam-boat that crossed the channel to this port was from Holyhead in 1816, but it was not till 1824 that steam-boats were employed in the transmission of merchandise : the passage by steam to Liverpool is performed on the average in 14, to London in SO, to Bristol in 24, to Cork in 20, to Belfast in 14, and to Glasgow in 24 hours. The City of Dublin Steam-packet Company, in 1824, was the first that introduced a line of packets between this port and Liverpool, also in 1825 between this port and Belfast, for the conveyance of passengers and merchandise : the capital of this company amounts to £450,000, subscribed in £50 and £100 shares, of which £350,000 is held by Dublin shareholders. It employs 18 vessels between this port and Liverpool and Belfast; nine on the river Shannon, and in the summer a vessel to Bordeaux; also 52 trade boats on the Grand and Royal Canals. Besides the above company, there are the Dublin and London Steam Marine Company, which has six vessels plying between this port and Falmouth, Plymouth, London, and Belfast; the St. George's Company, which has a vessel each to Cork, Bristol, and Greenock; also in the summer one to Whitehaven, calling at Douglas (Isle of Man); the British and Irish Steam-packet Company, which has two vessels plying between this port and Plymouth, London, and Belfast; and the Dublin and Glasgow Steam-packet Company, which has two vessels plying between this port and Glasgow and Cork: thus making 33 steam-packets trading from and to this port, from 250 to 800 tons' burden, and from 100 to 280-horse power each. The number of vessels that entered inwards at the port in the year ending Jan. 5th, 1792; was 2807, of the aggregate burden of 288,592 tons; in 1800, 2779, of 280,539 tons; in 1815, 3046, of 304,813 tons; and in 1823, 3412, of 363,685 tons. In the year ending Jan. 5th, 1836, the number of vessels that entered inwards was 34 foreign and 209 British, and that cleared outwards, 25 foreign and 107 British, exclusively of those that cleared out in ballast : during the same period, 3978 coasting vessels entered inwards and 1937 cleared outwards, exclusively of those which go out in ballast, chiefly to and from various parts of Great Britain; and 2087 colliers entered inwards, nearly the whole of which leave in ballast. The number of vessels belonging to the port in 1836 was 327. After the year 1824, no correct statement can be furnished of the imports and exports of Ireland, as the trade between that country and Great Britain was then placed on the footing of a coasting trade, and no entry was made at any custom-house except of goods on which duty was to be paid. Any statement of the quantities of corn, cattle, &c., now exported is, therefore, merely one of probable quantities. The principal articles of Irish produce and manufacture exported from Dublin for Great Britain, for the year ending Jan. 5th, 1831, were bacon, 7461 bales; barley, 10,093 barrels; wheat, 40,000 barrels; beef, 18,084 tierces; bere, 10,651 barrels; butter, 41,105 firkins; candles, 1701 boxes; eggs, 3300 crates; feathers, 1570 packs; flour, 10,356 sacks; hams, 88 casks; herrings, 259 casks; hides, 6781 bundles"; lard, 365 casks; leather, 693 bales; linen, 3648 boxes; malt 103 barrels; oats, 153,191 barrels; oatmeal, 16,482 bags; porter, 29,800 hogsheads; printed cottons, 2100 packages; whiskey, 800 puncheons; wool, 3500 packs; oxen, 69,500; pigs, 58,000; and sheep, 80,000. For some years previous to 1830, the quantity of tobacco imported had been diminished by the increased cultivation of that plant in Ireland, but the legislature prohibited the cultivation in 1833, and the importation of foreign tobacco has since greatly increased. The large quantity of soap imported in 1835 is attributable to a drawback allowed on exportation from Great Britain, which was found to exceed the excise duty previously paid. The duty has since been altered, and the importation of soap has been thereby diminished. In 1830, the quantity imported into all Ireland was 6,559,461 lb. of hard and 120,992 lb. of soft soap, the drawback allowed being £82,875. 9. 11. The quantities of the principal articles imported in the year ending Jan. 5th, 1836, were-coal, 340,000 tons, chiefly from Whitehaven and Scotland; soap, 3,350,000 lb.; coffee, 2200 packages; sugar, 15,000 hogsheads; tea, 52,500 chests; pepper, 2000 packages; spirits, 700 casks,--spirits (in bottle), 1200 cases; wine, 7100 casks,--wine (in bottle), 1500 cases; tobacco, 1150 hogsheads; deals, 2000 great hundreds; staves, 3500 great hundreds; and timber, 11,600 logs. There is no sugar-refinery in Dublin, although at one period the number was very considerable; all the refined sugar now used is imported from Great Britain. It will be perceived by the above statement that the direct foreign import trade is not so great as might be expected from the consumption of a large population; but the articles required can, by steam-vessels, be expeditiously brought from Liverpool, into which port they are imported, in many instances, on much lower terms than they could be imported into Dublin direct.

There is very little foreign export from Dublin. The trade with the Baltic in timber, staves, &c., is greatly diminished by the high rate of duty imposed and the low rate at which Canada timber is admitted. From St. Petersburgh, Riga, Archangel, &c., there is a considerable import of tallow, hemp, and tar, with some linseed, bristles, &c.; from Spain and Portugal the chief import is wine, with some corkwood, raisins, barilla, and bark; from France the imports are wine in wood and bottle, claret, champagne, &c., also corkwood, prunes, dried fruits, and some brandy; from the Netherlands the imports are bark and flax; from Holland, tobacco pipes, bark, cloves, and flax-seed, and small quantities of gin, Burgundy pitch, Rhenish wines, madder, &c. With the West Indies the trade is chiefly in sugar from Jamaica, Demerara, and Trinidad, estates in the last-named island being owned in Dublin. Coffee is imported in small quantities and also rum, but very little foreign spirits are consumed in Ireland, in consequence of the low price and encouragement given to the use of whiskey. Beef and pork in casks, and soap and candles in boxes, were formerly exported to the West Indies in large quantities, but the trade is now nearly lost in consequence of permission being given to the colonists to import these articles from Hamburgh, Bremen, &c., where they can be purchased at lower prices than in Ireland. To the United States of America formerly there was a very large export of linen, principally to New York, and flax-seed, staves, turpentine, cloverseed, &c., were brought back; but the bounty on the export of linen having been withdrawn, the trade between the United States and Dublin has greatly diminished. The export of linen and import of flax-seed is now chiefly confined to Belfast and other northern ports. The American tobacco which is either sold or consumed in Dublin is brought from Liverpool. With British America the trade is very great in timber, as a return cargo of vessels sailing thither from Dublin with emigrants. With Newfoundland there is no direct trade; the cod and seal oil consumed are imported from Liverpool or brought by canal from Waterford, which has a direct trade with Newfoundland; dried codfish and ling being much used in the southern counties, but not in the northern or midland. With China there are three vessels owned in Dublin, besides others engaged in the tea trade; the number of chests directly imported is, therefore, considerable. With South America there is no direct trade, the Dublin tanners being abundantly supplied with native hides, and any foreign hides required being brought from Liverpool, whence also is imported the cotton wool consumed in the Dublin factories. With Turkey the trade is confined to the importation from Smyrna of valonia, figs, raisins, and small quantities of other articles; madder-roots and emery-stone being always transhipped for Liverpool. With Leghorn there is a considerable trade for cork-tree bark, and small quantities of hemp in bales, oil, marble, &c., are also imported, but very little communication is kept up with Trieste or other Italian ports. With Sicily the trade is in shumac and brimstone; the latter article in considerable quantities for the consumption of vitriol and other chymical works.

The markets are under the superintendence of a jury; the sheriffs being required, under the 73rd sec. of the 1.3th and 14th of George III., cap. 22, to summon 48 of the most respectable citizens, of whom 24 are sworn in at the general quarter sessions, and any three are empowered to visit and examine the commodities, and report to the lord mayor, who is authorised to condemn the provisions, and impose a fine to the extent of £10. The principal wholesale market is in Smithfield, a narrow oblong area in the north-eastern part of the city, the site of which is the property of the corporation, as part of their manor of Oxmantown : the market days for the sale of black cattle and sheep are Monday and Thursday, and for hay and straw, Tuesday and Saturday. There is also a considerable market for hay, straw, potatoes, butter, fowls, and eggs, in Kevin-street, over which, though it is within the liberty of St. Sepulchre, and is alleged to be exempt from the corporate jurisdiction, the officers being appointed by the archbishop, the lord mayor claims a right of superintendence, and the weights and measures used there are sanctioned by his authority. The great market for the sale of potatoes is on the north side of the river, in Petticoat-lane; a small portion of the present site is corporate property, and was the ancient potatoe market of the city; it is now rented from the corporation by two persons, who are joint weighmasters and clerks of the market, under the lord mayor; the market is commodious, and the avenues to it convenient. The wholesale fish market is held in an enclosed yard in Boot-lane : there is also a wholesale fruit market in the Little Green, and one for eggs and fowls contiguous thereto in Halton-street. There are ten retail markets for butchers' meat, poultry, vegetables, and fish; namely, Northumberland market on Eden Quay, which is kept with peculiar neatness; Meath market, in the Earl of Meath's liberty; Ormond market, on Ormond quay; Castle market, between South Great-George's-street and William-street; Patrick's market, in Patrick-street; City market, in Blackhall-row; Clarendon market, in William-street; Fleet-market, in Townsend-street; Rotundo, or Norfolk-market, in Great-Britain-street; and Leinster-market, in D'Olier-street. The want of well regulated slaughterhouses, in situations which would prevent offensive exposure, is severely felt.

Fairs.--A fair is annually held at Donnybrook, about two miles from the city, but within the limits of the jurisdiction of the corporation, under several charters : the first, granted in the 16th of John, authorises its continuance for sixteen days, though of late years it has been limited to a week or eight days : it commences on Aug. 26th. The number of cattle sold is inconsiderable, as it is frequented more for purposes of amusement and conviviality than of business. The corporation have little interest in it, excepting the preservation of order; it yields the proprietor of the ground about £400 per annum. A fair is held in James'-street on St. James's day (July 25th), chiefly for pedlery. The fairs of Rathfarnham and Palmerstown, though beyond the limits of the corporate jurisdiction, are within that of the city police.

PUBLIC BUILDINGS CONNECTED WITH COMMERCE.

The Royal Exchange is situated on the ascent of Cork hill, near the principal entrance to the Castle, and also nearly opposite to Parliament-street. The building was completed in 1779, at the expense of £40,000, raised partly by parliamentary grants, partly by subscriptions, and partly by lotteries. It forms a square of 100 feet, presenting three fronts, the fourth side being concealed by the adjoining buildings of the castle. The ground plan of the interior represents a circle within a square. The circle is formed by twelve fluted columns of the composite order, forming a rotundo in the centre of the building; above their entablature is an attic, ten feet high, having a circular window corresponding with each of the subjacent intercolumniations, and above the attic rises a hemispherical dome of very chaste proportions, crowned by a large circular light, which, together with the zone of windows immediately underneath, throws an ample volume of light into the body of the building. At the eastern and western ends of the north front are geometrical staircases leading to the coffee-room and other apartments now employed as courts for the Bankrupt Commission, meeting-rooms for the trustees, and accommodations for inferior officers. In the lower hall is a fine marble statue of the late Henry Grattan, and on the staircase leading to the coffee-room another of Dr. Lucas, who preceded Grattan in the career of patriotism. The increase of commercial business since the erection of this building having required additional accommodation in a situation more convenient for mercantile transactions, the Exchange has been gradually deserted and the meetings held there transferred to the Commercial Buildings in College-green. The Commercial Buildings form a plain but substantial square of three stories, constituting the sides of a small quadrangle and wholly unornamented except in the principal front to College-green, which is of hewn stone and has a central entrance supported by Ionic columns. On the left of the grand entrance-hall and staircase is a news-room, 60 feet long and 28 feet wide, occupied by the members of the Chamber of Commerce (established in 1820 to protect and improve the commerce of the city); and on the right is a handsome coffee-room, connected with that part of the building which is used as an hotel. The north side of the quadrangle is occupied by the Stock Exchange and merchants' offices, and on the east and west are offices for the brokers. It was built by a proprietary of 400 £50 shareholders, and was completed in 1799, under the superintendence of Mr. Parkes. The Corn Exchange was built by merchants who were incorporated in 1815, under the designation of the " Corn Exchange Buildings' Company," with leave to augment their capital to £15,000; the business is managed by a committee of 15 directors. The building, which is two stories high, has a neat front of mountain granite towards Burgh Quay; the interior contains a hall, 130 feet long, separated longitudinally from walks on each side by a range of cast iron pillars supporting a cornice, which is continued round the inner hall and surmounted by an attic perforated with circular windows; the hall is furnished with tables for displaying samples of grain, and in the front of the building is a large room on the upper story for public dinners or meetings of societies, by the rent of which and of the tables the interest of the capital, estimated at £25,000, is paid. The Ouzel Galley Society was established in 1705 for the arbitration of differences respecting trade and commerce. - The arbitrators must be members of the society, who are among the principal merchants in the city : the surplus of expenses incurred in this court are appropriated to the benefit of decayed merchants.

The Bank of Ireland was established in 1783, under an act of parliament, with a capital of £600,000, which, on a renewal of the charter in 1791, was increased to £1,000,000, and by subsequent renewals, the last in 1821, the bank was authorised to enlarge its capital to £3,000,000. The proprietors are incorporated by the name of "The Governor and Company of the Bank of Ireland," and the establishment is under the management of a governor, who must be a proprietor of £4000 stock, a deputy-governor, holding £3000, and 15 directors holding £2000 each; all these are elected by the court of proprietors, and five directors must vacate annually, but not in rotation. Agencies have been established in most of the principal cities and towns in Ireland, and connections have been formed with the Bank of England and the Royal Bank of Scotland, for facilitating the transmission of money. The building is nearly of a semicircular form, and stands on an acre and a half of ground, and previously to the Union was occupied as the Parliament House. The principal front consists of a colonnade of the Ionic order extending round three sides of a quadrangular recess, and supporting an entablature and cornice surmounted by an attic, which is broken only in the central range by a projecting portico of four columns of the same order, sustaining a triangular pediment, in the tympanum of which are the royal arms, and on the apex a statue of Hibernia, with one of Fidelity on the right, and of Commerce on the left extremity of the attic. The east front, in College-street, has a noble portico of six Corinthian columns projecting far into the surrounding area, and supporting an enriched cornice surmounted by a triangular pediment, on the apex of which is a statue of Fortitude, with Justice at one end and a figure of Liberty at the other: this portico, which differs from the style of architecture of the rest of the structure, was formerly the entrance to the House of Lords. The west front, which faces Foster-place, has in the centre an Ionic portico of four columns, supporting an entablature and cornice crowned with a triangular pediment, corresponding in style with the principal front. Within the central portico are two entrances leading to the Cash office, communicating at each end with corridors leading to the various offices in the establishment. This part of the building stands on the site of the former House of Commons. The former House of Lords, which remains unaltered, is now appropriated to the use of the court of proprietors; it is of rectangular form, with a semicircular recess at one extremity, in which the throne was placed, and in which has since been set up a statue of white marble of George III. In the rear of the interior is a department for printing the bank notes, the machinery of which is wholly worked by steam, and arranged with such ingenuity as in a great measure to baffle any attempt at forgery, and at the same time to add greatly to the expedition with which the process of printing is carried on, while it likewise affords a check upon the workmen employed, by means of a self-acting register, which indicates the quantity of work done and the actual state of that in progress at any moment required. The Hibernian Joint Stock Banking Company is managed by a governor, deputy-governor, and 7 directors; it transacts business at a house in Castle-street, built for the late private banking establishment of Lord Newcomen. The Provincial Bank of Ireland is managed by a court of directors in London, and has an office in William-street and agencies throughout the country parts. The National Bank of Ireland was formed under the provisions of the same act, with a capital of two millions subscribed in London and Ireland, to be applied to the support of banking establishments connected with it in Ireland, by contributing to each a sum equal to that locally subscribed; it has also branches in the principal towns. The private banking establishments are those of La Touche and Co., Castle-street; Ball and Co , Henry-street;" Boyle and Co., College-green; and the Royal Bank, Foster-place. There are two Savings' Banks, both formed in 1818, one in Meath-street, the other in Cuffe-street, in St. Peter's parish. The former has two branches in Marlborough-street and at the Linen-hall, by which the benefits of the system have been extended to the northern division of the city. The Money Order office, held in the general post-office, furnishes means for the secure transmission of small sums. The Custom-house is a stately structure of the Doric order, situated on the north bank of the Liffey, below Carlisle bridge. It was erected under the superintendence of Mr. Gandon, in 1794, at an expense of £397,232. 4. 11., which the requisite furniture and subsequent enlargements have increased to upwards of half a million sterling. The building is 375 feet in length and 205 feet in depth, and has four fronts, of which the south is entirely of Portland stone, and the others of mountain granite. On the east of the custom-house is a wet dock capable of receiving 40 vessels, and along the quay is a range of spacious warehouses. Beyond these an extensive area, enclosed with lofty walls, contains a second wet dock, consisting of two basins, the outer 300 feet by 250 and the inner 650 by 300; still further eastward, and on the same line with the principal building, are the tobacco and general warehouses, the latter of which were burnt down in 1833, but have been rebuilt. The business of the customs and excise for all Ireland was transacted in the custom-house, until the consolidation of the boards of Customs and Excise into one general board in London, since which period it has been confined to that of the Dublin district, and a great part of the building is applied to the accommodation of the following departments :--the Stamp Office; the Commissariat; the Board of Works; the Record Office for documents connected with the Vice-Treasurer's Office; the Quit-Rent Office; and the Stationery Office. The amount of duties paid in 1836, for goods imported and exported, was £898,630. 5. 1.; and the excise duties of the Dublin district during the same period amounted to £419,935. 14. 4 1/2.

The General Post-Office, situated in Sackville-street, is a very fine building of granite, 223 feet in length, 150 feet in depth, and three stories high. In the centre of the front is a boldly projecting portico of six fluted Ionic columns supporting an entablature and cornice, which are continued round the building and surmounted by a triangular pediment, in the tympanum of which are the Royal arms, and on the apex a figure of Hibernia, with one of Mercury on the right, and of Fidelity on the left; the whole of the building is crowned with a fine balustrade rising above the cornice. This structure was raised under the direction of Mr. Francis Johnston, architect, at an expense of £50,000. Over the mantel-piece in the Board-room is a marble bust of Earl Whitworth, by whom the first stone was laid in 1815. The establishment, which had been under the direction of two postmasters-general, was, in 1831, consolidated with the English post-office, and placed under the control of the postmaster-general of the united kingdom. Letters are delivered throughout the city three times a day by the penny post department, and once a day to 17 stations within 12 miles of it on payment of two pence.

LITERATURE AND SCIENCE.

The Royal Dublin Society originated, in 1731, in the private meetings of a few scientific gentlemen, among whom were Dr. Price and Dr. Madden, and was supported entirely by their own contributions until the year 1749, when they were incorporated by royal charter, under the name of " the Dublin Society for promoting husbandry and other useful arts in Ireland," and received an annual grant of £500, which was gradually augmented to £10,000, until lately, when it has been reduced to £5000. It is under the patronage of the king and the lord-lieutenant (the latter being president), and there are seven vice-presidents, two honorary secretaries, and an assistant secretary. The literary and scientific department consists of a professor of botany and agriculture, a professor of chymistry, a professor of mineralogy and geology, a librarian, teachers of landscape, figure, and ornamental drawing and of sculpture, and a curator of the botanic garden. The society, which in 1821 was honoured with the designation of "Royal," held its meetings in Shaws-court till 1767, when the members removed to a building which they had erected in Grafton-street, whence, in 1796, they removed to Hawkins-street, where they erected an edifice for their repository, laboratory, library, and galleries; and in 1815 they purchased, for £20,000, the spacious and splendid mansion of the Duke of Leinster, in Kildare-street. This building is 140 feet in length and 70 in depth, and is approached from the street by a massive gateway of rusticated masonry : the principal front is of the Corinthian order, richly embellished; before it is a spacious court, and in the rear an extensive lawn fronting Merrion-square. The entrance-hall is enriched with casts taken from figures by the first masters, and there are also several busts executed by artists who had been pupils of the society. The library, in the east wing, is 64 feet long and 24 feet wide, and is surrounded by a light gallery; it contains 12,000 volumes, and is rich in botanical works. The museum occupies six rooms, containing miscellaneous curiosities, specimens of animals, mineralogy, geology, &c.; the specimens of the mineralogical department are classified on the Wernerian system. The lecture-room is capable of accommodating 400 auditors. The apartments for the use of members are all on the ground-floor. The drawing schools occupy a range of detached buildings; they are appropriately fitted up, and are attended by 200 pupils. The botanical studies are under the direction of a professor, who delivers lectures both at the Society house and in the botanic gardens at Glasnevin. These are about a mile from the city, occupying a space of more than 27 acres, watered by the Tolka, and containing every requisite variety of soil for botanical purposes. The garden is formed into subdivisions for agricultural and horticultural specimens : it has the house of the professor and the lecture-rooms near the entrance, and is open to the public on Tuesdays and Fridays; the admission is free, as also to the lectures, schools, and museum. The Royal Irish Academy was instituted, in 1782, by a number of gentlemen, members of the University, chiefly to promote the study of polite literature, science, and antiquities, and was incorporated in 1786 : it is assisted in its objects by a parliamentary grant of £300 per annum, and honoured with the patronage of the King; and is under the superintendence / of a visiter (who is the lord-lieutenant for the time being), a president, four vice-presidents and a council of 21, a treasurer, librarian, and two secretaries. Its literary management is entrusted to three committees, respectively superintending the departments of science, polite literature, and antiquities. At the annual meetings premiums, accruing from the interest of £1500 bequeathed by Col. Burton Conyngham, are awarded for the best essays on given subjects, for which persons not members of the academy may become competitors; the successful essays are sometimes published in the transactions of the academy, of which 17 volumes in quarto have already appeared. The library contains some very valuable manuscripts relating to Ireland: the large room for meetings of the academy is embellished with portraits of their presidents.

LIBRARIES.

The Library of Trinity College, by much the largest not only in Dublin but in Ireland, is described under the head of the institution of which it forms a portion : the King's Inns library is also noticed in like manner. St. Patrick's or Marsh's library was founded by Dr. Narcissus Marsh, archbishop of Dublin, in the vicinity of St. Patrick's cathedral; it contains the celebrated Dr. Stillingfleet's collection and some manuscripts. The apartment for the books consists of two galleries meeting at a right angle, in which is the librarian's room. The library is open on liberal terms, a certificate or letter of introduction from some respectable and well-known character being all that is required: it is under the government of trustees appointed by act of parliament. The Dublin Library Society originated in the meeting of a few individuals at a bookseller's in Dame-street to read newspapers and periodicals. Having formed a regular society, a library was opened, in 1791, in Eustace-street, which was removed in 1809 to Burgh-quay, and finally, in 1820, to a building in D'Olier-street, erected for the special purpose, by shares. The building is plain but elegant, and contains a spacious apartment for the library, another for newspapers and periodicals, and a few smaller rooms for committees and house officers. The public rooms are ornamented with busts of. John Philpot Curran, Daniel O'Connell, Henry Grattan, Archibald Hamilton Rowan, and Dean Kirwan, and with portraits of the first Earl of Charlemont and of Curran. The medical libraries of the College of Surgeons and Sir Patrick Dun's hospital are well selected and rapidly increasing. Steevens's Hospital, the Royal Hospital, Christ-Church, and Strand-street Meeting-house have each a collection of books, none of any great extent. The private library of the Earl of Charlemont is highly worthy of notice. It is contained in a building attached to the town residence in Palace-row : the entrance to it is by a long gallery, ornamented with antique busts, vases, and altars, which opens into a large vestibule lighted by a lantern, which contains the works on antiquities and numismatics, and has in a recess the statue of Venus and eight busts of ancient and modern characters of celebrity. The principal library contains a fine and well-selected collection of ancient and modern writers on most departments of literature and some of science, very judiciously and happily arranged; also some manuscripts, and an unique collection of Hogarth's engravings, mostly proofs. Over the chimney-piece is a fine bust of Homer. Attached to the library is a small museum, a medal room, and a smaller library of very elegant proportions, containing busts of the Earl of Rockingham and General Wolfe.

SURGICAL AND MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS.

The Royal College of Surgeons was incorporated in 1784, for the purpose of establishing a " liberal and extensive system of surgical education :" a parliamentary grant was afterwards conferred on it for providing the necessary accommodations. Sums amounting in the whole to £35,000 were granted for erecting and furnishing the requisite buildings; besides which, £6000, the accumulated excess of the receipts over the disbursements of the college, were expended in 1825 in the addition of a museum. The front of the building, which is situated on the west side of St. Stephen's-green, has a rusticated basement story, from which rises a range of Doric columns supporting a tier of seven large windows, the four central columns being surmounted by a triangular pediment, on which are statues of Minerva, Esculapius and Hygeia. The interior contains a large board-room, a library, an apartment for general meetings, an examination hall, with several committee-rooms and offices, four theatres for lectures, a spacious dissecting-room with several smaller apartments, and three museums, the largest of which, 84 feet by 30, with a gallery, contains a fine collection of preparations of human and comparative anatomy; the second, with two galleries, contains preparations illustrative of pathology and a collection of models in wax, presented by the Duke of Northumberland when lord-lieutenant; and the third, attached to the anatomical theatre, contains a collection for the illustration of the daily courses of lectures. The College consists of a president, vice-president, six censors, twelve assistants, secretaries, members, and licentiates. Candidates for a diploma must produce certificates of attendance on some school of medicine and surgery for five years, and of attendance at a surgical hospital for three years, and must pass four half-yearly examinations, and a final examination for letters testimonial in the presence of the members and licentiates on two days : rejected candidates have a right of appeal to a court constituted for the purpose, which is frequently resorted to. Attached to the school are two professors of anatomy and physiology, two of surgery, a professor of chymistry, one of the practice of medicine, one of materia medica, one of midwifery, and one of medical jurisprudence, with four anatomical demonstrators; the lectures commence on the last Monday in October, and close on the last day of April.

The College of Physicians was first incorporated in the reign of Chas II., but the charter being found insufficient, was surrendered in 1692, and a more ample charter was granted by William and Mary, under the designation of the King and Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland. This charter, which conferred considerable privileges, was partly confirmed by successive acts - of parliament, which gave the society authority to summon all medical practitioners for examination, to inspect the shops and warehouses of apothecaries, druggists, and chymists, and to destroy all articles for medical use which are of bad quality : it has also a principal share in the superintendence of the School of Physic. No person can be a member of the College who has not graduated in one of the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin. The officers of the college consist of a president, vice-president, four censors, a registrar, and a treasurer; the members hold their meetings at Sir Patrick Dun's hospital, of whose bequests for the promotion of medical science they are trustees. The School of Physic is partly under the control of the Board of the University, and partly under that of the College of Physicians; the professorships of anatomy, chymistry, and botany being in the appointment of the University, who elect the professors, thence called University professors; those of the practice of medicine, the institutes of medicine, and of the materia medica, called King's professors, derive their appointment and their salaries from the College of Physicians, being chosen by ballot from among the members of that body. The University professors deliver their lectures in Trinity College, and the King's professors in Sir Patrick Dun's hospital. No candidate is qualified for a degree in medicine until he has attended the six courses, and six months at Sir Patrick Dun's clinical hospital.

The School of Pharmacy. Previously to the company of the Apothecaries' Hall having been incorporated, the shops were supplied by the druggists, without any check on the quality of the medical articles supplied. To remedy this defect an act was passed, in 1791, incorporating a body under the title of the "Governor and Company of the Apothecaries' Hall," by whom a building was erected in Mary-street (a respectable edifice of brick, with a basement of hewn stone) for the preparation and sale of drugs, unadulterated and of the best quality, and for the delivery of courses of lectures on chymistry, the materia medica, pharmacy, botany, and the practice of physic, and for the examination of candidates for a diploma to practise as apothecaries. The establishment consists of a governor, deputy-governor, treasurer, secretary, and thirteen directors. Candidates for apprenticeship must undergo an examination in Greek and Latin, and those for the rank of master apothecary must produce certificates of attendance on a course of each of the following departments of medicine; chymistry, materia medica and pharmacy, medical botany, anatomy, and physiology, and the theory and practice of medicine. The diploma of the society of Apothecaries of London also, by the rules of the Dublin company, qualifies the holder to practise in Ireland. The School of Anatomy, Medicine, and Surgery, in Park-street, Merrion-square, established in 1824 by a society of surgeons and physicians, contains a museum, a chymical laboratory, an office and reading-room, a lecture-room capable of accommodating 200 persons, a dissecting-room, and rooms for preparations. Private medical schools are numerous, and, combined with the public institutions, and with the extensive practice afforded by the city hospitals, have render-ed Dublin a celebrated school of medicine, resorted to by students from every part of the British empire. The Phrenological Society, under the direction of a president, vice-president, and two committees, was established in 1829. Its meetings are held in Upper Sackville-street, where the society has a large collection of casts illustrative of the theory of the science, and a library of phrenological treatises, which are lent out to the members : the annual subscription is one guinea. The Association of Members of the College of Physicians was instituted in 1816; they hold their meetings at their rooms in College-green, for receiving communications on medical subjects and on scientific matters; their object is the promotion of medical science, and among their corresponding members are some of the most eminent medical men in England and on the Continent: the society has published several volumes of transactions.

INSTITUTIONS FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE FINE ARTS, AND OTHER USEFUL AND SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES.

The Royal Hibernian Academy of painting, sculpture, and architecture, founded by royal charter in 1823, consists of fourteen academicians and ten associates, all of whom must be professional painters, sculptors, or architects : the king is patron, the lord-lieutenant vice-patron, and its affairs are under the superintendence of a council. The academy has for the last few years been encouraged by a grant from parliament of £300 per ann.; its first president, the late Francis Johnston, Esq., architect, erected an elegant and appropriate building in Abbey-street, at an expense of £10,000, which he presented to the academy for ever, at a nominal rent of 5s. per ann., and to which his widow subsequently added a gallery for statuary. The building, which is three stories high and of elegant design, has, on the basement story, a recess ornamented with fluted columns of the Doric order : over the entrance is a head of Palladio, emblematical of architecture; over the window on the right; a head of Michael Angelo, illustrative of sculpture; and over the window on the left, a head of Raphael, allusive to painting. The academy has a good collection of casts from the antique, some paintings by the old masters, and a library of works chiefly connected with the fine arts, and of which the greater number were presented by the late Edward Houghton, Esq. The Royal Irish Institution for promoting the fine arts was founded, under royal patronage, in 1815 : its vice-patron is the Marquess of Anglesey, its guardian, the lord-lieutenant, and its president, the Duke of Leinster : its affairs are superintended by eight vice-presidents (all noblemen), and a committee of directors. The Artists have also formed a society, called the Artists' and Amateurs' Conversazione, for cultivating and maintaining a social intercourse with admirers of the fine arts, and thereby promoting their mutual interests. The Horticultural Society, patronised by the Lord-Lieutenant and the Duchess of Leinster, and under the direction of the Earl of Leitrim as president, several noblemen as vice-presidents, and a council, was instituted in 1813, and has rapidly increased in prosperity. Prizes are awarded at its annual exhibitions, which are numerously and most fashionably attended. The Geological Society was instituted in 1835, and is under the direction of a president, vice-presidents, and a council. Its attention is peculiarly directed to Ireland : it consists of honorary and ordinary members; £10 on admission, or £5 if not resident within 20 miles of Dublin for more than one month in the year, constitutes a member for life; and £1 on admission, and £1 per ann., constitutes an ordinary member. The rooms of the society are in Upper Sackville-street; two parts of a volume of its transactions have been already published. The Zoological Society, instituted in 1831, is under the direction of a president, vice-president, and council : £10 paid on admission constitutes a member for life, and £1 on admission and a subscription of £1 per ann., an annual member. The gardens are situated in the Phoenix Park, and occupy a piece of ground near the vice-regal lodge, given for that purpose by the Duke of Northumberland, when lord-lieutenant: they have been laid out with much taste, and are in excellent order, affording a most interesting place of resort; the council have already purchased many fine specimens of the higher classes of animals. They are open to the public daily, on payment of sixpence admission. The Agricultural Society was instituted in 1833, and is under the direction of a president (the Marquess of Downshire), several vice-presidents, a committee and subcommittee : it consists of 330 members, who pay an annual subscription of £1, and among whom are most of the principal landed proprietors; its object is the establishment of a central institution for concentrating the efforts made by other societies and by individuals for improving the condition of the people and the cultivation of the soil of Ireland : two annual meetings are held, one in Dublin during the April show of cattle, and the other at Ballinasloe in October. The Civil Engineers' Society was established in 1835, for the cultivation of science in general, and more especially of those branches of it which are connected with the engineering department; it is under the direction of a president, vice-presidents, and a committee, and consists of members who must be either civil or military engineers, or architects, who pay one guinea on admission by ballot and an annual subscription of equal amount.

THEATRES, CLUBS, AND MUSICAL SOCIETIES.

The places of public amusement are few. The Drama is little encouraged by the fashionable and wealthy; the theatre is thinly attended, except on the appearance of some first-rate performer from London, or at the special desire of the lord-lieutenant, the social character of the inhabitants inducing an almost exclusive preference to convivial intercourse within the domestic circle. The first public theatre was built in Werburgh-street, by Lord Strafford, in 1635, and was closed in 1641. After the Restoration, a theatre under the same patent was opened in Orange-street, now Smock-alley; and in 1733, a second was opened in Rainsford-street, in the liberty of Thomas-court, and a third in George's-lane. Sheridan had a theatre in Aungier-street, in 1745, which was destroyed in 1754 by a tumult of the audience; and in 1758 another was built in Crow-street, which, with that in Smock-alley, continued open for 25 years, when, after much rivalry, the latter was closed, and a patent granted to the former for the exclusive enjoyment of the privilege of performing the legitimate drama. On the expiration of this patent, Mr. Harris, of London, procured a renewal of it from Government and erected the " New Theatre Royal" in Hawkins-street, a pile of unsightly exterior but internally of elegant proportions, being constructed in the form of a lyre, handsomely decorated and admirably adapted to the free transmission of the actor's voice to every part of the house : attached to it is a spacious saloon, supported by pillars of the Ionic order. A smaller theatre has been lately opened in Abbey-street for dramatic performances : it is a plain building, neatly fitted up. Another small theatre in Fishamble-street, originally a music-hall, is occasionally opened for dramatic and other entertainments; and a third, in Great Brunswick-street, called the Adelphi, originally intended for a diorama, is used for amateur theatricals. In Abbey-street is a circus, in which equestrian performances occasionally take place. During the summer season, the Rotundo gardens are open on stated evenings every week, and being illuminated in a fanciful manner and enlivened by the attendance of a military band, and by occasional exhibitions of rope-dancing and fireworks, they afford an agreeable promenade in the open air, and are well attended. In the Royal Arcade, in College-green, are some handsome rooms for public amusements. Clubs and societies for convivial purposes are numerous: several club-houses have been opened on the principle of those in London. The Kildare-street Club, consisting of about 650 members, was instituted upwards of fifty years since, and takes its name from the street in which its house stands : the accommodations contain a large and elegant card-room, coffee, reading, and billiard-rooms; the terms of admission, which is by ballot, are £26. 10., and the annual subscription, £5 : it is managed by a committee of 15 members chosen annually. The Sackville-street Club, instituted in 1795, consists of 400 members chosen by ballot, who previously pay 20 guineas, and an annual subscription of 5 guineas; the house, which contains a suite of apartments similar in character to those of the Kildare-street Club, has been recently fitted up in a very splendid style. The Friendly Brothers' Club, also in Upper Sackville-street, consists of many members who are in connection with similar societies in various countries; the house affords excellent accommodation. The Hibernian United Service Club, instituted in 1832, is limited to 500 permanent and 200 temporary members, consisting of officers of the army and navy of every rank, and of field officers and captains of militia of the United Kingdom; the terms of admission by ballot are £10. 10., and the annual subscription £4 for permanent members; honorary members are admitted on payment of the annual subscription only; the club-house is in Foster-street, near the Bank. The Freemasons for some years had a hall in Dawson-street: they now hold their meetings in temporary apartments in the Commercial Buildings. The leading musical societies are the Beefsteak Club, the Hibernian Catch Club, the Anacreontic, for the performance of instrumental music; the Dublin Philharmonic Society, for the practice of vocal and instrumental music; and the Festival Choral Society, for the cultivation of choral music. Other societies, of a more miscellaneous character, , whose names indicate their objects, are the Chess, Philidorean, Shakspeare, Royal Yacht, and Rowing clubs.

Obverse. Reverse.


Seal of the Corporation.

MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT.

The charters granted at various times to the city are carefully preserved from the earliest period in the archives of the corporation. The first was granted in the reign of Henry II., from which period to the reign of George III. a numerous series of them has been successively issued, either confirming previous grants, or conferring additional privileges. The present constitution of the corporate government is founded partly on the provisions of several of the earlier charters, partly on usage and ancient customs, partly on the new rules laid down in the 25th of Charles II. and partly on the statutes of the 33rd of George II., and the 11th and 12th of George III. The corporation consists of a lord mayor, 24 aldermen, and a common council. The lord mayor is annually elected from among the aldermen, by a majority of that body, with the approbation of the common council; the alderman next in rotation is generally chosen. Within ten days after his election, he must be presented to the lord-lieutenant and privy council for their approbation, and is sworn into office before the lord-lieutenant on Sept. 30th; he is a justice of the peace for the county of the city, admiral of the port of Dublin, and chief Judge of the Lord Mayor's and Sheriffs' courts; he has the regulation of the assize of bread, and is clerk of the market, and, ex officio, a member of certain local boards and trusts. The aldermen, who are also justices of the peace for the city, are elected for life, as vacancies occur, from among such common-councilmen as have served the office of sheriff, and are therefore called sheriffs' peers; each on his election pays £400 late currency, of which £105 is for the Blue-coat hospital, and the remainder for the repair and embellishment of the Mansion-house. The sheriffs are annually elected at Easter by the lord mayor and aldermen out of eight freemen nominated by the common council, and each of them must be in possession of real or personal property to the clear amount of £2000; they must be approved by the lord-lieutenant and privy council; but on payment of a fine of £500, of which £105 is given to the Blue-coat hospital, a freeman so nominated may become a sheriffs' peer without serving the office of sheriff. The common council consists of the sheriffs' peers, and of the representatives of the guilds triennially elected, who are 96 in number, and who, in default of election by the guilds, may be chosen by the lord mayor and aldermen from each of the guilds so neglecting. The officers of the corporation are a recorder, who must be a barrister of six years' standing, but is not required to be a freeman; he is elected by the lord mayor and aldermen, with the approbation of the common council, subject to the approval of the lord-lieutenant and privy council, holds his office during good behaviour, and is permitted by the act of the 21st and 22nd of George III., in case of sickness or absence, to appoint a deputy, who also, by the 39th of George III., must be a barrister of six years' standing : two coroners, elected from the aldermen by the lord mayor and a majority of that body alone : a president of the court of conscience, who is the ex-lord mayor during the year after his office expires, and may appoint any alderman to officiate for him : two town-clerks, who are also clerks of the peace, either freemen or not, and elected for life in the same manner as the recorder, and subject to the approval of the privy council: a marshal, who must be a freeman, and is similarly elected, nominally for one year, but generally re-elected on its expiration : water bailiffs, elected in the same manner as the marshal, and who give security by two sureties for £1000 : serjeants-at-mace, similarly elected, and who give two sureties for £250 each; and several inferior officers. The freedom of the city is obtained either by gift of the aldermen and common-councilmen in general assembly, or by admission to the freedom of one of the guilds, and afterwards to that of the city, by favour of the corporation. Freemen of the guilds, either by birth, servitude, or marriage, can only be admitted as freemen at large by the common council, who have power to reject them after passing through the guilds; hence the freedom of the guilds entitles them only to the privilege of carrying on their respective trades, but not to that of voting at elections for the city representatives in parliament. There are 25 guilds, the first of which is the Trinity guild or guild of Merchants, which returns 31 representatives out of the 96; the others, called minor guilds, are those of the Tailors, Smiths, Barber-Surgeons, Bakers, Butchers, Carpenters, Shoemakers, Saddlers, Cooks, Tanners, Tallow-chandlers, Glovers and Skinners, Weavers, Shearmen and Dyers, Goldsmiths, Coopers, Feltmakers, Cutlers, Bricklayers, Hosiers, Curriers, Brewers, Joiners, and Apothecaries. Only six of the guilds have halls; the others meet either in one of these or in a private building. The Merchants' Hall, on Aston's Quay, opposite Wellington bridge, is a new building of granite, two stories high, with little architectural ornament. The Tailors' Hall, in Back-lane, built in 1710, is ornamented with portraits of Charles II., Dean Swift, and St. Homobon, a tailor of Cremona, canonized in 1316 for his piety and charity. The Weavers' Hall, on the Coombe, is a venerable brick building, two stories high, with a pedestrian statue of George II. over the entrance, and in the Hall a portrait of the same king woven in tapestry, and one of a member of the. family of La Touche, who had greatly encouraged the manufacture. The Carpenters' Hall is in Audoen's Arch, the Goldsmiths' in Golden-lane, and the Cutlers' in Capel-street.

The city returns two members to the Imperial parliament; the right of election, formerly vested in the corporation, freemen, and 40s. freeholders, has been extended to the £10 householders, and £20 and £10 leaseholders for the respective terms of 14 and 20 years, by the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 88. The number of voters registered at the first general election under that act was 7041, of which number, 5126 voted. The limits of the city, for electoral purposes, include an area of 3538 statute acres, the boundaries of which are minutely detailed in the Appendix; the number of freemen is about 3500, of whom 2500 are resident and 1000 non-resident, and the number of £10 houses is 16,000 : the sheriffs are the returning officers. The corporation holds general courts of quarter assembly at Christmas, Easter, Midsummer, and Michaelmas, which are occasionally adjourned, and post assemblies sometimes for particular purposes. As a justice of the peace, the lord mayor presides at the city quarter sessions, and always attends on the first day to open the court, accompanied by some of the aldermen, it being necessary that two at least of that body should be present with the lord mayor or recorder to form a quorum. The lord mayor's and sheriffs' courts are held on the Thursday after the first day of the sessions; each has cognizance of personal actions to any amount above £2; the process is by attachment of the defendant's goods. The lord mayor's court, in which he is the sole judge, is held every Thursday either at the city sessions-house, where it is an open court, or in the Mansion-house, where it may be private; it has summary jurisdiction, and takes cognizance of complaints, nuisances, informations, &c. The court of conscience, for determining causes and recovering debts not exceeding £2 late currency, is held daily before the president in the city assembly-house in William-street. The police establishment, as regulated by the Duke of Wellington, when chief secretary for Ireland, was under the control of a chief magistrate, aided by eleven others, three of whom sat daily at. one of the offices of the four divisions, according to which the city was arranged : to each office a chief constable and petty constables were attached. The police force, consisting of a horse-patrol of 29 men, a foot patrol of 169, 26 watch constables, and 539 watchmen, was maintained at an expense of about £40,000 per ann. By an act passed in 1836 the police of the metropolis is placed under two magistrates appointed by the lord-lieutenant, and the boundaries of their jurisdiction have been determined to be the rivers Dodder and Tolka to the south and north, and Knockmaroon hill to the west, which boundary may be extended according to the discretion of the lord-lieutenant and privy council to any place within five miles of Dublin castle; by whom the number of divisional offices may be reduced and also that of the magistrates, provided there be two to each office. The city is to be assessed for the payment of the establishment by a rate not exceeding 8d. in the pound, according to the valuation made under the act of the 5th of George IV.

The Mansion-house, the residence of the lord mayor during his year of office, is externally a plain edifice of brick, on a detached and receding site on the south side of Dawson-street; the interior contains some large apartments fitted up in an antiquated style. On the left hand of the entrance-hall is the " Gilt Room," a small apartment in which is a portrait of William. III., by Gubbins; this room opens into the drawing-room, which is 50 feet long : the walls are hung with portraits of Earl Whitworth, the Earls of Hardwicke and Westmoreland, John Foster, the last speaker of the Irish House of Commons, and Alderman Alexander. Beyond this is the ball-room, used also for civic dinners, 55 feet long and wainscoted with Irish oak; in this room are placed the two city swords, the mace, the cap of maintenance and the gold collar of S S, presented by William. III., to replace that presented by Charles II.; it also contains portraits of Charles II., George II., the Duke of Cumberland, and the late Duke of Richmond. A door from the ball-room opens into a noble rotundo, 90 feet in diameter, round which is continued a corridor 5 feet wide; the walls are painted in imitation of tapestry, and the room is covered with a dome; in the centre is a lantern, by which the apartment is lighted; it was built in 1821 expressly for the reception of George IV., who honoured the corporation with his presence at dinner. On the right of the entrance-hall are the Exchequer-room, wainscoted with Irish oak, and hung with portraits of the Duke of Bolton, the Earl of Buckingham, the Marquess of Buckingham, and the Earl of Harcourt; and the sheriffs' room, 40 feet long, in which are portraits of the Duke of Northumberland, Lord Townsend, John Duke of Bedford, and Aldermen Sankey, Manders, and Thorpe, the last of whom is distinguished by the title of " the good lord mayor." An equestrian statue of George I., which was formerly on Essex bridge, is placed in the lawn at the side of the mansion-house; and at the extremity of the court in which the rotundo is built are colossal statues of Charles II. and William. III. The City Assembly-house, purchased by the corporation from the artists of Dublin, by whom it was built for an exhibition-room, is a plain but commodious structure in William-street, and contains several good rooms; in the circular room the common council holds its meetings; the board of aldermen meets in another apartment; and under the common council room is a circular apartment in which the court of conscience is held.

The Sessions-house, in Green-street, opened for business in 1797, is ornamented in front with a central pediment and cornice supported by six engaged columns rising from a broad platform, to which is an ascent by a flight of steps extending along the whole front of the building, and on each side of the centre are the doors of entrance to the court-rooms; in another front, corresponding with this, in Halston-street, are the entrances to the apartments occupied by the agents during contested elections. The interior is spacious, lofty, and well arranged; the ceiling is supported by Ionic columns. In this building are held the court of quarter sessions, the court of oyer and terminer, the lord mayor's and sheriffs' court, and the recorder's court. The principal prison for malefactors of all classes is Newgate, situated near the sessions-house, in Green-street. It is a square building, flanked at each angle by a round tower with loop-hole windows. The interior is divided into two nearly equal portions by a broad passage with high walls on each side, having iron gates at intervals, through the gratings of which visitors may converse with the prisoners; the cells are neither sufficiently numerous nor large, nor is the prison well adapted for due classification. A chapel attached to it is attended by three chaplains; one of the Established Church, one of the R. C. and one of the Presbyterian religion. The Sheriffs' Prison, in Green-street, was built in 1794, and occupies three sides of a quadrangle with an area in the centre, which is used as a ball-court; it is visited by the chaplains of Newgate and a medical inspector. The City Marshalsea, a brick building attached to the preceding, is designed for prisoners committed from the lord mayor's court for debts under £10, and from the court of conscience. The Smith-field Penitentiary is appropriated to the confinement of juvenile convicts not exceeding 19 years of age; it is visited by three chaplains, and inspected by the divisional magistrates; an efficient classification is observed, and all the prisoners are regularly employed. The Richmond Bridewell, on the Circular road, erected by the city at an expense of £40,000, is a spacious structure enclosed by walls flanked with towers at the angles, and is entered by a massive gateway; between the outer wall and the main building is a wide space, intended for a rope-walk; the interior consists of two spacious quadrangles, the sides of which are all occupied by buildings; the cells, which are on the first floor, open into corridors with entrances at each end; the rooms in the second floor are used as work-rooms; the male and female prisoners occupy distinct portions of the prison; the prisoners not sentenced to the tread-mill are employed in profitable labour, and a portion of their earnings is paid to them on their discharge; they are visited by a Protestant and a R. C. chaplain, a physician, surgeon, and apothecary. A great improvement in the city prisons is now in progress. Attached to the city are the manor or liberty of St. Sepulchre, belonging to the Archbishop of Dublin; the manor of Grangegorman or Glasnevin, belonging to the dean of Christ-Church; the manor of Thomas-Court and Donore, belonging to the Earl of Meath; and the liberty of the deanery of St. Patrick. The Liberty of St. Sepulchre extends over a part of the city, including the parishes of St. Patrick, St. Nicholas Without, and St. Kevin; also over a large tract of the county of Dublin to the south-east of the city, as far as the Wicklow boundary, including a small portion of the latter county and of Kildare, bordering on that of Dublin. The court is held at Longlane, in the county of Dublin, before the archbishop's seneschal, and has a very extensive criminal as well as civil jurisdiction, but exercises only the latter : the court-house and prison for the whole archbishoprick are situated there. It has a civil bill jurisdiction to any amount, extended to the Dublin manor courts in 1826. At the record side the proceedings are either by action against the body, for sums under £20 by service and above it by arrest; or, for sums above £10, by attachment against the goods. The court at the record side sits every Tuesday and Friday; the civil bill court, generally on alternate Wednesdays, except in the law terms, when it stands adjourned. At this court, in which a jury is always impannelled and sworn, sums to any amount may be recovered at a trifling expense. The jurisdiction of the Manor Court of Glasnevin is of great extent, comprising the baronies of Coolock, Castleknock, and Half-Rathdown, in the county of Dublin, and the lordship of St. Mary's abbey, which includes portions of the city and county. The seneschal sits in Dublin every Friday, and at Kingstown on alternate Fridays for the convenience of that town and the surrounding parishes within his jurisdiction. Causes are tried before a jury, and debts to any amount are recoverable at a small expense; from 900 to 1000 causes are heard annually. Thomas-Court and Donore Manor Court has a jurisdiction extending over the barony of Donore, and that part of the liberty of Thomas-Court which is within the city: the civil bill court, in which debts to any amount are recoverable, is held every Wednesday in the courthouse in Thomas-Court, a plain building erected in 1160; a record court is also held there every Wednesday and Saturday.

VICE-REGAL GOVERNMENT.

Dublin is the seat of the Vice-regal government, consisting of a lord-lieutenant and privy council, assisted by a chief secretary, under-secretary, and a large establishment of inferior officers and under-clerks both for state and the despatch of business. The official residence of the lord-lieutenant, is Dublin Castle, first appropriated to that purpose in the reign of Elizabeth; but his usual residence is the Vice-regal Lodge, in the Phoenix Park. The buildings of the Castle form two quadrangles, called the Upper and Lower Yards. The Upper, 280 feet by 130, contains the lord-lieutenant's apartments, which occupy the whole of the south and part of the east sides; the council-chamber and offices connected with it; the apartments and offices of the chief secretary, and of several of the officers of the household; and the apartments of the master of the ceremonies, and of the aides de camp of the viceroy. The entrance into this court is on the north side by a massive gateway towards the east end, ornamented by a figure of Justice above the arch; and towards the west end is a corresponding gateway, which is not used, ornamented by a figure of Fortitude; both by Van Nost. The approach to the vice-regal apartments is under a colonnade on the south side, leading into a large hall, and thence by a fine staircase to the state apartments, containing the presence chamber and the ball-room; in the former is the throne of gilt carved work, under a canopy of crimson velvet richly ornamented with gold lace; the latter, which, since the institution of the order of St. Patrick, has been called St. Patrick's Hall, has its walls decorated with paintings, and the ceiling, which is panelled in three compartments, has in the centre a full-length portrait of George III., supported by Liberty and Justice, with various allegorical devices. Between the gateways, on the north side of the court, are the apartments of the dean of the chapel royal and the chamberlain, a range of building ornamented with Ionic columns rising from a rusticated basement and supporting a cornice and pediment, above which is the Bedford Tower, embellished with Corinthian pillars and surmounted by a lofty dome, from the summit of which the royal standard is displayed on days of state. In the eastern side of the Upper Yard, is the council-chamber, a large but plain apartment, in which the lord-lieutenants are publicly sworn into office, and where the privy council holds its sittings. The privy council consists of the lord-primate, the lord-chancellor, the chief justices, and a number of prelates, noblemen, public functionaries, and others nominated by the King. This body exercises a judicial authority, especially in ecclesiastical matters, as a court of final resort, the duties of which are discharged by a committee selected from among the legal functionaries who are members of it. The Lower Yard is an irregular area, 250 feet long and 220 feet wide; in it are the treasury buildings, of antiquated style and rapidly decaying; the ordnance department, a modern brick building; and the office of the quartermaster-general, besides which are the stables, riding-house, and the official residence of the master of the horse. To the east of the Record Tower is the Castle chapel, rebuilt at an expense of £42,000, principally after a design by Johnston, and opened in 1814; it is an elegant structure, in the later style of English architecture. The interior is lighted on each side by six windows of elegant design, enriched with tracery and embellished with stained glass : the east window, which is of large dimensions and of beautiful design, is of stained glass, representing our Saviour before Pilate, and the four Evangelists in compartments, with an exquisite group of Faith, Hope, and Charity; it was purchased on the continent and presented to the chapel by Lord Whitworth, during his vice-royalty. The Phoenix Park, situated westward of the city, and north of the Liffey, is 7 miles in circumference, comprising, an area of 1759 acres enclosed by a stone wall. Its name is derived from the Irish term Finniske, "a spring of clear water," now corrupted into Phoenix. A lofty fluted Corinthian pillar resting on a massive pedestal, and having on the abacus a phoenix rising from the flames, was erected near the lord-lieutenant's lodge by the Earl of Chesterfield, when chief governor. The Vice-regal Lodge was purchased from Mr. Clements, by whom it was built, and was originally a plain mansion of brick. Lord Hardwicke, in 1802, added the wings, in one of which is the great dining-hall; the Duke of Richmond, in 1808, built the north portico of the Doric order, and the entrance lodges from the Dublin road; and Lord Whitworth added the south front, which has a pediment supported by four Ionic columns of Portland stone, from a design by Johnston, and the whole of the facade was afterwards altered to correspond with it: the demesne attached to the lodge comprises 162 acres. The Wellington memorial occupies an elevated position : it consists of a massive truncated obelisk, 205 feet high from the ground, resting on a square pedestal 24 feet high, based on a platform 480 feet in circuit, and rising by steps to the height of 20 feet. On each side of the pedestal are sunken panels intended to receive sculptures in alto relievo, representing the principal victories of the duke; and on each side of the obelisk are enumerated all his battles, from his first career in India to the victory at Waterloo. In front of the eastern side of the pedestal rises another of small proportions, for an equestrian statue of the duke after his decease. It has been so far completed at an expense of £20,000. The park contains residences for the ranger, the principal secretary of state, the under secretary at war, and the under secretary of the civil department. The Powder magazine, erected in 1738, is a square fort, with half bastions at the angles, surrounded by a dry ditch, and entered by a drawbridge; in the interior are the magazines, which are bomb-proof and well secured against accidental fire. It is defended by ten 24 pounders. Near the Vice-regal Lodge a level space of about 50 acres, cleared of trees, is used as a place of exercise and reviews for the troops of the garrison. The park also contains the buildings of the Hibernian school for soldiers' children, the buildings erected by the Ordnance for the trigonometrical survey of Ireland, the Military Infirmary, and the garden of the Zoological society. Near one of the entrances to the Vice-regal Lodge, in a wooded glen, is a chalybeate spa surrounded with pleasure grounds, and furnished with seats for invalids, fitted up at the expense of the Duchess Dowager of Richmond for the accommodation of the public.

The military department is under the control of the commander of the forces, under whom are the departments of the adjutant-general, quarter-master-general, royal artillery, engineers, commissariat and medical staff. The garrison is under the more immediate command of the general officer commanding the eastern district of Ireland, the head-quarters of which is in the city. The commander of the forces resides in the Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, of which he is master by virtue of his office. This hospital was founded for superannuated and maimed soldiers, in 1679, by royal charter, on the site of the dissolved priory of St. John of Jerusalem, at an expense of £23,559. The building consists of a quadrangle, 306 feet by 208 on the outside, enclosing an area of 210 feet square. On the north side is the dining-hall, 100 feet by 50, the walls of which are appropriately ornamented with guns, pikes, and swords, and with standards taken from the Spaniards. The chapel is a plain but venerable structure : the east window, ornamented with stained glass, is very large, and beneath it is the communion table, of highly wrought Irish oak. The remainder of the quadrangle, round which is a covered walk, is appropriated to the use of the inmates. The present establishment is for 5 captains, an adjutant, and 200 soldiers selected from the out-pensioriers, whose number is about 20,000. The building is surrounded by a space of ground laid out in lawns and avenues well planted: its principal approach is from the military road. The garrison of the city is quartered in several barracks. The largest and oldest are the Royal Barracks, situated on an eminence overlooking the Liffey, between the city and the principal gate of the Phoenix Park : the chief entrances are by two gates from Barrack-street. They are adapted for 10 field officers, 83 officers, 2003 non-commissioned officers and privates, and 460 horses, with an hospital for 240 patients. The buildings are divided into five squares, under the designation of royal, palatine, cavalry, stable, and clock squares. The barracks in South Great George's-street are adapted for 17 officers of infantry and 324 privates. The Richmond barracks, near Golden Bridge, on the bank of the Grand Canal, have accommodation for 76 officers of infantry and 1602 non-commissioned officers and privates, and an hospital for 100 patients. The Porto Bello cavalry barracks, on the Grand Canal, are adapted for 27 officers and 520 men, with stabling for 540 horses, and an hospital for 40 patients. The barracks in the Phoenix Park, for infantry, have accommodation for 10 officers and 250 non-commissioned officers and men. Connected with the powder magazine are accommodations for one officer of artillery and 18 men. The Island bridge barracks, for artillery, are adapted for 23 officers and 547 men, with stabling for 185 horses, and an hospital for 48 patients. The Recruiting Depot at Beggar's Bush, beyond Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, consists of a fort enclosed with a wall, and four bastions with defences for musketry, and affords accommodation for 22 officers and 360 privates, with an hospital for39patients. The Pigeon-house fort is situated on the south wall, midway between Ringsend and the Lighthouse, and comprises a magazine, arsenal, and custom-house, the whole enclosed with strong fortifications, and garrisoned by 16 officers of foot and artillery and 201 men, with stabling for 13 horses, and an hospital for 17 men. Adjoining the fort is a basin, 900 feet by 450, intended for a packet station; but since the formation of Howth and Kingstown harbours, it has not been used. The Military Infirmary, designed for sick and wounded soldiers who cannot be properly treated in the regimental hospital, is in the Phoenix Park, near its principal entrance.

COURTS OF JUSTICE.

The supreme courts of judicature consist of the Chancery, in which the lord-chancellor presides, assisted by the Master of the Rolls, who holds a subordinate court; the King's Bench, which is under the superintendence of a chief justice and three puisne judges; the Common Pleas, under a similar superintendence of four judges; and the Exchequer, which contains two departments, one for the management of the revenue, the other a court both of equity and law, in which a chief baron and three puisne barons preside. The courts are held in a magnificent structure, commonly called the Four Courts, situated on the north side of the river, having Richmond and Whitworth bridges at its eastern and western extremities; it consists of a central pile, 140 feet square, containing the courts, and two wings, in which are most of the offices connected with the despatch of legal business : these, with the centre, form two quadrangles. The front of the building consists of a boldly projecting central portico of six Corinthian columns on a platform, to which is an ascent by five steps, and supporting a highly enriched cornice surmounted by a triangular pediment, having on the apex a statue of Moses, and at the ends those of Justice and of Mercy. Through this portico is the principal entrance into the great circular hall, opposite to which is a passage to apartments connected with the courts, and on each side are others leading to the two quadrangles. In the intervals between these four passages are the entrances to the four chief courts; the Chancery on the north-west, the King's Bench on the north-east, the Common Pleas on the south-east, and the Exchequer on the south-west. The Rolls' Court is held in an apartment in the northern part of the central building, between the Courts of Chancery and King's Bench, where also are other apartments used as a law library and a coffee-room. The eastern wing, which forms the northern and eastern sides of one quadrangle, is appropriated to the offices belonging to the Common Pleas and some of those of the Chancery, the remainder of which, with the King's Bench and Exchequer offices, are in the northern and western sides of the other wing. A new building, for a Rolls' Court and a Nisi Prius Court, has been erected between the northern side of the main building and Pill-lane, on a piece of ground purchased for the purpose of isolating the courts, in order to diminish the risk of fire, and to provide additional accommodation for the augmentation of legal proceedings. This stately and sumptuous structure was begun by Mr. Thomas Cooley, architect, and completed by Mr. Gandon, at an expense of about £200,000, and the whole of the sculpture was executed by Mr. Edward Smith, a native artist.

INNS OF COURT.

The King's Inns are situated on a piece of elevated ground of about three acres, formerly called the Primate's Garden, at the northern end of Henrietta-street, the tenure of which having been deemed doubtful, as being held under the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church, was secured to the society by act of parliament. The structure consists of a centre and two wings, each with a back return; the principal front has a northern aspect, looking towards the rear of the houses on Constitution Hill, but the more usual approach for purposes of business is at the rear through Henrietta-street. The centre, which is crowned with an elegant octagonal cupola and dome, forms a lofty arched gateway, with a door on each side, leading into a confined area between the wings, the northern of which contains the dining-hall, and the southern, the Prerogative and Consistorial Courts, and the repository for the registration of deeds; The Prerogative Court is established for the trial of all testamentary cases where the testator has bequeathed property in more than one diocese. Its jurisdiction is vested in the Lord-Primate, under the acts of the 28th of Henry VIII. and 2nd of Eliz., which gives him power to appoint the judge or commissary, who ranks next after the judges of the supreme courts. In the Consistorial Court are decided all cases of ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the province of Dublin. The library of the King's Inns is kept in a separate building, erected in Henrietta-street in 1827, at an expense of £20,000, after designs by Mr. Darley : the upper story is a spacious apartment, with recesses for the books and a gallery continued all round; it contains a very extensive collection, which was partly the property of Christopher Robinson, Esq., senior puisne judge of the Court of King's Bench; the law books were chiefly selected by Earl Camden, Lord-Chancellor. The library was entitled to one of the eleven copies of new publications appropriated to the public institutions under the late copyright act, which right has been lately commuted for an equivalent in money. The lower part of the building contains accommodations for the librarian. Bankrupt cases were tried before commissioners, appointed by the lord-chancellor, of whom there were 25, arranged in five sets who presided alternately; the court was held in an upper apartment of the Royal Exchange. By a late act the duties have been transferred to a single judge, under the title of Commissioner of Bankruptcies. The court for the relief of insolvent debtors was placed by an act of the 2nd of George IV. under the jurisdiction of two commissioners, to be appointed by the lord-lieutenant, who hold their court in North Strand-street, with which is connected a suite of offices on Lower Ormond Quay. Prisoners under processes from the courts of justice and insolvent debtors are confined in the Four Courts Marshalsea, a large building in Marshalsea-lane, off Thomas-street: the prison has two court-yards, two chapels, several common halls and a ball-court. The Law Club was instituted in 1791 by a number of the most respectable solicitors and attorneys : the clubhouse is a plain building in Dame-street. The Law Society was formed in 1830; it proposes to form a law library, and to erect a common hall for the purposes of the society : the meetings are at present held in chambers on the King's Inns' Quay. The Law Students' Society, instituted in 1830, consists exclusively of law students and barristers.

ECCLESIASTICAL STATE.


Arms.

ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE of DUBLIN and GLENDALOUGH. --The See of Dublin comprehended both the dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough until the arrival of the Danes, who having settled themselves in the plain country on each side of the Liffey, on their conversion to Christianity established a separate bishop, who derived his spiritual authority from the Archbishop of Canterbury and acknowledged him as his superior. Donat, the first bishop of Dublin chosen by the Danes, built the conventual and cathedral church of the Holy Trinity, usually called Christ-Church, about the year 1038. His successor, Patrick, on his election by the people of Dublin, was sent to England to be consecrated by Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury. Gregory, the third in succession after Patrick, on proceeding to England on a similar mission, carried with him a letter from his flock, in which notice is taken of the animosity of the Irish bishops in consequence of their acknowledgment of the jurisdiction of an English prelate. In 1152 the see was raised to an archbishoprick by Cardinal Paparo, the Pope's legate, who invested Gregory with one of the four archiepiscopal palls brought from Rome. Laurence O'Toole was the first archbishop who did not go to England for consecration; the ceremony in his case was performed in Christ-Church by Gelasius, Archbishop of Armagh; and the custom of having recourse to Canterbury was never afterwards resumed. Archbishop Laurence proceeded to Rome in 1179, where he assisted at the second council of Lateran, and obtained a bull confirming that which had decreed the dioceses of Glendalough, Kildare, Ferns, Leighlin, and Ossory, to be suffragan to the metropolitan see of Dublin. On the death of Laurence, Henry II. bestowed the archbishoprick on John Comyn, an Englishman, and granted him the temporalities with power to hold manor courts. The archbishops henceforward were lords of parliament in right of the barony of Coillach. On Comyn's consecration, Pope Lucius III. invested the see with sole supreme ecclesiastical authority within the province, whence originated the long-continued controversy between the archbishops of Armagh and Dublin, which is fully detailed in the account of the former see. In the archiepiscopal investiture granted by Cardinal Paparo, the dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough are considered to be, strictly speaking, a single see; but in compliance with the wishes of the inhabitants of the mountain districts, which contained the latter, it was allowed to retain its name and a separate subordinate existence. But King John, in 1185, granted to Comyn the reversion of this bishoprick on its next avoidance, and the charter to this effect was confirmed by Matthew O'Heney, archbishop of Cashel, the Pope's legate, at a synod held in Dublin in 1192. But though this union was legally effected about the year 1214, the mountain clans, who were still unamenable to English law, long continued to appoint their own bishops of Glendalough. Henry de Loundres, the next archbishop, appears to have exercised the privileges of a peer of parliament in England, perhaps in right of the manor of Penkridge in Staffordshire, granted to the see by Hugh Hussey, founder of the Galtrim family in Ireland, and which long formed a peculiar of the diocese. The same prelate raised the collegiate church of St. Patrick, which had been erected by his predecessor, to the dignity of a cathedral, in consequence of which the diocese continues to have two cathedral churches. This circumstance afterwards gave rise to a violent contest between the two chapters as to the right of electing an archbishop. The dispute was terminated by an agreement that the archbishop should be consecrated and enthroned in Christ-Church, which, as being the more ancient, should have the precedency; and that the crosier, mitre, and ring of every archbishop, in whatever place he died, should be deposited in it, but that both churches should be cathedral and metropolitan. There have been always two archdeaconries in the united diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, whose jurisdictions may have been formerly coterminous with their respective sees; but the long and intimate union of these, and the little use made of the archidiaconal functions, render it nearly impossible to define their respective limits with any degree of accuracy.

The records of Christ-Church inform us that it owes its foundation to Sitric, the son of Anlaffe, king of Dublin, who, about the year 1038, gave to Donat, bishop of that see, a place where arches or vaults were built, on which to erect a church to the honour of the Blessed Trinity, to whom the building was accordingly dedicated. It was originally the conventual church of a monastery of secular canons unattached to any of the cenobitical orders, who were changed by Laurence O'Toole, in 1163, to canons regular of the order of Arras, a branch of the Augustinians. Sitric originally endowed this establishment with some small tracts on the sea coast of the present county of Dublin; and these possessions were greatly extended after the arrival of the English, when the successive augmentations of its revenue raised it to the rank of one of the most important priories in the island. Its privileges were confirmed by Henry II. and his successors; its priors were spiritual peers of parliament. This convent had anciently an endowed cell in the diocese of Armagh, In 154], Henry VIII. changed the monastic establishment into a dean and chapter, confirming its ancient estates and immunities, and making Payneswick, the last prior, its first dean on the new foundation, which consisted of a dean, chanter, chancellor, treasurer, and six vicars choral. Archbishop Brown, in 1544, erected in this church the three prebends of St. Michael's, St. Michan's, and St. John's; and from the time of these alterations it has generally borne the name of Christ-Church, instead of that of the Holy Trinity. King Edward VI. added six priests and two choristers or singing-boys, to whom he assigned a pension of £45. 6. 8. per annum, payable out of the exchequer during pleasure. Queen Mary confirmed this pension, and granted it in perpetuity. James I. made some further alterations, and ordained that the archdeacon of Dublin should have a stall in the choir, and a voice and seat in the chapter in all capitular acts relating to the church. Welbore Ellis, the eleventh dean, installed in 1705, was subsequently made Bishop of Kildare, from which period the deanery has continued to be held in commendam with that bishoprick. The gross annual revenue of the deanery, on an average of three years ending Dec. 31st, 1831, was £5314. 5. 11 1/2. The cathedral establishment consists at present, therefore, of the dean (who is also Bishop of Kildare, and is guardian of the temporalities of the see during its vacancy on the death or avoidance of the archbishop), chanter, chancellor, treasurer, archdeacon, and the three above-named prebendaries, under whom are six vicars choral, six stipendiaries or choirmen, and six singing boys and a registrar. The advowsons of the Dean and Chapter are (besides the three prebends already mentioned) the rectories of St. Mary, St. Paul, and St. Thomas, and the vicarage of Balscaddan, all in Dublin diocese; the alternate presentation to the rectory of St. George, Dublin, and the fourth turn to the union of Baronstown, in the county of Louth. For the repairs of the building and the payment of the inferior officers there is an economy fund, amounting on an average of three years ending 31st of Dec., 1831, to £2386. 8. 6. per ann., arising mostly from rents, tithes, and the dividends on about £10,000 funded property, including also the above-named pension.

The Ecclesiastical province of Dublin, over which the Archbishop presides, comprehends the dioceses of Dublin and Glendalough, Kildare, Ossory, Ferns, and Leighlin. It is entirely included in the civil province of Leinster, and is estimated to comprise an area of 1,827,250 acres. Under the Church Temporalities' Act (3rd and 4th of William IV., c. 37), on the next vacancy in the bishoprick of Kildare, that see is to be permanently united with Dublin and Glendalough; and in like manner the bishoprick of Ossory is to be permanently united with Ferns and Leighlin. The act also provides that, on the next avoidance of the see of Cashel, that archbishoprick is to be reduced to the rank of a bishoprick, and, together, with all its dependent sees, is to be suffragan to the Archbishop of Dublin, whose jurisdiction will then extend over the whole of Munster, the greater part of Leinster, and part of Galway in Connaught.

The Diocese of Dublin and Glendalough extends over all the county of Dublin, together with parts of Queen's county, Wicklow, Kildare, and Wexford; and contains an estimated area of 477,950 acres, of which 142,050 are in Dublin, 600 in Queen's county, 257,400 in Wicklow, 75,000 in Kildare, and 2900 in Wexford. The lands belonging to the united sees amount to 34,040 statute acres, of which 23,926 are profitable land; and the gross income, on an average of three years ending Dec. 31st, 1831, was £9230. 12. 9. It comprises 95 benefices, exclusively of chapelries; of these, 39 are unions of two or more parishes, and 56 are single parishes or parts of parishes; 11, of them are in the gift of the Crown, 39 in lay and corporation patronage, 5 in joint or alternate presentation, and the remainder in the patronage of the Archbishop, or incumbents. The parishes or districts are 180: there are 124 churches, and 9 other buildings in which divine worship is performed, and 50 glebe-houses. The diocesan school is endowed with 10 acres of land and £100 late currency for the master.

In the R. C. divisions the Archbishop of Dublin is primate of Ireland, and his three suffragan bishops are those of Kildare and Leighlin, Ossory, and Ferns : he is styled only Archbishop of Dublin, and not of Dublin and Glendalough, as in the Established Church. The R. C. diocese of Dublin comprises 48 parochial districts, of which 9 are in the city; and contains 121 chapels, served by 153 clergymen, 48 of whom are parish priests and 105 coadjutors or curates. The Archbishop's parish is St. Mary's, in which is the R. C. cathedral, called the Metropolitan Church, or Church of the Conception. The chapter consists of the same number and denomination of officers as the chapter of St. Patrick's Cathedral, but the dean and precentor are styled vicars general.

The Cathedral of Christ-Church is a long cruciform building, composed of a nave with a north aisle, transepts, and choir, with a central tower. The southern, transept, measuring ninety feet by twenty-five, is entered by a Norman doorway in good preservation: the tower is a low massive pile, terminating in a pointed roof. The whole of the building has recently been repaired and several improvements made, at an expense of upwards of £8000 from the economy fund. The choir is separated from the nave by an elegant skreen, above which is the organ gallery, and decorated with a noble eastern window of stained glass, representing the armorial bearings of the members of the chapter, and having its lower part ornamented with an enriched border of open work above the altar. The ceiling is intersected with quadrangular mouldings, with heavy bosses at the points of intersection serving to conceal a deviation from the straight line of direction between the entrance and the altar window, which is an irremediable defect in the original construction : a handsome border of tracery work goes round the walls. There are several remarkable monuments, the greater number of which are placed against the blank south wall of the nave. Among them are one of Strongbow, and of his wife Eva, or of his son, mutilated by the fall of the roof, and placed in its present situation by the Lord-Deputy Sidney, in 1570; a very beautiful monument of Thomas Prior, an early and zealous promoter of the Dublin Society; one of Lord Chancellor Bowes; another of Lord Chancellor Lifford; and a fourth of Robert, Earl of Kildare, who died in 1743; besides those of several successive bishops of Kildare. A very fine monument has been lately erected to the memory of Nathaniel Sneyd, Esq., who was shot by a lunatic while walking in Westmoreland-street. Various eminent prelates of the see of Dublin have been interred within the walls of this church.

ST. PATRICK'S.

John Comyn, archbishop of Dublin, having erected a collegiate church for 13 prebendaries, in the southern suburbs of the city, on the site of an ancient parochial church, said to have been founded by St. Patrick in 448, dedicated it to God, the Blessed Virgin, and St. Patrick, and endowed it amply. Henry de Loundres, his successor, raised it to the dignity of a cathedral, consisting of a dean, precentor, chancellor, and treasurer, with thirteen prebendaries, increased its temporalities, and authorised the members to hear all pleas of their parishioners in their prebendal and economy churches. From a taxation in 1227 the number of prebendaries appears to have been increased to 22, three of whom were added by Bishop Ferings. The controversy which arose between this cathedral and that of Christ-Church, as to the right of electing the archbishop, has been noticed in the account of the latter cathedral. Among other privileges granted to the canons of this church by Henry VIII., was a dispensation from parochial residence on any other benefice, on condition of maintaining hospitality in the cathedral, but the establishment was soon after dissolved by the same monarch in 1546, together with the monastic institutions. Edward VI. disposed of the church and its appendages for a parish church, a seat for the courts of justice, a grammar school or literary college, and an hospital; the deanery was assigned for the archbishop's residence, and the lord-deputy took possession of the archiepiscopal palace; but this arrangement was revoked by Queen Mary, who at the beginning of her reign restored the cathedral to all its former privileges and possessions, by a charter commonly called the Charter of Restitution.

At present the chapter consists of a dean, precentor, chancellor, treasurer, the archdeacons of Dublin and Glendalough, and the prebendaries of Cullen, Swords, Kilmactalway, Yago, St. Audeon's, Clonmethan, Wicklow, Timothan, Mallahidart, Castleknock, Tipper, Tassagard, Dunlavan, Maynooth, Howth, Rathmichael, Monmohenock, Stagonil, Tipperkevin, and Donoughmore in Omaile. The dignity of dean has always been elective in the chapter, on the conge d'elire of the archbishop, except in cases of the promotion of the former dean to a bishoprick, the vacancy of the archiepiscopal see, or the neglect of the chapter, in which cases the appointment belongs of right to the Crown. The powers of the chapter in this regard were twice infringed upon, but they have been restored by their perseverance. By the original charter and the statute of the 14th of Edward IV., the dean was constituted the immediate ordinary and prelate of the church of St. Patrick, and exercises episcopal jurisdiction throughout the liberties and economy thereof: he has a spiritual court in which his official or commissary, and a temporal court in which his seneschal general presides; and grants marriage licences, probate of wills, &c. The gross yearly revenue of the deanery, on an average of three years ending Dec. 31st, 1831, amounted to £1997. 8. 1. By the Church Temporalities Act the dean of St. Patrick's is to be dean of Christ-Church also; on the next avoidance of that deanery, he will be dean of Christ-Church without installation or induction. The dean and chapter have the right of presentation, to the parishes of St. Bridget, St. Nicholas Within, and St. Nicholas Without. The dean, in right of his dignity, presents to the vicarage of Kilberry, and to the curacies of Malahide and Crumlin; the precentor and treasurer have the alternate presentation of the vicarage of Lusk, and the archdeacon of Dublin that of the perpetual cure of Booterstown, and three turns out of four of the united cures of Kilternan and Kilgobbin. The gross amount of the Economy fund, on an average of three years ending the 29th of Sept., 1831, was £3076. 2. 11. The archdeacon of Dublin had a stall in the chapter of the cathedral of Christ-Church, and a voice in the election of the archbishop, previously to his possessing the same in that of St. Patrick; but the archdeacon of Glendalough had neither of these rights until about the year 1267, when a new prebend was erected and annexed to the office. An additional corporation of six minor canons (since reduced to four) and six choristers was established in 1431 by Archbishop Talbot, on account of the devastations of the lands of the prebends having rendered them insufficient for the service of the church : the first in rank he styled sub-dean, and the second succentor : he endowed the entire body with the tithes of Swords, except such portions as were especially allotted to the prebendary and perpetual vicar; and vested the appointment and dismissal of the minor canons in the dean and chapter, and of the choristers in the precentor. This arrangement was sanctioned by Henry VI. and Pope Eugenius IV., who fixed the rank of the minor canons between that of prebendaries and vicars choral. In 1520 the minor canons and choristers were made a body corporate by charter. Archbishop Henry de Loundres, at the time he established the four dignitaries, instituted also the college of vicars choral, for whose common support he granted the church of Keneth (now Kinneagh), to which various endowments were subsequently added. The head of this college, styled sub-dean, or dean's vicar, enjoyed very considerable authority, possessing even a seat in the chapter, as also did the next vicar, called the sub-chanter, or chanter's vicar. They were incorporated by Richard II., and received their last charter from Charles I., who fixed their number at twelve, of whom five at least were to be priests, and the dean's vicar was to have a superior salary, and extensive power over the rest : the salary of the twelve vicars is directed by this charter to he apportioned by the dean and chapter, of whom the former enjoys the nomination to all vacancies; but out of the body thus appointed, the chanter, chancellor, and treasurer choose their respective vicars, as also does the Archdeacon of Dublin. The charter likewise secures to the Archbishop his ancient visitorial power; forms the college into a body corporate; confirms their ancient possessions; and binds them to pay a master of the choristers, and two singing boys in addition to the four choristers.

The Cathedral of St. Patrick is a venerable cruciform pile, 300 feet in length, of which the nave occupies 130 feet, the choir 90, and St. Mary's chapel 55 : the transept extends 157 feet in length. The nave, the entrance to which is by a beautifully arched and deeply receding doorway, is 30 feet in width, with two aisles, each 14 feet wide, separated from it by octagonal pillars supporting plain Gothic arches of dissimilar arrangement but imposing appearance : it is lofty, and is lighted by a magnificent window at the western end, over the main entrance. In the south end of the transept is the chapter-house; the entire northern end is occupied by the parish church of St. Nicholas. The monuments in this cathedral are numerous : among the most remarkable in the nave are those of Archbishops Smith and Marsh, and that of the Earl of Cavan, who died in 1778; and on two pillars on the south side are tablets to the memory of Dean Swift and of Mrs. Johnson, the celebrated Stella. The oldest monument is a mutilated gravestone to the memory of Archbishop Tregury, who died in 1471. In the choir are many monuments : that of the first Earl of Cork, and several members of his family, which is placed on the right side of the altar, is an unsightly pile of black stone of antiquated sculpture, with ornaments of wood, painted and gilt, exhibiting sixteen unconnected figures, representing as many individuals of the family. Similar in style are the smaller monuments, on the opposite side, of Thomas Jones, Archbishop of Dublin, and Roger Jones, Viscount Ranelagh, near which is a plain slab to the memory of Duke Schomberg, with a very caustic inscription from the pen of Swift.


Seal and Arms of the University.

TRINITY COLLEGE.

 

PARISHES.

The Metropolitan parishes are all in the diocese of Dublin.

St. Andrew's was formerly united to St. Werburgh's, but the union having been dissolved in 1660, it was by act of parliament erected into a separate parish, and in 1707 the present parish of St. Mark was by another act formed out of it. It contains 7870 inhabitants : the number of houses valued at £5 and upwards is 731, the total annual value being £46,022. The rectory, the annual income of which is £346. 8. 3 1/2., forms the corps of the precentorship of St. Patrick's cathedral: the vicarage is in the gift of the Lord-Chancellor, the Archbishop of Dublin, the three Chief Judges, and the Master of the Rolls; the amount of minister's money is £529. 15. 1. The church, situated in St. Andrew's-street, opposite Church-lane, was commenced in 1793, and completed in 1807, at an expense of £22,000. It is of elliptical form, 80 feet by 60, whence it has acquired the popular name of the Round Church : over the principal entrance, which is at the extremity of the lesser axis of the ellipsis, is a statue of St. Andrew bearing his cross; and at the opposite end is the communion table, reading desk, pulpit, and organ loft, with galleries for children on each side of it. The parochial school for boys and girls is supported by an annual sermon and the rent of the lands of Phrompstown. An alms-house for 28 widows, founded in 1726 by Dr. Travers, is supported by the weekly collections in the church.

St. Anne's parish was formed out of the united parishes of St. Stephen, St. Peter, and St. Bride, and made a separate parish in 1707. It contains 8363 inhabitants; the number of houses valued at £5 and upwards is 785, the total annual value being £56,812. 10. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Archbishop of Dublin; the amount of minister's money is £588. 18. 5. The church, situated in Dawson-street, opposite Anne-street, was designed from a church in Rome, but remains unfinished; the front consists of a portal with Doric half columns and smaller side entrances surmounted by ornamented windows, above which the gable of the building is seen. The interior is spacious and handsome; the galleries, which surround it on three sides, are supported by Ionic pillars of carved oak : it was thoroughly repaired in 1835, towards which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners granted £736. 5. 6. There is a parochial school for boys, who are clothed, fed, educated, and apprenticed; also one for girls, an infants' school, and the model school of the Kildare-place Society. An almshouse for widows is supported by the Sunday collections. The remains of the celebrated authoress, Mrs. Hemans, were deposited in the vault beneath the church in 1835. Judge Downes was also buried in this church.

St. Audeon's, or Owens, was originally a chapel dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and enlarged by the family of Fitz-Eustace of Portlester; afterwards it was given as a parish church to the priory of Grace Dieu by John Comyn; but in 1467 it was made a prebend with cure of souls in the cathedral of St. Patrick, by Archbishop Tregury. The parish contains 4599 inhabitants, and 426 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £19,399. The rectory or prebend is of the annual value of £243. 1. 4., and the minister's money amounts to £220. 12. 11. The present church consists only of the western end of the ancient edifice, which comprised a nave and collateral aisle, at the end of which is a modern steeple with a ring of bells; the rest of it is now in ruins. The eastern extremity still presents a fine specimen of the pointed style, and there are many curious old monuments, among which is one of Lord -Portlester and his lady, erected in 1455 : it is the burial-place of several ancient families. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £162. 0. 11. for the repairs of this church. There is a parochial school for boys, who are clothed, partly dieted, and apprenticed; also a school for girls, who are partly clothed; an infants' school, a Sunday school, and a female orphan school.

St. Bridget's or St. Bride's parish was formed out of those of St. Bride, St. Stephen, and St. Michael de la Pole, and after having belonged to Christ-Church was annexed to St. Patrick's in 1186. It contains 12,543 inhabitants; the number of houses valued at £5 and upwards is 732, and the total annual value is £23,377. 10.

The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of St. Patrick's; the minister's money amounts to £286. 4. 1., and the gross income is £405. 13. 10. The church, a very plain building, situated in the street to which it gives name, was erected in 1684 : it was repaired in 1827 at an expense of between £300 and £400, by parish assessment; and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have since granted £158. 5. 9. for its further repair. Among the monuments are those of Mr. and Mrs. Pleasants, distinguished for their munificent charitable donations and bequests. The Episcopal chapel of the Molyneux Asylum, in Peter-street, is in this parish. There is a parochial boarding school for boys, a parochial day school, a boarding school for orphans, a day and an infants' school, and a Sunday school. The school in Stephen-street is supported by the interest of a legacy of £3900 from Ralph Macklin, Esq. Two almshouses for 20 widows and 12 old men are maintained by a bequest of Mr. Pleasants; and several large legacies have been bequeathed to the parish. There is a chalybeate spa near the church.

St. Catherine's anciently formed part of the parish of St. James, but was separated from it by an act of parliament in 1710. It contains 23,237 inhabitants, and 1264 houses of the value of £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £31,921. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Earl of Meath; the minister's money amounts to £395. 3. 10. The church, which had been a chapel to St. Thomas the Martyr, was rebuilt in its present form in 1769 : it is situated oh the south side of Thomas-street, and is built of mountain granite, in the Doric style : four semi-columns, with their entablature, enriched by triglyphs, support a noble pediment in the centre, and on each side the entablature is continued the entire length, and supported at each extremity by coupled pilasters : above the entablature, at each side of the pediment, is a stone balustrade. Between the centre columns is a handsome Ionic arched door, and the other intermediate spaces are occupied by a double range of windows. The interior is elegantly simple : eight Ionic columns support the galleries, above which the same number of Corinthian pilasters rise to the roof. At the west end of the building is an unfinished belfry. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £126 for its repair. In the interior is a tablet to the memory of Dr. Whitelaw, the historian of Dublin, who was 25 years vicar of this parish, and died in 1813; and another to that of William Mylne, engineer, who constructed the waterworks of Dublin : underneath is the family vault of the Earl of Meath. A free Episcopal church has been opened in Swift's-alley, in a building purchased from the Baptist society in 1835, and consecrated by the archbishop : it is under the management of eight trustees, one-half of whom must be clergymen of the Established Church. Another is in progress at Harold Cross, in this parish. There are a parochial boarding school for girls, a parochial day school for boys and girls, a school on Erasmus Smith's foundation, three national schools, an evening school, an infants' school, and two Sunday schools. There are two almshouses for widows, one supported by the parish and the other by a member of the La Touche family.

St. George's parish originally formed part of that of St. Mary, and though not strictly within the liberties of the city, it has been included in the new electorial boundary under the Reform act. It contains 14,692 inhabitants, and 1261 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £63,900. The living is a rectory, in the alternate patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church and the representatives of the late Lord Blessington; the minister's money amounts to £628. 5. 9., and the gross income is £800. The church, erected in 1802 in Hardwicke-place, after a design by F. Johnston, and at an expense of £90,000, presents a front consisting of a central projecting portico of four fluted Doric columns resting on an elevated platform supporting a bold entablature (the frieze and cornice of which are carried entirely round the building) surmounted by a triangular pediment over which rises the steeple of four ornamented stories, terminating in a light and graceful spire tapering to a height of 200 feet from the ground. The interior is fitted up in a chaste and elegant style, and a projecting building at the east end contains the vestry-room and parish school. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £1512. 12. 5. for its repair. There are three other Episcopal places of worship : St. George's chapel, commonly called Little St. George's, in Lower Temple-street, was founded by an endowment, by Archbishop King, of £49 per ann., out of two houses in Great Britain-street, the property of Sir John Eccles, to support a lecturer; it consists of a plain building with a square tower, surrounded by a cemetery, and is a donative, in the gift of A. Eccles, Esq. The free church in Great Charles-street was originally a Methodist place of worship, and was purchased, about 1826, for its present purpose, and consecrated by the Archbishop of Dublin, in whom the appointment of the minister is vested; it is a plain neat structure. The Episcopal chapel of the female penitentiary, on the north circular road, is the third. There are three parochial schools, a boarding school for girls, a day school for both sexes, and an infants' school, also a day school for both sexes endowed with a bequest by Miss Kellett.

Grangegorman parish, situated partly within the new electoral boundary, north of the city, and partly in the county of Dublin, was formed out of those parts of the parishes of St. Michan, St. Paul, and St. George, which were in the manor of Grangegorman. It contains 7382 inhabitants, and 472 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £6102. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Prebendaries and Vicars choral of the cathedral of Christ-Church. The church was erected by a grant from the Board of First Fruits, in 1830. Within the parish are the House of Industry, the Richmond Penitentiary, the Lunatic Asylum for the district of Dublin, and the female orphan school, to the last-named of which an Episcopal chapel is attached. There are two day schools for both sexes, one of which is attached to the House of Industry, a female orphan school, and a day and infants' school, connected with the R. C. chapel. The total number of pupils in the day schools is 493.

St. James's parish contains 13,197 inhabitants, and 625 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £13,176. The living is a vicarage, in the patronage of the Earl of Meath; the minister's money amounts to £109. 1. 4. The church is a low and very plain building; owing to the small accommodation it affords to the numerous parishioners, it is the intention of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners to erect a new one. The cemetery is very large and situated on the north side of a hill sloping down towards the river. The episcopal chapels of the Royal and Foundling Hospitals are in this parish; and there is a chapel of ease at Golden-Bridge, chiefly for the use of Richmond barracks. There are parochial schools for boys and girls, three national schools, and an infants' school.

St. Johns parish contains 4351 inhabitants, and 291 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £9846. 10. It was erected into a prebend with cure of souls in the cathedral of Christ-Church, in 1554, and is in the gift of the Dean and Chapter; the minister's money amounts to £118. 9. 3., and the gross income of the prebendary is £398. 2. 8. The church, situated at the corner of John's-lane, was rebuilt in 1773 : it presents to Fishamble-street a neat front adorned with four Doric columns supporting a pediment, and approached by a broad flight of steps : in this front is the chief entrance to the body of the church and one to each of the galleries. In 1836 it underwent a thorough repair, for which a grant of £879. 9. 7. was made by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There are parochial schools for boys and girls, two national schools for boys and girls, a Sunday school, and an evening school for adult males.

St. Luke's parish contains 6605 inhabitants, and 337 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £7654. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin, and in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church; the minister's money is £92. 7. 8., and the gross income £171. 17.4. The church, erected in 1708, when the parish, which had been a part of that of St. Nicholas, was formed, is approached by an avenue of trees from the Coombe, and. is a plain structure entered by a large doorway between rusticated columns : it was re-rooted in 1835 by a grant of £1029. 13. 6. from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. There are parochial schools for boys and girls, in which some of the children are clothed and some dieted; also an infants' school and a national school, all supported by charity sermons and some small bequests.

St. Mark's parish was severed from that of St. Andrew by act of parliament in 1707 : it contains 14,811 inhabitants, and 1076 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £38,592. The living is a vicarage, in the joint patronage of the Lord-Chancellor, the Archbishop of Dublin, the three Chief Judges, and the Master of the Rolls; the minister's money is £330. 3. 3. The church is situated in Mark-street, adjacent to Brunswick-street: it was built in 1729, and is a large building perfectly plain; the interior is very neat and commodious. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £165. 13. 5. for repairing it. The Mariners' church, built in Forbes-street in 1832, and the Episcopal chapel belonging to the marine school, are in this parish; as locally is Trinity College, which is extra-parochial. There are parochial, day, and female schools., one on the foundation of Erasmus Smith, the marine school for sailors' orphans, a female orphan school, and an infants' school.

St. Mary's, originally part of St. Michan's parish, and separated from it in 1697, contains 25,305 inhabitants, and 2018 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £91,895. The living is a rectory, in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church : the minister's money amounts to £974. 16. 6., and the gross income is £1127. The church is a large building, in Stafford-street, possessing little architectural beauty. Its chief entrance is a large gate with Ionic columns on each side, surmounted by a square belfry. In the interior are many monumental tablets, among the more remarkable of which is one to the memory of Edward Tennison, Bishop of Ossory; one to that of Dr. Robt. Law; one to that of Mr. Wm. Watson, founder of the Society for Discountenancing Vice; and one lately erected to the Hon. T. B. Vandeleur, third justice of the King's Bench, Ireland. In the crowded cemetery are the tombs of Dr. Marlay, Bishop of Waterford, and uncle to the late Henry Grattan; Mrs. Mercer, the foundress of Mercer's Hospital; and Mr. Simpson, the founder of Simpson's Hospital. The Board of First Fruits, in 1831, granted a loan of £1615 for the repair of the church, and in 1836 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners granted £205.3. 11. for the same purpose. St. Mary's chapel of ease, built on a plot of ground in Mountjoy-street, presented to the parish by the Earl of Mountjoy, is a very elegant specimen of the modern Gothic, from a design of Mr. Semple; it has a light tapering spire surrounded by minarets of similar shape. It was opened in 1830 as a free church, and has lately received a grant of £445. 13.0. for its repair from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. The Episcopal chapel of the Lying-in Hospital and the Bethesda Episcopal chapel are in this parish; the latter was erected in 1786, at the sole expense of Wm. Smyth, Esq., nephew of the Archbishop of that name : he appointed two clergymen to officiate, and, in 1787, annexed to it an asylum for female orphans, in which about 24 children are entirely supported. A penitentiary adjoins it, which was opened in 1794 for the reception of females discharged from the Lock Hospital. Here are parochial schools for boys and girls, who are totally provided for; a free school for both sexes, an infants' school, and schools for boys and girls in connection with the Scots' Church. A female almshouse in Denmark-street was founded by Tristram Fostrick, Esq., in 1789. Mrs. Mary Damer, in 1753, bequeathed £1765, and Richard Cave, Esq., in 1830, £1600 to the parish for charitable uses.

St. Michael's parish was created a prebend with cure of souls in Christ Church cathedral, in 1554, by Archbishop Browne : it contains 2288 inhabitants, and 112 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £3670. The rectory or prebend is in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church; the minister's money amounts to £50. 5. 11., and the gross income is £250. S. The church stands at the corner of Michael's-hill and High-street, and is a small building in the pointed style of architecture. The tower, which is without a spire, is ancient and of large dimensions, very disproportionate to the small structure of which it now forms the vestibule. There is a parochial school; 20 of the children are clothed.

St. Michan's parish was also erected into a prebend of Christ-Church, with cure of souls, by Archbishop Browne, in 1554, and comprehended the whole of Dublin north of the Liffey until 1697, when the parishes of St. Mary and St. Paul were severed from it. It contains 25,918 inhabitants, and 1464 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £43,568. 10. The prebend is in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church; the minister's money is £488. 15. 7., and the gross income, £719. 7. 6. The church, situated in Church-street, is one of the oldest in the city, being supposed to have been founded by the Ostmen previously to the erection of Christ-Church, and to have been originally the cathedral church of the diocese. It is a very spacious cruciform structure, with a square tower, erected at a comparatively modern period, although the whole has an appearance of great antiquity. It was re-roofed and thoroughly repaired in 1828. at a cost of about £1500, defrayed_ by parish cess, since which time the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £230. 19. 1. for its further repair. On one side of the communion table is an ancient figure of a bishop or an abbot; there is also a monumental tablet to the memory of the celebrated Dr. Lucas. There are a parochial school for girls, a day school for girls, and an infants' school, four day schools for boys, and two for girls, and a Sunday school.

St. Nicholas Within included also the parishes of St. Nicholas Without and St. Luke until 1707, when they were formed into separate parishes. It contains 1845 inhabitants, and 103 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £3929. 10. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of St. Patrick's; the minister's money is £3. 0. 7., and the gross income £125. The church, an unsightly edifice, situated in Nicholas-street, has been taken down and is to be rebuilt under the directions of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, till which time divine service is performed in the school-room. There is a lectureship attached to it, which is maintained by the rent of lands in the county of Louth. There is a parochial school for 12 boys, who are clothed, educated, and apprenticed : it is supported by the rent of two houses, amounting to £36 per annum, and an annual charity sermon.

St. Nicholas Without, formed into a parish in 1707, contains 12,391 inhabitants, and 871 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £226.8,10.1 The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of St. Patrick's; the minister's money is £207. 12. 6., and the gross income £264. 10. The church, which was dedicated to St. Myra, and occupied the north transept of St. Patrick's cathedral, having fallen into decay, has been restored, and still forms part of that building. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £432. 7. 7. for its repair. There are parochial schools for boys, girls, and infants, and two Sunday schools.

St. Paul's, which, previously to the year 1697, formed part of St. Michan's parish, contains 10,570 inhabitants, and 786 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £21,632. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church; the minister's money is £255. 4. 1., and the gross income £386. 9. 4. The church, situated in North King-street, was rebuilt in 1824, and is now a neat edifice in the Gothic style, with a small but elegant spire. The cemetery is the usual place of interment for the garrison of Dublin : it contains a monument to the memory of Lieut.-Col. Lyde Brown, of the 21st Fusileers; a mural tablet to that of three privates of the same regiment, who were killed in the insurrection of 1803; and a mausoleum for the family of Col. Ormsby. The chapel of the King's or Blue-coat Hospital is in this parish. There are parochial schools for boys and girls, an infants' school, and a Sunday school. The late Lord Netterville bequeathed £9000 to this and the adjoining parish of St. Michan for a dispensary and hospital, which is also supported by subscription.

St. Peter's parish, erected by order of council in 1630, is the largest in the city, comprising the ancient parishes of St. Peter and St. Kevin, and a portion of that of St. Stephen : it contains 27,176 inhabitants, and 2260 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £124,865. 10. It is a vicarage, united to the rectories of Tawney, Rathfarnham, Donnybrook, and district of Booterstown, together forming the corps of the archdeaconry of Dublin, in the patronage of the Archbishop; the minister's money is £1086. 15. 4., and the gross annual income is £2768, out of which there are 12 curates to be paid. The church, situated in Aungier-street, is a very large unornamented building, in the form of the letter T : the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £735. 0. 6. for its repair. In the attached cemetery are interred the remains of many persons of rank; those of the celebrated John Fitzgibbon, Earl of Clare, lie here under a plain tombstone; Maturin, the poet, who was curate of the parish, is also buried here. There are within its limits three chapels of ease, one in Kevin-street, one in Upper Mount-street, Merrion-square, and a third at Rathmines; and within "the parish are Sandford Episcopal chapel at Cullens-wood, and an Episcopal chapel in Upper Baggot-street. The church or chapel of St. Kevin is a plain edifice, in the form of the letter T, situated to the south of Kevin-street; it appears to have been erected on the site of an ancient chapel dedicated to St. Kevin. The chapel in Upper Mount-street, dedicated to St. Stephen, is an elegant structure. The portico is of the Ionic order; over the pediment rises the belfry tower, of octangular form, covered with a cupola, the apex of which is 100 feet high. The Episcopal church in Upper Baggot-street, with a female penitentiary attached, was erected in 1835 by subscription, at a cost of upwards of £6000: the exterior is plain, but the interior is exceedingly handsome; it will accommodate 1200, and has from 300 to 400 free seats: the appointment of the chaplain is in nine trustees. The Episcopal chapel of the Magdalen Asylum, in Leeson-street, is also in this parish. There are parochial schools for boys, girls, and infants; schools at Sandford chapel for boys, girls, and infants; a Methodist female orphan school; St. Stephen's male and female day school in Mount-street; Bride-street parochial female school; day schools at Hatch-street and Cuff-lane; two in Whitefriar-street; two at Rath-mines and Miltown; two other infants' schools and five Sunday schools. There is also a parochial dispensary, and a loan fund established in 1813.

St. Thomas's parish was separated from St. Mary's, in 1749, by act of parliament: it contains 20,881 inhabitants, and 1373 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £65,537. 10. The living is a rectory, in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Christ-Church; the minister's money is £684. 12. 1., and the gross income £922. 1. 10. The church, erected in 1758, presents a front to Marlborough-street, opposite to Gloucester-street, composed of two pilasters and two three-quarter columns of the Composite order, supporting an entablature and enclosing ornamented niches, and, in the centre, a Corinthian doorway, with an angular pediment: on each side of this facade is a half-pediment, supported by a Corinthian pilaster at the extremity, and a half-pilaster in the return : an intended pediment over the centre has not been erected. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £915. 17. 9. for the improvement of the building. The Episcopal chapel of the Feinaglian institution at Luxemburgh, for the use of the pupils, but open also to their friends, is in this parish. A parochial school for girls is supported by a bequest of £75. 1.3. per ann. and voluntary contributions; there are also a day school for boys and girls, a national school, and a Sunday school. The buildings of the Board of National Education and a savings' bank are in this parish.

St. Werburgh's parish contains 3384 inhabitants, and 214 houses valued at £5 and upwards, the total annual value being £11,602. 10. It is a rectory, united to the rectory of Finglass and the chapelries of St. Margaret and Ward, together forming the corps of the chancellorship of the cathedral of St. Patrick, in the gift of the Archbishop; the minister's money is £200. 2., and the gross income £680. The church was erected in 1759. The front is composed of a basement story ornamented with six Ionic pilasters with an entablature, and a grand entrance of the same order. The second story, which is diminished, is adorned with four Corinthian pilasters, coupled, enclosing a large window, and supporting a pediment, above which rises a square tower of Composite architecture, terminating with urns placed at the angles. An elegant spire which formerly surmounted the whole was taken down in 1810, on account of its dangerous state; and, for the same reason, the entire tower was taken down in 1835. The Ecclesiastical Commissioners have granted £1140. 16. 11. for the restoration of the tower and the general repairs of the building. The Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, attends here to qualify on his coming into office, the castle of Dublin being situated in the parish. The east window of stained glass is considered the handsomest in Dublin and cost about £600 : the subject is the Presentation. In the interior are several neat monuments, and on the exterior, in the wall of the church, are some very ancient sculptured figures, evidently belonging to an older building. In the vaults are deposited the remains of Sir James Ware, the antiquary, Lord Edward Fitzgerald, and Edwin, the actor. The vice-regal chapel, Dublin Castle, is within the precincts of this parish. There is a parochial boarding school for girls, and parochial day schools for boys and girls, a day school for girls, and a Sunday school. James Southwell, Esq., in 1729, bequeathed £1250, the interest to be applied for various purposes : he also bequeathed £380 for a ring of bells, and a fund to place boys in the Blue-coat school.

ROMAN CATHOLIC PAROCHIAL DISTRICTS, PLACES OF WORSHIP, CONVENTS, AND CHARITIES CONNECTED THEREWITH.

The city is divided into nine R. C. parishes or ecclesiastical districts : St Mary's, St. Michan's, St. Paul's, St. Andrew's, St. Audeon's, St. Catherine's, St. James's, St. Michael's and John's, and St. Nicholas's : the first three are on the north side of the Liffey. The ecclesiastical duties are executed by nine parochial priests and 52 other officiating clergymen.

The parish of St. Mary is the mensal of the Archbishop, and comprises the Protestant parish of St. Thomas, and the principal parts of those of St. Mary and St. George : the parochial duties are performed by the Archbishop, seven officiating clergymen, and one assistant. The chapel, a spacious and magnificent building, commenced in 1815 and not yet completed, is dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and is usually styled the Church of the Conception. The front to Marlborough-street will, when finished, consist of a portico of six fluted Doric columns, supporting an entablature ornamented with triglyphs, and surmounted by a pediment. The interior is divided into a nave and side aisles by two splendid colonnades; the west end forms a circular termination, under which is the principal altar of white marble, detached from the walls and enclosed by a circular railing; in the centre of each aisle is a quadrangular recess. The total expense of completing the structure is estimated at £50,000. Besides the above, there are the chapel of St. Francis Xavier, Upper Gardiner-street; a chapel belonging to the Dominican friary, Denmark-street; and a chapel belonging to the convent of Carmelite nuns, North William-street. The chapel of St. Francis Xavier is attended by the priest of the order of "Jesuits," established here in 1817: the inmates consist of a superior and five priests, who have a classical school in Hardwicke-street. The building is cruciform and of the ancient Ionic order, with a lofty portico in the centre; and at each side are receding wings forming vestibules, crowned with domes supported by columns of the Ionic order; the interior is highly decorated, and the organ, which is considered to be one of the finest in Ireland, was built for the great musical festival at Westminster. The chapel in Denmark-street, dedicated to St. Dominic, belongs to the order of Dominicans, consisting of a prior and five friars; in connection with this is St. Patrick's Juvenile Society. The chapel in North William-street belongs to the convent of the order of Carmelites : the inmates consist of a superioress and a sisterhood of 15. The chapel is a neat building, in the later style of English architecture; a school, in which 20 girls are educated, clothed, and wholly provided for, is attached to the institution. The Sisters of Charity have an establishment in Upper Gar-diner-street, consisting of a superioress and a sisterhood of 14, who superintend the education of 200 girls. The principal establishment of the Christian Doctrine Confraternity, consisting of a director and two assistants, is in North Richmond-street, where they support a model school for the novices for the other houses of the society; they also instruct 550 children in the parochial chapel and 130 in Denmark-street, every Sunday. The confraternity instruct children in all the other parochial and in most of the friary chapels : the total number of children under their tuition amounts to 5987 males and 3942 females. There are two national schools, one in Gloucester-place, and the other in King's Inns-street; an almshouse in North William-street for twenty-three widows, which is supported by subscription; and the Metropolitan Orphan Society, in which 99 children are supported, chiefly by penny weekly subscriptions of the working classes. The Asylum for Female Penitents, founded in 1833, affords shelter to 30 inmates; another in Mecklenburgh-street, founded in the same year, supports 35; a third in Dominick-street supports 34, and there is another in Marlborough-street; in all of them the penitents are employed in needlework, washing, and similar useful occupations.

St. Michan's parish comprises parts of the Protestant parishes of St. Mary, St. George, St. Michan, St. Paul, and Glasnevin. The duty is performed by a parish priest and six officiating clergymen. The chapel in North Anne-street is a splendid edifice, built entirely of granite; it is in the later English style, with three finely arched entrances in the front, which terminate above in a sharply pointed gable, embattled and surmounted with a cross; the interior is richly ornamented with sculpture, and the ceiling is elaborately groined, the intersecting arches springing from heads of saints finely sculptured; the altar is embellished with paintings of the Virgin and Child, and of St. Francis, copied from Guido. There is another chapel on George's-hill, belonging to the convent of the Presentation order, the inmates of which, consisting of a superioress and ten sisters, superintend a school, at. which about 300 female children are instructed, 50 of whom are clothed, and from 16 to 20 are also boarded. The institution is chiefly supported by the profits of the work done by the children. The chapel, which is exceedingly neat, is open every morning. There is a day boys' school of about 300 pupils; also an establishment for 12 orphans who are totally provided for and when of a proper age apprenticed; the institution is supported by subscriptions. The Orphan Society of St. Vincent a Paulo was founded in 1826, in which 40 orphan children are wholly provided for, and 45 by the Society for Destitute Orphans under the tutelage of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount-Carmel. The Society of St. John the Evangelist, for promoting the exercise of spiritual and corporal works of mercy, is in North King-street, and has a good library in connection with it. In Paradise-row is the Josephian Orphan Society, in which 36 orphans are totally provided for; and in the same street is the House of Reception for aged females, containing 18 inmates.

St. Paul's parish comprises the Protestant parish of Grangegorman, the principal part of St. Paul's, and parts of St. Michan's and Glasnevin. The duty is performed by a parish priest and six officiating clergymen. The chapel on Arran-quay having been found to be too small, another, near the entrance of the old building, is now completed with the exception of the portico and steeple : the interior is richly ornamented; behind the altar is a painting in fresco, on which the light is thrown after the manner of the " lumiere mysterieuse" in some of the churches of Paris. The whole cost of the erection of the building will be about £10,000, which will be wholly defrayed by voluntary subscription. There is a chapel of ease at Phibsborough, a neat Gothic structure, but too small for the increasing congregation : beneath are male and female free school-rooms, and apartments for an orphan society, and over the sacristy a residence for the clergyman and a lending library belonging to a branch society of St. John the Evangelist. The chapel of St. Francis, in Church-street, belongs to the friary of the Capuchins, the community of which consists of a guardian and. six friars. The chapel is a large plain building; the altars are adorned with paintings of the Crucifixion, the Virgin and Child, and St. Francis : a free school for boys is connected with it. There is a school in Queen-street, in which about 250 boys and 150 girls are instructed; also a national boys' and girls' school connected with the chapel at Phibsborough. The convent of the Sisters of Charity, in Stanhope-street, consists of a local superioress and a sisterhood of twenty, who support a house of refuge, in which 50 industrious young women of good character are sheltered; the institution derives much of its support from the work executed by the inmates, St. Stephen's Cholera Orphan Society was first established in 1828, as a general orphan institution, but in 1830, owing to the ravages of the cholera, it assumed its present name and character.

St. Andrew's parish comprises nearly the whole of the Protestant parishes of St. Andrew, St. Mark, and St. Anne, and part of that of St. Peter. The duty is performed by a parish priest and seven officiating clergymen. The chapel, in Westland-row, was commenced in 1832, and finished in 1837 : its form is that of a Roman cross; the length being 160 feet, the transept 150, the breadth and height 50 each. The walls of the interior are in compartments formed by Grecian Doric pilasters. The great altar consists of four pillars of scagliola, supporting a pediment copied from the Lantern of Demosthenes at Athens. The tabernacle is in imitation of the triumphal arch of Titus in Rome, and is surmounted by a group in white Italian marble, by Hogan, representing the Ascension; on each side of the great altar are smaller altars of Egyptian marble; several good paintings have lately been brought from Rome, and hung up over and at the sides of the altar. The portico in front consists of two pillars and four pilasters in the Grecian Doric style, prolonged at each end by a parochial house, thus presenting a facade of 160 feet in length. The cost of erection, which is defrayed by subscription, amounted to £18,000. In Clarendon-street is the chapel of St. Teresa, belonging to the order of the Discalced Carmelites, the inmates of which consist of a provincial, a prior, and six friars. It is a spacious building of plain exterior : in front of the altar is a fine statue of a Dead Christ in Italian marble, by Hogan. Attached to the convent is an almshouse for widows, and the Society of St. Joseph, for promoting the exercise of spiritual and corporal works of mercy. There is a parochial school attended by upwards of 3100 female children : it is in connection with the National Board of Education. Within the parish there are the following religious institutions; the House of Mercy, Baggot-street, the inmates of which consist of a superioress and a sisterhood of 15, who maintain a day school of about 300 children, visit the sick poor, and receive under their protection distressed women of good character; their house is a plain large building of three stories. In Stephen's-green East is St. Vincent's Hospital, containing 60 beds, and a dispensary, founded by the sisters of charity : a superioress and sisterhood of six preside over it. The Asylum for Female Penitents, in Townsend-street, is superintended by a superioress and a sisterhood of three, and affords shelter and the means of reformation to 41 penitents. The Andrean Orphans' Friend Society was revived in 1832, and supports 28 children by weekly penny subscriptions; the Orphan Society of St. John of the Cross is supported in like manner.

St. Audeon's, the smallest. R. C. parish in the city, comprises the whole of the Protestant parish of the same name. The chapel, situated off Bridge-street, is in bad repair and too small for the congregation; a considerable sum has been already subscribed towards its re-erection. There is a male and female school in which 20 of each sex are clothed; also the Malachian Orphan Society for destitute children. John Power, Esq., in 1835, erected in Cook-street a building for 24 aged and destitute widows, at an expense of about £700; it is supported by subscriptions and an annual charity sermon.

St. Catherine's comprises nearly the whole of the Protestant parish of the same name. The duty is performed by a parish priest and seven officiating clergymen. The chapel was erected in Meath-street, in 1780 : it is a very spacious octagon building of brick, with a gallery along five of its sides, the altar being in the centre of the other three. Near it is a school, erected in 1823 by subscription, and attended by upwards of 400 children of each sex : there are also Sunday schools. A chapel in John's-lane belongs to the Augustinian friary of St. John; the inmates consist of a prior and four friars. The chapel, a spacious structure, occupies part of the site of the priory of St. John the Baptist, which was founded in the year 1188 by A. Du Palmer; and in connection with it is a female orphan school, also an asylum for old and destitute men, in Rainsford-street. To this convent belonged the Rev. Wm. Gahan, author of many pious works.

St. James's parish comprises nearly the whole of the Protestant parish of the same name. The duty is performed by a parish priest, who is also chaplain to the county gaol of Kilmainham, and by four officiating clergymen. The chapel, which is situated at James-gate, is about to be taken down and a new building erected. There is a chapel at Dolphin's Barn for the accommodation of that populous district; and also a nunnery of the Carmelite order, consisting of a superioress and a sisterhood of 16, established in 1834, in the same neighbourhood, attached to which is a free school for girls. There is a National school for boys and girls; also St. James' and St. Joseph's Orphan Society, which maintains 50 children. The Catholic cemetery, Golden-Bridge, described under that head, is in this parish.

St. Michael's and St. John's parish comprises the Protestant parishes of St. Michael, St. John, St. Nicholas Within, and St. Werburgh, and parts of those of St. Peter, St. Andrew, and St. Bride. The duty is performed by a parish priest and five officiating clergymen. The chapel, situated in Exchange-street and erected in 1815, has two fronts of hewn stone in the later English style : the exterior is of elegant design, and in the interior, which is richly embellished, are three altars; over each respectively are paintings of the Crucifixion, of St. John the Evangelist by Del Frate, and of St. Michael trampling on Satan, a copy from Guido; its fine organ, made by Lawless, cost £800. It contains a handsome monument to Dr. Betagh, a celebrated preacher, who died in 1811, and another to the Rev. Dr. Anglen; at one end are six confessionals of elegant design and beautiful workmanship. The chapel was erected between 1813 and 1816, at a cost of nearly £10,000, which was defrayed by subscription. Attached to it is a house for the residence of the clergymen, containing 20 spacious apartments with a corridor to each story; the cost of its erection was about £2000, and it was completed in the short space of two months and eight days. A chapel in Whitefriar-street belongs to the order of Calced Carmelites; the inmates are a provincial, a prior, and six friars, whose residence is in an adjoining house in Aungier-street. The chapel has its front to Whitefriar-street: the interior presents a beautiful architectural view; the right side has a range of large windows, and the left is ornamented with corresponding niches, filled with statues of eminent saints; the ceiling is coved and divided into rectangular compartments; its erection cost £4000. It stands on the site of a Carmelite church founded in 1274, upon land granted by Sir Robert Bagot. The remains of St. Valentinus, martyr, have been translated from Rome by order of Pope Gregory XVI., and are deposited in this chapel in a suitable vase. Another, which is a cruciform structure, situated on Merchants'-quay, belongs to the order of Franciscans; the inmates are a prior and six friars. It is dedicated to St. Francis of Assisium, but is more generally known by the name of Adam and Eve, from an ancient chapel of that name on the site of which the present building was erected. When finished it will exhibit the ceiling divided into enriched panels; the interior ornamented with pilasters, supporting an enriched cornice of granite, over which the windows are placed; there are three elegant and commodious galleries, capable of holding 1500 persons; the altar will be constructed in the most florid style of Corinthian architecture : an Ionic portico is to front the river. In Smock-alley are parochial schools for both sexes, in connection with the National Board of Education, at which 600 children attend; also an evening and Sunday school, and two orphan schools, one for boys and the other for girls, 20 of each, who are wholly provided for and apprenticed; all these are supported by subscription, a grant from the National Board, an annual sermon, and the profits of an annual bazaar. A society was founded in Smock-alley in 1817, called "The Society of St. John the Evangelist," for administering to the spiritual and temporal wants of the sick, and for the suppressing abuses at wakes; a library is in connection with it. Near Tullow is the establishment of the Orphan Society of St. Francis of Assisium, founded in 1817, in which 24 children are supported. St. Peter's, St. Patrick's, St. Bonaventure's, and the county and city Cholera Orphan Societies are all in this parish; they are chiefly supported by subscriptions and sermons; as is also the Catholic Society for Ireland, for the gratuitous distribution of religious books, established in 1836.

The parish of St. Nicholas comprises the Protestant parishes of St. Nicholas Without, the city part of St. Nicholas Within, St. Luke, St. Kevin, the entire of the Liberties of Christ-Church and St. Patrick, and parts of the parishes of St. Peter and St. Bride. The duty is performed by a parish priest and six officiating clergymen. The chapel is built on the site of a Franciscan friary, erected in 1235 on a piece of ground granted by Ralph le Porter. It has a square tower, ornamented on each face with coupled Corinthian pilasters and terminating with a figure of Faith. The interior is exquisitely finished : the great altar, which is of Italian marble, was executed at Rome; over it is a group representing a " Dead Christ on the lap of Mary," by Hogan, and two relievos, "The Last Supper" and " The Marriage of Joseph and Mary," from Raphael. A monastery of the order of the Religious Brothers of the Christian Schools, in Mills-street, consists of a superior and two monks, who superintend a free school for boys. There is also a national school for boys, in which 450 are educated and 50 of them clothed; and an Orphan Institution. A convent of the order of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in Harcourt-street, commonly called the Loretto convent, consists of a local superioress and a sisterhood of three, who educate about 40 girls.

PROTESTANT DISSENTERS.

There are four Presbyterian meeting-houses, situated respectively in Capel-street, Ushers-quay, Eustace-street, and Great Strand-street, all of the first class; the two former maintain the doctrines of the church of Scotland, and the two latter are Unitarian. Each congregation supports a school and maintains the poor of their own persuasion. That in Capel-street is possessed of a legacy called " Campbell's fund," being the interest of £500, which is distributed among four blind men; and another of the same amount, called Fenner's funds, for the relief of six widows. Those of Strand-street and Eustace-street have each a respectable collection of books for the use of the ministers and congregation, to which others can have access on very liberal terms. Dr. John Leland, author of several theological works, was one of the ministers of the Eustace-street congregation for 50 years. There are three congregations of Independents, whose places of worship are in D'Olier-street, York-street, and King's Inns-street, the last-named of which has a theological institution, or college, the object of which is to afford the means of theological instruction, according to the tenets of the Westminster and Savoy articles of faith and the doctrinal articles of the Church of England, to such young men as appear to have a call to the sacred ministry; and connected with York-street chapel are a day and Sunday school, a Dorcas and Benevolent institution, and a congregational, missionary, and a city mission, association. The Methodist congregations, the first of which was formed in 1746 by Mr. Wesley himself, have their places of worship in Whitefriar-street, Abbey-street, Cork-street, Hendrick-street, South Great George's-street, and Langrishe-place; a congregation also meets in the Weavers' hall on the Coombe. There are two Baptist congregations, one of which has a meeting-house in Lower Abbey-street, which presents a Grecian front of considerable architectural elegance; the other meets in an apartment called the Apollo Saloon, in Grafton-street. A Moravian congregation, formed in 1750, has a meeting-house in Bishop-street; and in the same street is a residentiary-house of the same sect, in which a number of the female members live in community. There is a church for German Lutherans in Poolbeg-street, the only one in Ireland. The Society of Friends, or Quakers, have a meeting-house in Eustace-street, fitted up with great neatness, and another in Meath-street, also a cemetery in Cork-street. The Jews have a synagogue in Stafford-street, and a cemetery near Ballybough bridge.

FREE SCHOOLS.

The King's Hospital, or Free School of Charles II., commonly called the Blue-coat Hospital, was founded in 1670 by the corporation, and established by royal charter, for the reception of reduced citizens and the education of their children, to which latter object, for want of more extensive funds, it has necessarily been limited. It maintains, clothes, educates, and apprentices 100 boys, who receive a solid English and mercantile education, and such of them as are intended for the sea service are instructed in navigation. The building, erected at an expense of £21,000, consists of a centre and two wings; the centre has an Ionic portico supporting a pediment, with an unfinished cupola, and contains apartments for the principal officers : the annual income is about £4000. A Society for instructing the children of the poor in the English language and in the Protestant religion was incorporated by royal charter in 1730, under the title of the Incorporated Society for promoting English Protestant schools in Ireland, but is more generally known by that of the Charter School Society. It was originally maintained by donations, subscriptions, and bequests of money and lands, and subsequently by large grants of public money; but these were discontinued some years since and the society left to its own resources. At the time of this change there were forty schools under its direction, two of which were in Dublin; the number is now reduced to eight. Two schools, supported by the funds of Erasmus Smith's bequest, have been established in Dublin, one on the Coombe, the other in St. Mark's parish. The Hibernian Soldiers' School, situated in the Phoenix Park, was established in 1769 for the maintenance, clothing, and instruction of the children of soldiers. In addition to the usual branches of an English education, the boys are taught the trades of tailors and shoemakers, and the girls are instructed in needlework; both, when of proper age, are apprenticed to handicraft trades, and, by a new charter in 1808, the governors are empowered to place such children in the regular army, as private soldiers, as are desirous of entering into that service. The buildings consist of a centre and two wings, 300 feet in length and three stories high; there are extensive work-rooms for the children, and a farm of 13 acres is attached to the school, which is partly cultivated by the boys, whose time is divided between employment and recreation, in which athletic sports are encouraged : the school is supported by parliamentary grants and private donations : the average annual expenditure is about £4500: the number of children is about 200, of which one-third are girls. The Hibernian Marine School was established by charter about the year 1777, for the maintenance of children of decayed seamen in the navy and merchants' service; the number of boys in this school is 180, who, when of proper age, are placed in the navy, or apprenticed to masters of merchantmen : the building, situated on Sir John Rogerson's Quay, consists of a centre and two wings; it is supported by parliamentary grants and private benefactions. The Society for the Education of the Poor of Ireland, usually called the Kildare-place Society, was founded in 1811. Its object was the diffusion of a well-ordered and economical system of primary instruction throughout the country, without any interference with the religious opinions of the pupils, and the publication of cheap elementary books. It was almost wholly supported by large grants of public money, and built an extensive model school for males and females, with other accommodations for offices and stores in Kildare-place. The grants of public money have been withdrawn, and the society now proceeds on a more confined scale by voluntary contributions only. The Association for Discountenancing Vice, formed in 1792, and incorporated by statute in 1800, also founded and assisted schools, in which education should be conducted upon Protestant principles, and likewise received large parliamentary grants, which were withdrawn at the same time as those to the Kildare-place Society. To supply the place of these institutions, a Board of National Education has been formed for the education of children of all religious persuasions. The commissioners, who were appointed by the lord-lieutenant, are the Duke of Leinster; the Protestant and Roman Catholic Archbishops of Dublin; the Rev. Dr. Sadleir, senior fellow of T. C. D.; Rev. James Carlile, minister of the Scotch Church; the Rt. Hon. Anthony R. Blake, Chief Remembrancer of the Court of Exchequer; and Robert Holmes, Esq., Barrister. They transact their business in a large establishment in Marlborough-street, formerly the town residence of the Marquess of Waterford, at the rear of which three model schools have been built, and a building is now being erected for a lecture-room, museum, &c., with apartments for the secretary and inspector : it is chiefly supported by parliamentary grants. The Dublin Free School was opened in School-street in 1808, for the instruction of poor children of both sexes, on the system of Joseph Lancaster: it is supported wholly by private subscriptions and a small weekly stipend from the pupils, and is used both as a day and Sunday school. The Sunday School Society was established in 1809, and up to January, 1835, had in connection with it 2813 schools, attended by 20,596 gratuitous teachers and 214,462 pupils. There are several highly respectable schools on a new system, " The Feinaiglean," which takes its name from Professor Von Feinagle, a native of Germany, who introduced it. The principal is the Luxemburgh, formerly Aldborough House, which was purchased from Lord Aldborough, who had expended upwards of £40,000 on its erection, and £15,000 raised in shares was laid out on it to adapt it for the purpose.

INFIRMARIES FOR MEDICAL AND SURGICAL CASES.

Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital, in Canal-street, was founded for the relief of the sick, maimed, or wounded, and as an appendage to the School of Physic for extending the sphere of medical practice, by a fund arising from the produce of estates bequeathed by the founder to the College of Physicians. The institution is under the direction of a board of governors. The medical department consists of two physicians in ordinary, one extraordinary, a surgeon, and an apothecary; and the house department, of a treasurer, registrar, providore, and matron. Lectures are delivered twice every week, during the medical season, by the professors of the school of physic in rotation in the theatre, and clinical lectures are also given at the bedside of the patient. The building, which is capable of receiving 100 patients, was commenced in 1803, and completed at an expense of £40,000, of which sum, £9000 was granted by parliament, and the remainder was defrayed from the proceeds of the estates, and by subscription. The building consists of a centre and two projecting wings : the ground floor of the centre contains apartments for the matron and apothecary, the pupils' waiting-room, and the theatre; and in the upper story are the board-room of the College of Physicians, the library, and the museum; the wings contain the wards for the patients. Patients who are not objects of charity are admitted on paying £1. 10. per month during their continuance in the hospital; the average annual income is upwards of £3000. Steevens' Hospital, near Kilmainham, was founded by a bequest of Dr. Steevens, who, in 1710, bequeathed his estate, amounting to £600 per annum for that purpose; the hospital was opened in 1733. The building forms a quadrangle, having a piazza round the interior of the lower story, and a covered gallery . round that above it; attached to it is a small chapel: the board-room contains a medical library. The resident officers are a surgeon, apothecary, Protestant chaplain, steward, and matron. The funds, aided by grants of public money, support 220 beds; this is the largest infirmary in Dublin. Meath Hospital, originally in Meath-street, was removed to the Coombe, and ultimately to its present site in Long-lane, Kevin-street; it is now the infirmary for the county. It con tains a detached ward for fever cases, a fine theatre for operations, and a spacious lecture-room. Mercer's Hospital, founded in 1734 by Mrs. Mary Mercer, is a large stone building, situated between Mercer-street and Stephen-street, containing 55 beds. A theatre for operations was added to it in 1831. The Charitable Infirmary, Jervis-street, was the first institution of the kind in the city : the building, a plain brick structure, erected in 1800, can accommodate 60 patients. Whitworth Hospital was erected in 1818, on the bank of the Royal Canal, near Drumcondra; it has a ward appropriated for a class of patients who can contribute towards their own maintenance in it. The City of Dublin Hospital, in Upper Baggot-street, has accommodations for 52 patients : it is also the principal institution for diseases of the eye. The United Hospital of St. Mark's and St. Anne's was opened in Mark-street in 1808, and contains 10 beds; an establishment for vaccination is attached to it. The Maison de Sante, George's-place, Dorset-street, is intended for those who, though unable to defray the expense of medical advice at home, are in circumstances to prevent them from seeking admission into a public hospital; the subscription paid by a patient is a guinea per week. The Netterville and the Royal Military Hospitals are noticed under preceding heads.

LUNATICS.

The Richmond District Lunatic Asylum, which was erected in 1830 into a district asylum for the county and city of Dublin, the counties of Meath, Wicklow, and Louth, and the town of Drogheda, occupies a rectangular area of 420 feet by 372, on the western side of the House of Industry. The building forms a hollow square of three stories : the inmates are arranged in four classes of each sex, each under the charge of a keeper, whose apartment commands a view of the gallery in which the patients are confined: there are separate airing-grounds for every class. The total number of patients on the 1st of Jan., 1836, was 277, of whom 130 were males and 147 females; the expenditure for the same year was £4180. 16. In the House of Industry there is a department for incurable lunatics, idiots, and epileptic patients, in which those capable of any exertion are employed suitably to their unhappy circumstances. St. Patrick's or Swift's Hospital, for the reception of lunatics and idiots, was founded by the celebrated Dean Swift, who bequeathed his property, amounting to £10,000, for this purpose. The building, situated near Steevens's Hospital, was opened in 1757, and has also apartments, rated at different prices, for those whose friends can contribute either wholly or partially to their maintenance. A large garden is attached to it, in which some of the patients are employed with considerable advantage to their intellectual improvement. The Society of Friends maintain a small asylum near Donnybrook, for lunatics of their own body.

THE LYING-IN HOSPITAL AND OTHER BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS.

The Lying-in Hospital, in Great Britain-street, was originally a small private infirmary, opened in 1745 by Dr. Bartholomew Mosse; but the benefit resulting from it having attracted other contributors, the first stone of the present building was laid in 1750 : the doctor, after expending the whole of his property in forwarding the institution, obtained from parliament two successive grants of £6000 each. In 1756 the governors were incorporated by charter, the preamble of which states the threefold object of the institution to be the providing for " destitute females in their confinement, the providing a supply of well-qualified male and female practitioners throughout the country, and the prevention of child murder;" and in the following year the hospital was opened for the admission of patients. The institution is under the direction of a board of 60 governors. The details of management are superintended by a master, always a resident and a medical practitioner, elected for seven years, and deriving his emolument from the number of his pupils, among whom eight females educated for the practice of midwifery are paid for by Government; he delivers four courses of lectures annually, and at the end of six months the students are examined before the assistants, who are appointed for three years, and if duly qualified receive a certificate. The income for the year ending March 31st, 1836, was £4770, arising mainly from the exertions of its managers. The number of cases annually admitted is about 2500. The building consists of a centre and two projecting pavilions connected with it by curved colonnades; the whole of the facade extends 125 feet in length; the principal entrance leads into a spacious hall, and a broad flight of steps leads from the hall to the chapel. The western pavilion forms an entrance to the porter's lodge, and the eastern to the rotundo; in the rear is a spacious lawn enclosed by an iron palisade, forming the interior of Rutland-square. The rotundo comprises a suite of spacious and elegant rooms appropriated to purposes of amusement; the entrance from Sackville-street leads into a waiting-room for servants, and communicates with a vestibule adjoining the great room, which is a circle of 80 feet diameter; the orchestra is of elegant design. On the east and west are respectively a spacious tea-room and card-room; and on the north is a vestibule leading to the ball-room, which is 86 feet long and 40 feet wide. Above this room is another of equal dimensions, though less ornamented; and on the same floor are two smaller apartments, which are let for exhibitions. The new rooms, built in 1786 and facing Cavendish-row, are fronted with a rusticated basement, from which rise four three-quarter columns of the Doric order, supporting a triangular pediment, in the tympanum of which are the arms of Ireland, the crest of the Duke of Rutland, and the star of the Order of St. Patrick; these rooms are elegantly fitted up and well adapted to the same uses : all the profits arising from them are appropriated to the support of the hospital.

The other institutions of a similar description are in Townsend-street; in Bishop-street, called the Anglesey Hospital; on the Coombe, in the building which was the Meath Hospital; in South Cumberland-street; and on Ellis's-quay, called the Western Lying-in Hospital. An institution is attached to Mercer's hospital, for the relief of lying-in women at their own dwellings.

The infirmaries for special complaints not already noticed are the Fever Hospital and House of Recovery, Cork-street, which was opened in 1804. It consists of two parallel brick buildings, 80 feet by 30, three stories high, connected by a colonnade of 116 feet. The eastern range is used for fever, the western for convalescent patients; an additional building, much larger than any of the former, was added in 1814, by which the hospital was rendered capable of containing 240 beds. The expenditure is chiefly defrayed by a parliamentary grant; the subscriptions and funded property amount to about £1000 per annum. From the opening of the establishment to the end of March, 1835, the number of patients amounted to 104,759. The Hardwicke Fever Hospital, attached to the House of Industry, contains 144 beds. The Westmorland Lock Hospital was opened in 1792, for the reception of venereal patients of both sexes, and was originally designed for the reception of 300 inmates; but afterwards the number of beds was reduced to 150, to which females only are admissible. The building, situated in Townsend-street, consists of a centre, in which are the officers' apartments, and two wings, with additional buildings for the reception of patients; the centre and wings project a little, and the former has a plain pediment. A Vaccine Institution was opened in 1804, in Sackville-street, for the gratuitous vaccination of the poor, and for supplying all parts of the country with genuine matter of infection. There is an infirmary fur ophthalmic affections in North Cumberland-street, and another in Cuffe-street, one for cutaneous diseases in Moore-street, one for the diseases of children in Pitt-street, and another in North Frederic-street. Dispensaries are numerous, and generally attached to hospitals and infirmaries. Among those unattached are that in Cole's-lane, for St. Mary's parish, where the poor are also in special cases attended at their own lodgings; the Dublin General Dispensary, Fleet-street; St. Thomas's Dispensary, Marlborough-green; St. Peter's Parochial Dispensary, Montague-street; South Eastern General Dispensary, Grand Canal-street, near Sir P. Dun's Hospital, to which is attached a Nourishment and Clothing society; the Sick Poor Institution, in a great measure similar, in Meath-street; St. George's Dispensary, Dorset-street; and the Charitable Institution, Kildare-street.

ORPHANS AND DESTITUTE CHILDREN.

The associations for the relief and protection of orphans and destitute children are numerous. The Foundling Hospital, a very extensive establishment in James-street, for the reception of infants of this description from all parts of Ireland, for many years afforded an asylum to 2000 deserted children within its walls, and to nearly 5000 who were kept at nurse in the country till of age to be admitted into the central establishment; these children were clothed, maintained, educated, and apprenticed from the funds of the hospital, which were assisted by annual parliamentary grants of from £20,000 to £30,000. The internal departments were wholly closed by order of government on the 31st of March, 1835, and all the children who are not apprenticed, amounting to 2541, are at present settled with nurses in the country. There are also about 2800 apprentices serving their time as servants and to trades, who are still under the superintendence of the governors. The buildings, which are very extensive, contain schoolrooms for both sexes, dormitories, a chapel, and accommodations for several resident officers, and attached to it is a large garden, in the cultivation of which the older inmates assist. In addition to the Blue Coat, Royal Hibernian, and Royal Marine Institutions, already noticed under the heads of their respective public establishments, -the following are peculiarly worthy of notice:--The Female Orphan House was commenced in 1790 by Mrs. Edward Tighe and Mrs. Este, and, owing in a great measure to the advocacy of the celebrated Dean Kirwan, who preached a succession of sermons for its support, was opened in the present buildings on the North Circular Road, which contain ample accommodations for 160 children and a large episcopal chapel. The candidates for admission must be destitute both of father and mother, and between the age of five and ten; the inmates receive an education suited to fit them for the higher class of domestic servants. Its funds are aided by a parliamentary grant equal to the sum voluntarily contributed. The Freemasons' Orphan School, under the patronage of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, provides for the orphan daughters of deceased members of the Society. Pleasants' Asylum, Camden-street, opened in 1818 by means of a bequest of the late T. Pleasants, Esq., receives 20 Protestant female orphans, who are maintained and educated till they arrive at years of maturity, when they are entitled to a respectable portion on marrying a Protestant, approved of by the trustees. The special objects of the Protestant Orphan Society, founded in 1828, ' and the Protestant Orphan Union, formed subsequently, appear from their names; the latter owes its origin to the ravages of the cholera, which also gave rise to three other societies for the reception of children of every religious persuasion, who had been deprived of their parents by that dreadful scourge. Most of the places, of worship in Dublin have boarding-schools attached to them for boys or girls, or both, into which orphans are admitted in preference. In this department of charitable institutions may be included the Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb at Clare-mont, near Glasnevin, which, from small beginnings, is now adapted to the reception of more than 100 inmates, who are wholly maintained, clothed, and instructed; the boys, after school hours, are occupied in gardening, farming, and other mechanical works; and the girls in needlework, housewifery, laundry work, and in the management of the dairy; a printing-press has been purchased for the instruction of some of the boys in that business, and for the printing of lessons adapted to the use of the pupils. The building contains separate schoolrooms for male and female pupils : attached to it are about 19 acres of land. This institution is wholly supported by subscription and private benefactions; it has various branch establishments in different parts of the country.

AGED AND IMPOTENT.

The House of Industry was established by act of parliament in 177 3, for the indiscriminate reception of paupers from every part; but it has since been limited to destitute paupers of the county and city, and to the relief of certain classes of diseases. The establishment occupies 11 acres, on which are two squares of buildings; one for the aged and infirm, the other for the insane, together with detached infirmaries for fever, chronic, medical, and surgical cases, and a dispensary. The total number of aged and impotent poor that have been admitted is 426,175, of whom 1874 are now in the institution. It is under the superintendence of a resident governor and seven visitors appointed by the lord-lieutenant, and is maintained by an annual grant of public money. Simpson's Hospital, in Great Britain-street, for blind and gouty men, was opened in 1781, by means of a bequest of a citizen of that name, who had himself laboured under a complication of these complaints. It is a large plain building, with a small plot of ground in the rear for the accommodation of the inmates: its interior is divided into 24 wards, containing about 70 beds, but the number supported is about 50. The annual income of the hospital averages £2700. The Hospital for Incurables was opened in Fleet-street, in 1744, by a musical society, the members of which applied the profits of concerts to this benevolent purpose. In 1790, by means of a bequest of £4000 by Theobald Wolfe, Esq., the institution was removed into its present building near Donnybrook, originally erected for an infirmary for small-pox patients. The governors were incorporated in 1800. The house, a substantial plain building, can accommodate 70 patients; the ground belonging to it, 14 acres, is let so advantageously, as to leave the institution rent-free. The Old Men's Asylum., in Russell-place, North Circular Road, was instituted in 1810 for 24 reduced old men of good character. St. Patrick's Asylum for Old Men, in Rains-ford-street, maintains 17 inmates, the majority of whom are upwards of 80 years of age each. The literary teachers, carpenters, printers, and vintners have each an asylum or fund for the relief of decayed members of their respective bodies. The Scottish Society of St. Andrew is formed for the relief of distressed natives of that country while in Dublin. The Richmond National Institution for the Industrious Blind, in Sackville-street, affords instruction to 40 male inmates in weaving, basket-making, netting, and some other similar kinds of handicraft, and has a sale-room for the disposal of the manufactured articles. The Molyneux Asylum for blind females was opened in 1815, on a similar principle, in the former family mansion of Sir Capel Molyneux in Peter-street, which had been for some years employed as a circus for equestrian exhibitions. Attached to it is an Episcopal chapel. There are several asylums for destitute aged women, mostly attached to some of the places of worship. There are two places for the reception of females of virtuous character during the pressure of temporary want of employment, one in Baggot-street, under the superintendence of Protestant ladies; the other in Stanhope-street, under that of a R. C. nunnery.

FEMALE PENITENTIARIES.

The Magdalen Asylum in Leeson-street, was founded by Lady Denny in 1766; the house is adapted for the reception of 60 inmates, and the average number in the asylum is 50; after a probation of three years they are either restored to their families, or provided with the means of honest subsistence; they are employed during the time of their continuance in the asylum in profitable industry, and receive one-fourth of their earnings during their residence, and the remainder on their leaving the house: the institution has received considerable benefactions from the Latouche family. The Lock Penitentiary was opened in 1794 by Mr. John Walker, as a penitentiary for the special reception and employment of females discharged from the Lock Hospital; there are generally about 30 in the asylum, who are employed in needlework and other female occupations. The Dublin Female Penitentiary, in the North Circular Road, was opened in 1813 : the house is large and commodious; there are about 35 females on the establishment. The Asylum in Upper Baggot-street affords shelter to 30 inmates. Each of these has a Protestant Episcopalian place of worship attached to it. The R. C. asylums of a similar character are situated respectively in Townsend-street, containing 41 penitents and superintended by the Sisters of Charity; in Mecklenburgh-street, which receives 35; in Dominick-street, late Bow-street, where 34 are sheltered; in Marlborough-street, late James's-street, which supports 45; besides St. Mary's Asylum, Drumcondra-road, in which the average number is 30. The origin of several of these institutions was attended with circumstances of peculiar interest. A house of shelter for the temporary reception of females discharged from prison is on the Circular-road, Harcourt-street. The Lock Hospital has a department in which 12 females, who had been patients, are employed in washing for the establishment, under the superintendence of a matron, and are entirely supported in the house.

GENERAL DISTRESS.

The Mendicity Association, formed in 1818, has for its object the suppression of street-begging, by supplying relief to destitute paupers, chiefly by means of employment. A large building on Ussher's Island, formerly the town residence of the Earl of Moira, and having a large space of ground attached to it, is fitted up for the purposes of the institution. The paupers are provided with food and apartments to work in, but not with lodging, and are divided into seven classes; first, those able to work at profitable employment, who receive full wages for their work; 2ndly, those whose earnings are not adequate to their entire support, who receive wages at a lower rate; 3rdly, those unable to perform full work; 4thly, the infirm; 5thly, children above six years of age, who are educated and instructed in useful employments; and lastly, children under six years of age, who are taken care of while their parents are at work : a dispensary is attached to the building and the sick are visited at their own lodgings. The institution is under the superintendence of 60 gentlemen elected annually. The Sick and Indigent Roomkeepers' Society, formed in 1790, gives temporary relief in money to the destitute poor at their own lodgings. At a general meeting held at the Royal Exchange, once a month, the amount of the relief to be given during the ensuing month is fixed, which is distributed by four committees for the Barrack, Workhouse, Rotundo, and Stephen's Green divisions of the city, which sit weekly. The Strangers' Friend Society, formed in the same year as the preceding institution, has similar objects, and is conducted on the same principle of temporary domestic relief. The Benevolent Strangers' Friend Society, of like character, is of later formation. The Charitable Association, formed in 1806, is designed for the relief of distressed persons of every description, except street beggars : relief is administered at the dwellings of the pauper. A loan fund is attached to the institution.

EMINENT MEN.

The following eminent persons were born in the city in the years attached to their names : Richard Stanyhurst, historian, 1545; Wm. Bathe, an eminent writer, 1564; Henry Fitzsimons, an eminent writer, 1569; James Ussher, the celebrated prelate, 1580; Sir James Ware, the antiquary, 1594; Arthur Annesley, Earl of Annesley, 1614; Henry Lutterel, an engraver, 1650; Nahum Tate, a poet, 1652; Wm. Molyneux, mathematician, astronomer, and patriot, 1656; Thomas Southerne, a dramatic poet, 1659; James Butler, Duke of Ormonde, 1665; Jonathan Swift, Dean of St. Patrick's, 1667; Marmaduke Coghill, Chancellor of the Exchequer in Ireland, 1673; Dr. Robert Clay ton, a celebrated prelate, 1695; Wm. Robertson, a learned divine, 1705; Thos. Frye, the first manufacturer of porcelain in England, 1710; James Mc'Ardill, engraver, 1710; Mary Barber, authoress, 1712; John Gast, an eminent divine, 1715; Springer Barry, a celebrated actor, 1719; Thos. Leland, historian, 1722; Rev. Mervyn Archdall, an antiquary, 1723; Geo. Barrett,-painter, 1728; Francis Gentleman, a dramatic writer, 1728; John Cunningham, a poet, 1729; Edm. Chandler, Bishop of Durham, 1730; Nathaniel Hone, portrait painter, 1730; Isaac Bicker-staff, dramatist, 1732; Andrew Caldwell, compiler of parliamentary debates, 1732; Hugh Hamilton, painter, 1734; James Caulfeild, first Earl of Charlemont, 1738; Sir Philip Francis, author and statesman, 1740; Edward Malone, critic and antiquary, 1741; John Fitzgibbon, Earl of Clare, 1749; Henry Grattan, statesman, orator, and patriot, 1751; Wm. Mossop, medalist, 1754; John Hickey, sculptor, 1756; Joseph Cooper Walker, antiquary, 1761; Geo. McAllister, painter on glass, 1786. The birth-dates of the following natives of Dublin have not been ascertained : Edward Borlase, historian; Thomas Dogget, a celebrated actor; Robert Molesworth,Viscount Molesworth; Charles Byrne, miniature painter; Zach. Crofton, a celebrated divine; and Wm. Halliday, Irish grammarian. Dublin gave the title of Earl to His Royal Highness the late Duke of Kent.

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DULEEK, a parish and village, formerly a parliamentary borough, partly in the barony of UPPER, but chiefly in that of LOWER DULEEK, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 4 1/2 miles (S. S. W.) from Drogheda, on the Nannywater, and on the mail coach road from Dublin to Belfast; containing 4470 inhabitants, of which number, 1217 are in the village. This place derived its name signifying, a " House of Stone," from the foundation of a church here by St. Kiernan or Ciernan, who was baptized by St. Patrick in 450 and died in 488. St. Patrick is also said to have founded an abbey at this place, over which he appointed St. Kiernan abbot; the establishment was for several ages the seat of a small surrounding diocese, which ultimately merged into that of Meath. Its situation in a maritime district exposed it to the ravages of the Danes, by whom it was frequently plundered and sometimes destroyed. It was plundered in 1171 by Milo de Cogan and his forces, who on the following day were attacked and repulsed with severe loss by the Ostmen of Dublin. A priory for Canons Regular appears to have been founded here by one of the family of O'Kelly, a long time prior to the English invasion; and in 1182, a cell of the same order was established here by Hugh de Lacy, and made subject to the priory of Llanthony; the possessions of this priory were granted at the dissolution to Sir Gerald Moore, ancestor of the Drogheda family. After the battle of the Boyne, James II. retreated from Donore at the head of Sarsfield's regiment, and was followed by his whole army, which poured through the pass of Duleek pursued by a party of English dragoons. On reaching the open ground, they drew up in order of battle, and after cannonading their pursuers, effected their retreat in good order. The village comprises 240 houses. The manufacture of ticking, formerly extensive, is now very much diminished; there is an extensive corn and flour-mill in the town, and another at Beaumont, the latter recently erected and fitted up in a very complete manner with improved machinery. On the hill of Bellewstown is a course where races are held the last week in June; they are generally well attended. The market has been discontinued; but fairs are held on March 25th, May 3rd, June 24th, and Oct. 18th. A penny post to Drogheda and Ashbourne has been established; there is also a chief constabulary police station. The town was formerly governed by a portreeve and officers, annually elected under the charter of Walter de Lacy, which was confirmed by act of Edward IV., in 1481, and by royal charter of James II., in 1686. From this latter period it continued to send members to the Irish parliament till the Union, when it was disfranchised, and the corporation became extinct : the sum of £15,000, awarded as compensation for the loss of the elective privilege, was paid to the trustees of H. Bruen, Esq. Petty sessions are held every alternate week.

The parish comprises 14,343 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The land is of good quality; about two-thirds are under tillage, and the eastern portion of the parish, including the hill of Bellewstown, is excellent grazing land. Annexed to the town is a considerable tract of common. Limestone is abundant, and is quarried both for building and for agricultural purposes. Platten, the seat of R. Reeves, Esq., occupies the site of an ancient castle of the D'Arcy family; it is a spacious mansion, situated in a richly planted demesne. Athcarne Castle, the seat of J. Gernon, Esq., is pleasantly situated on the Nannywater; it formerly belonged to the De Bathe family, and is a perfect specimen of the Elizabethan castellated style; it is a massive pile of building, with a still more massive keep defended by quadrangular embattled towers, and the whole was formerly surrounded by a fosse : the present proprietor has made some additions and improvements. The other seats are Annsbrook, that of H. Smith, Esq., an elegant mansion with a demesne tastefully embellished; Hiltown House, of Nicholas Boylan, Esq.; Thomas-town, of Evans Kettlewell, Esq.; Beaumont, of J. McCann, Esq.; Wintergrass, of Lawrence Ball, Esq.; and Duleek House, situated in an extensive demesne, the property of the Marquess of Thomond.

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, united, in 1816, to the vicarages of Dowth, Ardcath, Tymole, and Knockcoman, and in the patronage of the Marquess of Drogheda, in whom the rectory is impropriate. The tithes amount to £1092, the whole formerly payable to the impropriator, but on appeal to the Privy Council in 1833, £65 per ann. was made payable to the vicar; and the entire value of the benefice, tithe and glebe included, is £285. There are four glebes in the union, comprising together 48 1/2 acres, valued at £100. 9. per ann. The church, rebuilt in 1816 at an expense of £1500, is a handsome structure with a tower; in the porch is a marble statue of Judge Trotter, and in the churchyard a richly sculptured stone cross. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parish of Cullinstown; the chapel is a handsome edifice in the later English style, with a school-room adjoining; and there is a chapel at Bellewstown hill, to which also a school-room is attached. The parochial school is aided by the incumbent, and there are four other public schools, one of which has a remarkably neat school-house, erected by J. Mathews, Esq.; they afford instruction to about 300 children, and about 30 children are educated in a private school. A dispensary is supported in the customary way. There are considerable remains of the ancient abbey church, with a massive square tower surmounted at the angles with embattled turrets; it was very extensive, and contains many ancient tombs, among which is one of a bishop. There are also some remains of the priory of St. Mary, on the Marquess of Thomond's demesne, and also anciently an endowed hospital, of which there are no remains. In the centre of the town and near Annsbrook are two handsome carved stone crosses bearing inscriptions, erected by the. De Bathe family; and at Whitecross is another, elaborately carved. Sir William D'Arcy, treasurer of Ireland in 1523, and author of a work on the Decay of Ireland and the causes of it, was born at Platten.

DULEEN, or DULANE, a parish, in the barony of UPPER KELLS, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 1/4 miles (N.) from Kells, on the road to Moynalty; containing 1503 inhabitants. It comprises 4150 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: the land is generally of good quality; and the system of agriculture is improved. There is a sufficient quantity of bog for fuel, and there are quarries of limestone and freestone. The gentlemen's seats are Maprath, that of T. Taylor Rowley, Esq.; Williamston, of the Rev. G. Garnett; Willmount, of J. Radcliff, Esq.; and Oakley Park, of Capt. Graham. It is a chapelry, in the diocese of Meath, forming part of the union of Kells and corps of the archdeaconry of Meath : the tithes amount to £200; the glebe comprises 2a. 3r. 17p. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district called Carnaross, comprising also the parish of Loghan, in each of which is a chapel; the chapel of Duleen is a neat edifice. There is a private school, in which are about 50 children. There are some ancient crosses in Kiern churchyard, said to have been placed there by a saint of that name, which are held in great veneration by the peasantry.

DUNAGHMORE --See DONAGHMORE, county of MEATH.

DUNAGHY, a parish, in the barony of KILCONWAY, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER, 6 miles (N. W. by N.) from Broughshane; containing 3451 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 13,743 1/4 statute acres, of which 12,040 are applotted under the tithe act; about one-sixth is irreclaimable mountain and bog, one-fourth rough mountain pasture, a twelfth, pasture of a better quality, and one half, arable land. Towards the east the hills attain a mountainous elevation; the highest are those of Moneyduff and Ballyboggy. A great portion of the summits of the hills towards the north is unprofitable; but nearer their base they afford good pasture to young cattle during the summer. Along the banks of the Ravel and Altakeerag are considerable tracts of low meadow land, subject to floods from the former river which pours down with great rapidity. The females are employed in spinning, and the males, in addition to their agricultural pursuits, in weaving coarse linens and calico.

The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Connor, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £311. 18. 7 1/4. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £350 and a loan of £450 from the late Board of First Fruits in 1816; the glebe comprises 25 acres. The church, a small edifice with an open belfry turret, occupies an elevated site. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district called Glenravel, and comprises Dunaghy and Skerry, in each of which is a chapel; the chapel for this parish, a neat edifice, is at Glenravel, near the bridge over the Ravel. There is a place of worship in the village of Glough for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the first class. There are two public schools, in which are about 260 children, and three Sunday schools. There are several Danish forts, of which the most remarkable are, one on the hill of Dungonnell, two on Dunbought, and one nearly effaced on Carnbeg, in levelling which were found an urn, a small statue, a cross, and some silver coins. There are many sepulchral monuments in the churchyard, among which those of the Crawford and Hamilton families are the most remarkable. Corby Rock is a bold precipice forming the termination of a hill; it is covered with ivy and washed at its base by the Ravel.

DUNAMANAGH, a village and post-town, in the parish of DONAGHEADY, barony of STRABANE, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, on the road from Strabane to Cookstown, 6 miles (N. E. by E.) from Strabane, and 113 (N. N. W.) from Dublin : the population is returned with the parish. This village, which situated in a deed and retired glen amidst the Mounterloney mountains, was founded by Sir John Drummond in 1619. It has a station of the constabulary police, and a sub-post-office to Strabane. Fairs are held on Jan. 13th, Feb. 28th, April 14th, May 27th. July 14th, Aug. 27th, Oct. 13th, and Nov. 28th. In and around the village are extensive deposits of limestone. Here is a meeting-house for Presbyterians, in connection with the synod of Ulster, a large and handsome building: that which formerly belonged to the Covenanters is in ruins. At a short distance from the village are the parochial church, and male and female schools. On the site of the bawn built by Sir John Drummond is a building which, from that circumstance, is called the Castle. --See DONAGHEADY.

DUNANY, a parish, in the barony of FERRARD, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Dunleer; containing 571 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated on the eastern coast, contains, according to the Ordnance survey, 1661 3/4 statute acres, chiefly under tillage. Dunany House, the residence of Lady Bellingham, is surrounded by an extensive and finely-planted demesne, and commands fine views of the sea and the Carlingford mountains. Dunany Point is distinguished at sea by the church, which stands on the summit of the rising ground: at the Point is a chief station of the coast-guard. The parish is in the diocese of Armagh; the vicarage was united in the 18th century to those of Parsonstown, Marlinstown, and Salterstown, and is in the patronage of the Marquess of Drogheda; the rectory is impropriate in Lady Bellingham. The tithes amount to £154. 0. 8., of which £90. 16. 85. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar; and the tithes of the entire benefice amount to £111. 18. 10 1/2. The church, which is in excellent repair, was built in 1814, and the glebe-house about the same period, by aid of a gift of £400 and a loan of £364 from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises 20 acres, valued at £27 per annum. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Dysart. About 20 children are educated in a private school.

DUNBEG, or DOONBEG, a village, in the parish of KILLARD, barony of IBRICKANE, county of CLARE, and province of MUNSTER, 6 miles (N. W.) from Kilrush, on the bay of Dunmore; containing 213 inhabitants. The river Dunbeg flows into the harbour and is here crossed by a good bridge, near which stand the ' ruins of a lofty castle, formerly a defence to the harbour, and one of the ancient strong holds of the O'Briens. The harbour which is the only one, excepting Liscanor, between Loop head and the bay of Galway, an extent of nearly 40 miles, is rendered dangerous by the rocks at its entrance. The pier, built by the late Fishery Board, is small and not much frequented; sea-weed is landed here, and flags of a superior quality, raised near the village, are sent to Galway, Limerick, and Cork; it also forms a place of refuge for small craft in bad weather. Here is a station of the coast-guard. Fairs are held on May 2nd, July 26th, Oct. 8th, and Dec. 16th, for general farming stock, and for flannel and frieze of home manufacture. Near the bridge is a flour-mill. A court for the manor of Kilrush, in which small debts are recoverable, is held once in six weeks. In the village is a R. C. chapel, and about a quarter of a mile from it is the newly erected parochial church.

DUNBELL, a parish, in the barony of GOWRAN, county of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (S. E.) from Kilkenny, on the road to Gowran; containing 567 inhabitants. This parish comprises 4299 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, forming part of the union of Burnchurch : the tithes amount to £277. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Gowran.

DUNBOE, or DRUMBOE, a parish, in the barony of COLERAINE, county of LONDONDERRY, and province of ULSTER, 5 miles (W. by N.) from Coleraine; containing 5018 inhabitants. This appears to have been a very important district from an early period, for, even in the 5th century, we find it mentioned under the name of Le Bendrigi, which seems to have comprised the northern parts of the present barony of Coleraine; and it is stated that St. Patrick founded the old church here. The parish comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 14,811 3/4 statute acres, of which 14,576 are applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £5796 per ann. On the south and west it is composed of basaltic mountains, which afford good pasturage, and on the opposite sides it is washed by the ocean and the river Bann, towards which, latter the surface gradually descends, and the sands at its mouth formed the most extensive rabbit warrens in the kingdom, until the decline in the price of the fur, when the warrens were mostly destroyed, and the land brought into cultivation. Numerous streams descend from the mountains, fertilizing the meadows through which they pass. Near Articlave and Downhill the land is good and under an excellent system of cultivation. Downhill, the splendid residence of Sir Jas. R. Bruce, Bart., occupies an elevated point of land between the Bann and Foyle, opening in full view on the Atlantic ocean; was erected by the late Earl of Bristol, Bishop of Derry, and is built in the Italian style, of hewn freestone; the pilasters are extremely chaste and beautiful. The interior is finished in the most costly manner, the saloons being adorned with marble statues, and the halls and galleries with statuary and paintings of the most celebrated ancient and modern masters. In the glens, the plantations are extensive, beautifully laid out, and ornamented with rustic buildings and bridges. On the lawn stands a unique and beautiful mausoleum, erected by the bishop to the memory of his brother, who was ambassador to the court of Spain, exhibiting a full-length statue of him, beneath an elevated canopy. The living is a rectory, forming the corps, of the archdeaconry of Derry, and in the patronage of the Bishop: the tithes amount to £480. The glebe-house is a commodious residence, occupied by the Rev. Archdeacon Monsell; there are four glebes, containing together 550 statute acres, 382 of which are cultivated land, the remainder being hilly and affording good pasturage for cattle. The church is a large and handsome edifice, situated at Articlave, for the repair of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £230; it was erected on a new site in 1691, the old church having been destroyed by King James's army, on its retreat from Derry. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union of Killowen. In the village of Articlave is a meeting-house for Presbyterians, in connection with the Synod of Ulster, and at Ballinrees is one in connection with the Seceding Synod, both of the second class. The parochial schools, situated at Articlave, are supported by the archdeacon; there are also schools at Downhill, built by Sir J. R. Bruce, and supported by him and Lady Bruce. Schools are maintained in other parts of the parish, together affording instruction to more than 500 children. There are also two private and eight Sunday schools. The parish belongs partly to Sir J. R. Bruce, and partly to the Clothworkers' Company; the latter contribute £15 per ann. to the poor on their own estate. Not far from Downhill are the ruins of the ancient abbey of Duncruthin, which became the parish church previously to 1291 : and in the western part of the parish stands a great fort, called the Giant's Sconce, occupying the summit of a lofty isolated hill of basalt, strongly fortified by nature.

DUNBOLLOGE, or CARRIGNAVAR, a parish, partly in the county of the city of CORK, and partly in the barony of BARRYMORE, but chiefly in that of EAST MUSKERRY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 5 miles (N.) from Cork, on the road to Mallow; containing 4634 inhabitants. This place is said to have been the scene of a battle which took place on the confines of the parish in 1649, between the forces of Cromwell and the Irish, in which the latter were defeated. The parish comprises 15,749 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £7262 per annum. The surface is hilly, and in some parts mountainous; the soil on the hills is light and stony, but of much better quality in the valleys; there is a large extent of bog, supplying the vicinity with abundance of cheap fuel; the reclaimable mountain is constantly being brought into cultivation or planted. Indications of coal have been observed in Glassaboy mountain, but no means have yet been taken to trace them; there are also quarries of limestone and some of clay-slate, which is used for building and repairing the roads. Carrignavar, the seat of Justin McCarty, Esq., a descendant of the ancient royal house of the McCartys of Cork or South Desmond, is an old mansion pleasantly situated above a romantic glen, and surrounded by a very extensive demesne, richly cultivated and planted, finely embellished with stately timber, and commanding some pleasing views. The manufacture of cotton and worsted hose is carried on to a small extent, under the patronage and support of Mrs. McCarty, for the employment of the poor. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Cork, and is one of the five parishes which constitute the union of St. Peter, and the corps of the archdeaconry of Cork, in the patronage of the bishop : the tithes amount to £461. 10. 9. A church has been recently built at Carrignavar by subscription, to which the incumbent and Justin McCarty, Esq., were the principal contributors; the latter gave the site. It is for the use of the parishes of Dunbolloge and St. Michael. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union of Upper Glanmire : at Carrignavar is a neat chapel in the early English style, with a porch at the western entrance, and a minaret rising from the gable of the roof. The parochial school is a large and handsome edifice, built by Justin McCarty, Esq., who has endowed it with two acres of land; and the female school is patronised by Mrs. McCarty. About 100 children are educated in three other public schools, besides which there is a Sunday school, supported by the rector. --See CARRIGNAVAR.

DUNBOYNE, a parish and village, (formerly an incorporated town), in the barony of DUNBOYNE, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, on the road from Dublin to Navan; containing, with the post-town of Clonee, 2419 inhabitants, of which number, 470 are in the village. This place, which is on the confines of the county of Dublin, appears to have been an ancient borough. In the reign of Henry VI., a writ was issued, dated July 28th, 1423, ordering "the Provost and Commonalty of the town of Dunboyne to be at Trim with all their power for its defence." The town was burnt down in the disturbances of 1798; the present village contains 82 houses. The manufacture of straw hats is carried on here, and in the neighbourhood; and a fair, chiefly for horses and cattle, is held on July 9th, and is much frequented by the Dublin dealers. The parish is principally grazing land; there are about 50 acres of common, and a bog of about 40 acres, called the " Moor of Meath." The gentlemen's seats are Wood Park, that of the Rev. J. Auchinleck; Roosk, of -- Wilson, Esq.; Ballymacall, of H. Hamilton, Esq.; Hammond, of C. Hamilton, Esq.; Court Hill, of H. Greene, Esq.; Sterling, of 11. Barker, Esq.; Norman's Grove, of J. Shanley, Esq.; and Priestown, of the Rev. J. Butler. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, united in 1400 to the chapelry of Kilbride, and in the patronage of the Crown; the rectory is impropriate in Miss E. Hamilton. The tithes amount to £835. 7. 8., of which £535. 7. 8. is payable to the impropriator and £300 to the vicar; and the tithes of the union to £347. 19. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £300, and a loan of £500 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1.814; the glebe comprises three acres, subject to a rent of £3 per acre. The church is an ancient edifice, for the repair of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £159. The R. C. union is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and in each parish is a chapel. About 40 children are taught in the public schools of the parish; and there are two private schools, in which are about 120 children. A dispensary is supported in the village, and adjoining it are some remains of an ancient castle, which gives the title of Baron of Dunboyne to the family of Butler.

DUNBREA, a parish, in the barony of KILKEA and MOONE, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, on the road from Athy to Carlow; containing, with the parish of Dunlost, 70 inhabitants. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Dublin, forming part of the union of St. Michael's, Athy, under which head the tithes are stated.

DUNBRODY (ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL), a parish, in the barony of SHELBURNE, county of WEXFORD, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (N.) from Arthurstown, on the road from New Ross to Duncannon Fort; the population is returned with the parish of St. James. Hervey de Montmorency, marshal of Henry II., and seneschal of all the lands acquired by Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, on his expedition to Ireland, having in consequence of some dispute resigned his commission, parcelled out the lands allotted to him among his followers, retaining only that portion which now constitutes the parishes of Dunbrody and St. James. In 1182, he founded and dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul the Cistertian abbey of Dunbrody, which he endowed with this reserved portion of his possessions, and became himself the first abbot. The abbots sat as barons in the Irish Parliament, and the establishment flourished until the dissolution, when Alexander Devereux, the last abbot, compounded for his abbacy, and was appointed Bishop of Ferns. The parish is bounded on the west by Waterford harbour; and an inlet called Campile is navigable for small craft, bringing limestone and coal, the former of which is extensively used for manure; the land is chiefly under tillage, and an improved system of agriculture has been generally adopted. A ferry hence to Passage, on the opposite side of the harbour, affords a direct communication with the city of Waterford. Dunbrody Castle, the property of Lord Templemore, and at present in the possession of Richard Barron, Esq., is a modernised edifice, partly incorporated with the walls of the ancient castle built in the reign of Henry II. The living is an impropriate curacy, in the diocese of Ferns, annexed to those of Rathroe and St. James, and in the patronage of Lord Templemore, in whom the rectory is impropriate. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union or district of Horeswood. The ruins of Dunbrody abbey are among the most interesting and magnificent relics of antiquity in the south of Ireland; they are situated on a verdant slope gently inclining to the shore of the harbour, and comprise the skeleton of the conventual church, the refectory, the foundations of the cloisters, and part of the domestic buildings. The church, a noble cruciform structure, 200 feet in length and 140 in breadth, is chiefly in the early style of English architecture, with a massive central tower supported on four finely pointed arches. A considerable portion of it was built by Herlewen, Bishop of Leighlin, who died in 1217, and was interred in the abbey. In 1810, a massive bronze seal, supposed to have been the ancient seal of the abbey, was discovered among the ruins.

DUNBYN, a parish, in the barony of Upper DUNDALK, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 3 1/4 miles (N. W.) from Lurgan-Green, on the road from Dundalk to Carrickmacross; containing 969 inhabitants. According to the Ordnance survey it comprises 2l69 1/4 statute acres, of which 1942 are applotted under the tithe act. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh : the tithes amount to £200, and are sequestrated in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, who pay the curate of an adjoining parish for the discharge of the occasional duties. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Baronstown, and has a chapel at Kilcurly. There is a public school, in which about 150 children are educated.

DUNCANELY. --See DUNKANELY.

DUNCANNON, a village, in the parish of ST. JAMES, barony of SHELBURNE, county of WEXFORD, and province of LEINSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S.) from Arthurstown; containing 560 inhabitants. This place, which commands the entrance to the ports of Waterford and Ross, was granted by Henry VI. to John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, from whom it reverted to the Crown; and the castle, with some lands for keeping it in repair, was vested in trustees by Queen Elizabeth. On the threatened invasion of the Spaniards, in 1588, it was strongly fortified. In 1645, the fort, which was held by Laurence Esmonde for the Parliament, was surrendered to Gen. Preston for the King; and in 1649, was besieged by Ireton, whom the garrison compelled to retire. After the battle of the Boyne, James II. embarked for France from this fort; and during the insurrection of 1798, it afforded an asylum to most of the loyalists in this part of the country. The fort is situated on a rock projecting from the eastern side of Waterford harbour, and has undergone frequent alterations : it is adapted for mounting 42 pieces of cannon, and, including " the bombproof" erected in 1815, contains barracks for 10 officers and 160 men, residences for the chaplain, fort-major, storekeeper, and other officers, and a chapel for the garrison; the whole is surrounded by a dry moat crossed by a drawbridge, and the only entrance is defended by a portcullis. On the hill overlooking the village are two martello towers, now dismantled. The village consists chiefly of one street, forming the approach to the fort, and had formerly a considerable trade, which has been mostly transferred to Arthurstown, in consequence of a steamer established by an English company to ply between Duncannon and Waterford. A new line of road is to be opened direct from Duncannon to Wexford, in consequence of which, and as the town is now in the possession of the head landlord, Lord Templemore, it promises to be soon in a flourishing state. The quay has been recently repaired, and the Harbour Commissioners are proceeding to deepen the harbour at a considerable expense. There is still a small export trade in pigs, butter, and poultry, and an import of coal. It has a daily penny post to Arthurstown, and a well-appointed mail car runs from Fethard, through Duncannon and Arthurstown, to Ross. A few boats are employed in fishing, on which and on the garrison the inhabitants depend chiefly for their support. An oyster bed just below the fort, which has been for some years only partially known, has been recently discovered to be of considerable extent, and is now much dredged. A branch from the coast-guard station at Arthurstown is quartered here. The creek is formed by the rock on which the fort is built, and the approach to the strand is rendered dangerous by shoals; but vessels of 100 tons can approach the pier at high water in fair weather. Within the fort is a lighthouse, nearly due north from that of Hook; another to the north of the Fort is nearly completed. In the village is a R. C. chapel; and two neat school-houses, one of which is for infants, have been recently built by subscription. Duncannon gives the inferior title of Viscount to the family of Ponsonby, Earls of Besborough.

DUNCORMUCK, a parish, in the barony of BARGY, county of WEXFORD, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (E.) from Danes-Castle; containing 1591 inhabitants, of which number, 249 are in the village. This parish is situated on a small stream that flows into the lough of Duncormuck, and comprises 5860 statute acres, which, though chiefly under tillage, contains some good grazing land. Quarries of a dark species of limestone are worked, and the produce is extensively used for manure. At Lacken a considerable trade is carried on in slates, coal, and culm from South Wales; vessels of 100 tons' burden can cross the bar at high tides and lie securely in the lough, which is still frequented by wild fowl, though not in such numbers as formerly. Petty sessions are held monthly in the village. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ferns, episcopally united, in 1759, to the rectory of Ambrosetown, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £306. 7. 10., of which £119. 19. 2. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar; and the entire tithes of the benefice amount to £324. 17. 10 3/4. The glebe-house, the residence of the Rev. R. B. Gordon, was erected in 1817 by a gift of £100 and a loan of £450 from the late Board of First Fruits; there are three contiguous glebes containing together 18 acres. The church is a modern edifice, erected on the site of the ancient building, and is about to be repaired by a grant of £148 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of the union or district of Rathangan, comprising also the parishes of Killag, Kilcowan, Kilmannon, and Ballyconnick, with the townland of Ambrosetown : there are chapels at Rathangan and Clarestown, the latter in the parish of Kilmannon. The parochial school was erected by the Rev. R. B. Gordon on a site presented by W. Richards, Esq., of Rathaspeck; it is partly supported by Mr. Gordon. A school at Rathangan is aided by the Rev. J. Barry, P. P. : the number of children educated in these schools is 110, besides which there are about 50 in a private school. In the village is a lofty tower called Duncormuck Castle, apparently of Anglo-Norman architecture.


Seal.

DUNDERMOT, a grange, in the barony of KILCONWAY, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER, on the Ravel water; containing 1069 inhabitants. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 3003 3/4 statute acres: the tithes, which are impropriate, amount to £65. There is a meeting-house for Presbyterians of the Seceding Synod in connection with that at Ahoghill. Near the Ballymena road is a Danish fort or mound of an oval form, 60 feet by 30, the summit of which is level, and the base surrounded by a deep fosse and counterscarp : towards the bridge over the Ravel two parallel branches from the fosse enclose another area of a quadrangular form, now called " the parade."

DUNDERROW, a parish, partly in the county of the city of CORK, partly in the barony of KINSALE, partly in that of KINNALEA, but chiefly in the barony of EAST MUSKERRY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Kinsale, on the road to Bandon; containing 2498 inhabitants. This parish comprises 6371 1/4 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £4167 per annum; about 800 acres are bog and mountain, and 971 1/4 waste; the remainder is good land, the greater portion being arable. It consists of several detached portions, and has consequently a great variety of surface and soil; Dunderrow proper is generally composed of a light soil, which is very well cultivated, and produces abundant crops. A new line of road is in progress through the parish, leading from Kinsale to Bandon. In the Bandon river, which bounds it on the south, are several salmon weirs. The principal residences are Leoffney House, that of E. Gillman, Esq.; Killaney, of T. Markham, Esq.; Ballyvrin, of W. Dorman, Esq.; Dunderrow Cottage, of the Rev. R. Halburd; Ballinphilleck, of W. Barter, Esq.; Corron, of J. Horneybrooke, Esq.; Gortnaclough, of W. Beasley, Esq.; Hop Island, of G. Edwards, Esq.; and the glebe-house, of the Rev. M. O'Donovan : besides several good houses belonging to respectable farmers. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cork, and in the patronage of T. C. Kearney, Esq., of Garretstown: the tithes amount to £525, of which £150 is payable to the dean and chapter of St. Finbarr's, Cork, and the remainder to the rector. The glebe-house was built by aid of a gift of £250 and a loan of £550, from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1821 : the glebe comprises 24a. 3r. 27p. The church, a small handsome edifice, with a lofty square tower, was erected by aid of a loan of £500, in 1812, from the same Board. In the churchyard is a handsome pyramidal monument of marble, erected over the remains of an English lady, who died at Kinsale while on a tour through Ireland. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms the union or district of Kinsale, but the detached portions belong to the several parishes by which they are surrounded : the chapel is at Ballynamona. The parochial school, situated at Leoffney, is jointly supported by Capt. Herrick and the rector; and there is a daily pay school at Ballynamona. About 100 boys and 40 girls are educated in a private school; and a Sunday school is chiefly maintained by the Rev. Robert Halburd. The doon, from which the parish derives its name, has been partly removed : the queen's forces secured themselves upon it in 1601, prior to the siege of Kinsale, when the Spanish forces were in possession.

DUNDONALD, a parish, in the barony of LOWER CASTLE REACH, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER, 4 miles (E.) from Belfast, on the mail coach road to Newtown-Ardes; containing 1669 inhabitants. This parish, which is called also Kirkdonald, comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 4635 statute acres of fertile land, principally under tillage and in a high state of cultivation. Every improvement in the mode of tillage and the construction of farming implements has been eagerly adopted; there is neither bog nor waste land in the parish. The principal seats are Storemont, that of S. Cleveland, Esq.; Summerfield, of R. Gordon, Esq.; Rose Park, of Major Digby; Bessmount, of T. S. Corry, Esq.; and Donleady, of A. McDonnel, Esq. Near the village is an extensive bleach-green, where 5000 pieces of linen are annually finished. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Down, and in the patronage of S. Cleveland, Esq.; the tithes amount to £205. The glebe-house, a handsome residence, was built in 1820 by a gift of £300 and a loan of £500 from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises 15 1/2 acres. The church, a small edifice, was rebuilt on the site of a former church in 1771, and a tower was added to it in 1774. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union of Newtown-Ardes. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the second class, to the poor of which congregation Mr. John Crane, of London, bequeathed the interest of a sum of money. About 50 children are taught in the parochial school, which is aided by the rector; and there is a private school, in which are about 45 children. A large and handsome school-house has been built and endowed at Church Quarter, by David Gordon, Esq., the principal proprietor of the parish. In the demesne of Summer-field is a chalybeate spring; and close to the church is a large circular fort surrounded by a moat, from which the parish is supposed to derive its name. A little below, in the same ground, is a cave continued to the fort and passing under its base. Near the bleach-green is a conical hill, or rath, contiguous to which, at the mouth of a small rivulet, is a stone pillar 10 feet high. Gilbert Kennedy, a distinguished Presbyterian divine, was interred in the church in 1687.

DUNDONNELL, a parish, in the barony of LOWER CONNELLO, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 1 mile (W.) from Rathkeale, on the river Deel; containing 476 inhabitants. It comprises 1239 statute acres, chiefly in tillage. The land is in general good, being based on a substratum of limestone : the system of agriculture has of late been much improved. Riddlestown, the ancient mansion of Gerald Blennerhasset, Esq., is seated on the banks of the Deel; and in its vicinity is Clonarla, the residence of J. Fitzgerald Massey, Esq. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Limerick, and since 1712, has formed part of the union of Rathkeale, and the corps of the chancellorship of the cathedral of St. Mary, in the gift of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £92. 6. 1 1/2.; and there are 4 acres of glebe. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Coolcappa. There are some remains of the old church; but of the castle of Clonarla, which was taken down some years since, on clearing the site for Mr. Massey's present mansion, a few fragments only remain.

DUNDRUM, a maritime village, in that part of the parish of KILMEGAN which is in the barony of LECALE, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S.) from Clough, on the road from Newry to Downpatrick : the population is returned with the parish. This place is situated on an inner bay, about 1 1/2 mile long by 1/4 of a mile broad, at the head of the larger one to which it gives name; and was distinguished for its ancient castle, of which though twice besieged and taken by the lord-deputy, and finally demolished by Cromwell, there are still considerable and very interesting remains. It is said to have been built by Sir John de Courcy for Knights Templars, who kept possession of it till the suppression of their order in 1313, when it was transferred to the Prior of Down. On the dissolution of the monasteries, the castle, with several townlands, was given to Gerald, Earl of Kildare, and subsequently to the Maginnis family, on whose attainder it was forfeited to the Crown and granted to the Earl of Ardglass; it afterwards became the property of Viscount Blundell, from whom it descended to the Marquess of Downshire, its present proprietor. The village, which previously consisted of one narrow street, containing only a few houses very indifferently built, has been recently much improved by the Marquess of Downshire, who has widened the old street and opened several new lines of road, and has promoted the erection of many neat and comfortable dwelling-houses. He has also built a spacious and commodious hotel, hot and cold baths, and adjoining the latter a lodging-house for himself, which is occasionally let to strangers during the summer. The principal trade is the export of grain, for which a small but convenient quay has been constructed by his lordship, who has also built warehouses and stores for grain. Fairs are held on Jan. 3rd, Feb. 5th, May 12th, Aug. 6th, and Oct. 10th. The larger bay, which affords great facilities for bathing, extends from the foot of the mountain of Slieve Donard to St. John's Point, a distance of nine miles, and nearly four miles inland. The ground is mostly clean and the depth moderate; but the bay is exposed to severe gusts of wind from the Mourne mountains; the south and south-east winds send in a heavy sea, and vessels should never remain here unless when the wind is from the north or northeast. The ground immediately outside the larger bay is said to be one of the best fishing grounds in the British seas, affording always in their respective seasons large supplies of excellent haddock, cod, whiting, plaice, sole, and turbot. The western shore is a continued range of sand hills, through which is an inlet deep enough to admit vessels of 50 tons laden with coal, lime, and slate to the quay at the village. In the inlet, during the summer months, there are large shoals of sand eels, to take which several hundreds of the neighbouring peasantry assemble every tide, and provide themselves with an. abundant supply for some months. The remains of the castle consist chiefly of a lofty circular tower of more than 30 feet internal diameter, built on the summit of a rock overlooking the bay; the walls and the winding staircase leading to the battlements are nearly perfect, but the roofs and the floors of the several stories have fallen in; and the vault or dungeon, deeply excavated in the rock, is exposed. The tower is surrounded by a deep fosse hewn in the solid rock, and on the east are the remains of two lofty bastions : the walls of the ancient gatehouse are still standing. Dr. Thomas Smith, consecrated Bishop of Limerick in 1695, was a native of this place. --See KILMEGAN.

DUNDRUM, a village, in the parish of TANEY, half-barony of RATHDOWN, county of DUBLIN, and province of LEINSTER, 3 1/2 miles (S.) from Dublin, on the road to Enniskerry; containing 680 inhabitants. This village, in which are a number of very pretty cottages, is pleasantly situated on a sheltered declivity near the base of the fine mountain range that extends along the south side of the county. It is a favourite place of resort for invalids from Dublin, for whom the mildness of its climate and the purity of the air are peculiarly favourable; and is noted for numerous herds of goats, which, browsing among the mountain pastures, afford milk of very excellent quality. An office for the twopenny post from Dublin has been established in the village, in which are a chapel belonging to the R. C. union of Booterstown, a school, and a dispensary. The environs abound with pleasing and strikingly diversified scenery, and are embellished with numerous gentlemen's seats and elegant villas, most of which are situated in tastefully ornamented grounds and command fine views of the bay of Dublin and the country adjacent. Of those in the more immediate neighbourhood the principal are Wickham, the seat of W. Farran, Esq., a handsome residence containing a richly stored museum of natural curiosities; Sweetmount, of W. Nolan, Esq.; Dun-drum House, of J. Walshe, Esq.; Churchtown, of W. Corbet, Esq.; Churchtown House, of D. Lynch, Esq.; Sweetmount Villa, of J. Burke, Esq.; and Sweetmount House, of M. Ryan, Esq. The ruins of Dundrum castle consist of one tower covered with ivy.

DUNDRUM, or NEWTOWN-DUNDRUM. --See BALLINTEMPLE, county of TIPPERARY.

DUNEANE, a parish, in the barony of UPPER TOOME, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER, 6 miles (W. N. W.) from Randalstown, on the road from Belfast to Londonderry; containing 6812 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the west by Lough Beg and the river Bann, and on the south by Lough Neagh, in which, at the distance of half a mile from the shore, is a group called the Three Islands, which are within its limits. It comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 13,128 statute acres, of which 1628 1/4 are in Lough Neagh, 415 3/4 in Lough Beg, and 29 1/2 in the river Bann. About two-thirds of the land are in a state of good cultivation, one-tenth is bog, and the remainder waste : the soil is fertile and the system of agriculture greatly improved. Basaltic stone is quarried in large quantities for building and for repairing the roads. The principal seats are Reymond Lodge, that of Earl O'Neill; Moneyglass, of J. Hill, Esq.; St. Helena, of -- Reford, Esq.; and Brecart, of Capt. O'Neill. The weaving of calico and union cloths, and also of fine linen, is carried on extensively. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Connor, united from time immemorial to the rectory of Cranfield, and in the patronage of the Marquess of Donegal; the rectory is impropriate in W. Cranston, Esq., of Belfast. The vicarial tithes, as returned by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners in 1831, amounted to £240, and of the whole union to £270; there is neither glebe nor glebe-house. The church is a small plain edifice, nearly in the centre of the union. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there are chapels at Moneyglass and Cargin, the former built in 1826. There is also a place of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the third class. About 840 children are taught in nine public schools, of which the parochial school is aided by donations from the vicar; and there are eight Sunday schools. There are some remains of a circular camp, called Ballydonnelly fort, similar to the Giant's Ring in the county of Down.

DUNFANAGHY, a sea-port and post-town, in the parish of CLONDEHORKY, barony of KILMACRENAN, county of DONEGAL, and province of ULSTER, 32 miles (N. W.) from Lifford, and 137 1/4 (N. N. W.) from Dublin; containing 464 inhabitants. It is situated on the bay of Sheephaven, and consists of one street, containing 85 houses; the inlet from Sheephaven forms a commodious bay, which takes its name from this place, and affords good anchorage to vessels of the largest burden, which find better shelter here than in Sheephaven, from the latter being too much exposed to the north and north-east winds. This place is the head of a coastguard district, comprising also the stations of Rutland, Guidore, Innisboffin, Sheephaven, Mulroy, Rathmullen, and Knockadoon; and including a force of 7 officers and 53 men, under a resident inspecting commander. Fairs are held on the Thursday after Whit-Sunday, Aug. 5th, Oct. 2nd, and Nov. 17th. A constabulary police force is stationed in the town, and petty sessions are held every Friday. Nearly adjoining it, on the west, is a very extensive rabbit warren; and the neighbourhood is rich in mineral productions. The surrounding district, called Cloghanealy, consists chiefly of mountainous elevations covered with very indifferent herbage; and among its geological features are hills of sand and rocks of granite and crystal, rising to a great height. A commodious school-house has been built in the town, and there is also a dispensary.

DUNFEENY, or DOONFENEY, a parish, in the barony of TYRAWLEY, county of MAYO, and province of CONNAUGHT, 9 miles (N. W.) from Killala; containing 4110 inhabitants. This parish is situated upon the new line of road from Killala to Belmullet, now in progress through the mountains, and upon Bantraher bay. It comprises a large tract of bog; and limestone, freestone, slate, and copper are found here. The seats are Mount Glynne, the residence of J. Faussett, Esq.; Gross Lodge, of R. Faussett, Esq.; and Glynne Castle, of Mrs. Watts. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Killala, forming part of the union of Kilbride; the rectory is appropriate to the deanery and precentorship of Killala. The tithes amount to £300, half of which is paid to the dean and precentor, and the rest to the vicar. There is a good glebe-house, and a glebe of 19 1/2 acres. The church is a large building in good repair, erected by aid of a loan of £830, in 1810, from the late Board of First Fruits. The R. C. union is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there is a chapel at Bally-castle, and another at Belderig. There are four public schools, one of which is aided by an annual donation from Mr. Knox, and in which about 450 children are educated; and four private schools, in which are about 70 children.

DUNFERT. --See DANESFORT.

DUNFORT, or DUNFORTH, a parish, in the barony of CARBERY, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 5 miles (W.) from Kilcock, on the road from Enfield to Naas; containing 900 inhabitants. The land is of superior quality for grazing cattle, to which purpose it is almost exclusively devoted. A portion of the bog of Allen extends into the parish. The seats are Dunforth House, the residence of Sir F. Macdonald; Mulgeeth, of E. Ruthven, Esq., M. P.; and Metcalfe Park, of F. Metcalfe, Esq. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Kildare, entirely impropriate in the Marquess of Downshire: the tithes amount to £101. 1. 10. The clerical duties are performed by the incumbent of Carbery. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union or district of Carbery : the chapel is a plain building. At Kilshanroe is a school of about 60 children, supported by subscription. There are some remains of the old church.


Seal.

DUNGANNON, a borough, market and post-town, in the parish of DRUMGLASS, barony of DUNGANNON, county of TYRONE, and province of ULSTER, 10 miles (N. by W.) from Armagh, and 76 (N. N.W.) from Dublin, on the road from Armagh to Coleraine; containing 3515 inhabitants. This place appears to have been the chief seat of the O'Nials from the earliest period of Irish history; but the first direct notice of it, under its present name, is in a spirited letter addressed in 1329 to Pope John, from Dungannon, by Donald O'Nial, in which he styles himself " King of Ulster and true heir of the whole dominion of Ireland." He declares that, previously to the coming of St. Patrick, 130 of his royal ancestors had been kings of Ireland; and that from that period till the landing of Henry II., in 1172, "sixty monarchs of the same princely family had swayed the Hibernian sceptre." In 1364, O'Nial, in his letters to Edward III., styles himself " Prince of the Irishry in Ulster," and dated from this place, whence, in 1394, he went to make his submission to Rich. II. at Drogheda. Henry O'Nial gave a splendid entertainment here to the Primate Bole, and assigned to the church of Armagh all his lands in Moydoyn; and in 1489 Con O'Nial founded a Franciscan monastery, which he amply endowed. This establishment continued to flourish till the Reformation, when it was granted by Queen Elizabeth to the Earl of Westmeath, and it was subsequently assigned to Sir Arthur Chichester in the reign of James I. In 1492, Con O'Nial, the founder, being murdered by his brother Henry, was buried in this monastery with great pomp; and Neal McArt O'Nial rising in arms to avenge his death, the Earl of Kildare marched into Ulster to oppose him, took the fortress of Dungannon by storm, and soon reduced O'Nial to obedience. In 1501, the Albanian Scots attacked the fortress on St. Patrick's day, but were driven back with great slaughter by O'Nial, who then held it for the English government. In 1517, O'Nial was found again in rebellion against the English, but the Earl of Kildare having reduced Dun-drum and taken Maginnis prisoner, marched against Dungannon, stormed the fort and burnt the town, both of which were restored by O'Nial after his submission. Con O'Nial, in 1538, took up arms against Henry VIII., in favour of the see of Rome, marched from this place with a powerful army into the English pale, and laid waste the country as far as Meath, where he was met by the Lord-Deputy Grey, who defeated him at Bellahoe, and compelled him again to retreat to his strong hold of Dungannon; he soon after submitted to the English authority, and in 1542 took the oaths of allegiance. After this battle Henry assumed the title of King, instead of Lord of Ireland; and O'Nial covenanted to renounce the name of O'Nial, to adopt the English habit and language, and to build houses and farm the lands after the English mode. For this submission he was created Earl of Tyrone, and his illegitimate son Matthew was made Baron of Dungannon, and received the estate of the O'Nials by patent. In 1552, Shane O'Nial, son of the Earl of Tyrone, appeared in arms against his father, and destroyed the fortress of Dungannon, and committed other depredations; but in 1556, Fitzwalter, then lord-deputy, marched against him, expelled him from the territory, and replaced the Earl in his possessions. Shane again revolted in 1559, and in the following year burst into the English pale, but was reduced to submission by the Lord-Deputy Sussex. From Dungannon he proceeded to England, accompanied by his body-guard, consisting of 600 soldiers, who marched through the streets of London, armed with their battle-axes, and dressed in the costume of their country. He was graciously received by Elizabeth, pardoned, and loaded with favours; but shortly after his return to Dungannon, he again appeared in arms, destroyed the city of Armagh with its venerable cathedral and monasteries, and left only a few mud cabins remaining : he also destroyed the city of Derry and laid waste the whole county; but in 1567 he was treacherously murdered in the Scottish camp. Hugh O'Nial, who by the favour of Elizabeth had been raised to the earldom of Tyrone, commenced building a magnificent castle at Dungannon, and imported large quantities of lead for its roof; in 1587 he obtained from Elizabeth the grant of a weekly market and fairs, and in 1591 the lordship of Tyrone was formed into a county, subdivided into eight baronies, and this place made the county town and a gaol built in it accordingly. In 1595, the Earl of Tyrone rebelled against the English government, and, placing himself at the head of 14,000 men, took and destroyed several forts, burnt Portmore bridge, laid siege to Monaghan, and having melted into bullets the lead which he had imported under pretence of roofing his castle, ultimately made himself master of the whole of that county. Having defeated the English in many engagements, particularly at Benburb, he was universally hailed as the champion of Ireland, and received in his fortress here the envoy of the Pope, who brought him valuable presents. The Lord-Deputy Mountjoy marched against this powerful chieftain and defeated him in several battles; and in June 1602, having secured Armagh and Charlemont, advanced towards Dungannon. Tyrone, aware of his approach, set fire to the place and retreated northward; but being thus driven from the venerable seat of his ancestors, he never regained his lost power. In the following year he made his submission at Mellifont and was pardoned; he was restored to his earldom, and obtained a grant of his lands by letters patent; but meditating new designs against the state, he was discovered, and dreading the power of James I., fled to the Continent in 1607, leaving the whole of his extensive possessions to the king, who, in 1610, granted the castle and manor of Dungannon, with all their dependencies, to Sir Arthur Chichester. In 1612, Sir Arthur obtained from the king a charter of incorporation for the town which he was about to build, a grant of 1140 acres of land, and of 500 acres more for the site of the intended town; upon the former he built a bawn of limestone, 120 feet square, with bulwarks and a deep fosse; and upon the latter, previously to 1619, six large stone houses, six strong houses of frame-work timber, and a spacious church, which, with the exception of the roof, was completed at that time, whence may be dated the origin of the present town. On the breaking out of the war in 1641, Sir Phelim O'Nial, having taken the fort of Charlemont by stratagem, and made the governor prisoner, seized the castle, town, and fort of Dungannon on the same night; and having put many of the inhabitants to death, kept possession of it till after the battle of Benburb, in 1646, after which the town and church were burnt, and soon after the castle was dismantled by order of the parliament. The castle was rebuilt soon after the Restoration, and in 1688 the Rev. George Walker, rector of Donaghmore, raised a regiment in his parish and marched with it to Dungannon, to secure that garrison for the Protestants; it was entrusted to the care of Col. Lundy, who deserted his post on the 13th of March, and the inhabitants fled to Strabane. It was garrisoned in 1689 by the troops of James II., who, on the 13th of April, in that year, visited this town and inspected the garrison, whence he marched to Omagh and Strabane; but his forces occupied the town and neighbourhood during the whole of that important struggle. From this period the only event of historical importance connected with the place is the meeting of delegates from 269 corps of Ulster volunteers, who, in 1782, assembled at Dungannon, and passed 20 resolutions, declaratory of the independence of the parliament of Ireland.

The town, situated about three miles from the south shore of Lough Neagh, is spacious, handsome, and well built; and consists of a square, and four principal and several smaller streets. Improvements upon a very extensive scale have been recently made, and are still in progress; handsome houses have been built within and around the town, several lines of road have been constructed, and gas-works are now being erected for lighting it. The surrounding country is richly diversified, and the situation of the town on a lofty hill of limestone, commanding interesting and extensive prospects on every side, renders it both a healthy and a pleasant, place of residence. It is second only to Omagh in extent, and is rapidly increasing in opulence and importance. News-rooms are supported by subscription, and assemblies are held occasionally. At a short distance to the east is Northland Lodge, the seat of the Earl of Ranfurley, and in the immediate neighbourhood are many gentlemen's seats, which are noticed in the account of the parish. The principal trade of the town and neighbourhood is the manufacture and bleaching of linen, for which it has long been celebrated; there are several bleach-greens on a large scale, all in full operation; the manufacture of earthenware and fire-bricks, for which there are large potteries within three miles of the town, is extensive : there is a large distillery, which annually consumes 29,000 barrels of grain, and not far from it are some extensive flour-mills. A flourishing trade is also carried on in wheat, flax, oats, and barley. The Drumglass collieries, one mile distant, are the most extensive, in the North of Ireland; they were formerly worked without much success, but are now conducted by the Hibernian Mining Company and have been rendered productive of great benefit to the town and neighbourhood; the coal is of good quality and is procured in great abundance; the demand is ample, and the prices moderate from the competition of English and Scottish coal, which are brought hither by the Lagan and Newry navigations and by Lough Neagh. There are also ironworks, and some extensive lime-works near the town. The markets, originally granted in 1587, by Queen Elizabeth, to Hugh O'Nial, Earl of Tyrone, and in 1612 by James I., to Sir Arthur Chichester, are held on Tuesday and Thursday; the former for grain, and the latter for brown linen, yarn, cattle, pigs, and provisions of all kinds, with all of which it is very extensively supplied. Fairs, granted in 1611 by James I. to Sir Arthur Chichester, and in 1705 to T. Knox, Esq., arc held on the first Thursday in every month. The market-house, shambles, grain stores, and provision sheds are commodious and well adapted to their use. A chief constabulary police station has been established in the town, which is the head-quarters of the constabulary police force of Ulster, for whose accommodation a police barrack has been built. The inhabitants under the title of the " Provost, Free Burgesses, and Commons of the borough of Dungannon," received a charter of incorporation from James I., in 1612, by which the site of the town, with three parcels of land called Crosse, Brough, and Ferneskeile, (with the exception of the castle, and a space of 500 feet around it, in every direction, from its walls), was created a free borough, and the corporation made to consist of a portreeve, twelve free burgesses, and commonalty. The portreeve is chosen annually, and has power to hold a court every Friday for the recovery of debts not exceeding five marks, but this court has not been established. The charter also conferred the right of returning two members to the Irish parliament, which was exercised till the Union, since which period it has returned one member to the Imperial parliament. The right of election, formerly in the portreeve and burgesses, has, by the 2nd of William IV., cap. 88, been vested in the resident freemen and £10 householders. The liberties of the borough comprised the whole of the townlands of Drumcoo and Ranaghan, a considerable portion of the townland of Gortmenon, and three small pieces in three other townlands, comprising together about 836 statute acres; but not being connected with the elective franchise, a narrower boundary has been drawn round the town, containing 224 statute acres, of which the limits are minutely described in the Appendix. In 1836 the number of registered voters was 197, consisting of 11 free burgesses and 186 £10 householders : the portreeve is the returning officer. A court for the manor of Dungannon, granted in 1621 by James I. to Arthur, Lord Chichester, and now the property of the Earl of Ranfurley, is held once in three weeks, and has jurisdiction to the amount of £20 extending over 40 townlands. General sessions of the peace for the division of Dungannon, which comprises the baronies of Dungannon and Clogher, are held here and at Clogher, alternately, twice in the year; and petty sessions are also held once a fortnight before the county magistrates. The court-house is a spacious and handsome building, erected in 1830; under it is the bridewell, containing a day-room and four large cells for male prisoners, with a yard, day-room, and cells for female prisoners; the same accommodation for debtors, and apartments for the keeper.

The church of the parish of Drumglass having been destroyed in the wars during the reign of Elizabeth, a new church was erected by Sir Arthur Chichester in the town of Dungannon, in 1619. This building, which was nearly destroyed in the war of 1641, was restored in 1672, and was rebuilt in 1699, since which time it has been considerably enlarged, and is now a handsome edifice with a lofty octagonal spire. There is a R. C. chapel in the town, also places of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster and the Seceding Synod, and for Wesleyan Methodists. The free grammar school, or Royal College, was founded by letters patent of Charles I., in 1628, which gave in trust to the Primate of Armagh and his successors six town-lands in the parish of Clonoe, for the support of a school at Mountjoy, in that parish; but this place being only a garrison, the school was, after many years, removed to Dungannon, and the first account we find of it is in 1726, nearly a century after its foundation, when it was held in a lane near High-street, where it continued till 1786, when the present college was erected by order of Primate Robinson, who a few years before had erected the college of Armagh. The building comprises a centre and two deeply receding wings, erected at an expense of £4626. 8. 2., of which £2000 was given from the Primate's private purse. It is situated on a gentle eminence on the east side of the town, on grounds comprising 9 acres purchased by Primate Robinson and given to the school. The establishment is conducted by a principal and three classical assistants, two English masters, and drawing, French, and music masters, and is adapted for 100 pupils; the masters take private boarders and day scholars; at present there are no scholars on the foundation. The lands with which it is endowed comprise 3900 acres, producing a rental of £1430, and are under the management of the Commissioners of Education, who, in their report for 1834, state that "considerable improvement has been effected in the condition of the tenantry and appearance of their farms;" and there is every prospect that the rental will be nearly doubled in a few years. The principal, who is appointed by the Lord-Primate, has a salary of £500 per annum and £100 for assistants; £400 per ann. was appropriated, in 1834, to the founding of ten exhibitions in Trinity College, Dublin, 5 of £50 and 5 of £30 per annum, tenable for 5 years by boys from this school, under the appellation of King's scholars. A school for boys and girls has also been established here by the trustees of Erasmus Smith's charity; it is situated near the courthouse, and is capacious and handsome. There arc also two other schools, and an infants' school, supported by subscription. There is a dispensary; and a Mendicity Society is supported by subscription. Of the castle and fortress of the Earl of Tyrone not a vestige is remaining; nor are there any traces of the castle and bawn erected by Sir Arthur Chichester. The monastery, founded by Con O'Nial, was situated near the site of the present distillery; some fragments were remaining a few years since, but every vestige has now disappeared. Dun-gannon gives the title of Viscount to the family of Trevor, of Brynkinalt, near Chirk, in the county of Denbigh.

DUNGANSTOWN, a parish, in the barony of ARK-LOW, county of WICKLOW, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (S. by W.) from Wicklow, on the road to Arklow; containing 3135 inhabitants. This parish, which is called also Ennisboheen, is bounded on the east by the Irish sea, and comprises 10,322 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, of which about three-fourths are meadow and pasture, furnishing some of the finest butter for the Dublin market, and the remainder under tillage. The soil is fertile, and the system of agriculture in the highest state of improvement; there is an adequate proportion of bog, and a quarry of good slate, which, though bordering on the sea, is not worked for want of a convenient landing-place. The surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified, embracing extensive mountain and sea views, and the neighbourhood is enlivened with several gentlemen's seats and villas, of which the principal are West Aston, the residence of Lieut.-Col. Acton; Oatlands, of W. Shepard, Esq.; Sheep hill, of J. Shepard, Esq.; Sea Park, of J. Revell, Esq.; Ballymoney, of W. Revell, Esq.; Ballinclare, of Capt. T. Keoghoe; and Springfield, of J. Wright, Esq. Of Dunganstown Castle, the property of the coheiresses of the late F. Hoey, Esq., and now in the occupation of M. Wright, Esq., the only remains are one square tower and an extensive range of domestic buildings, partially covered with ivy. There is an extensive nursery, belonging to Messrs. Hodgens, in which are many choice plants. A ladies' association for employing the female poor in spinning, knitting, and making nets has been established. At Jack's Hole is a coast-guard station, one of the seven constituting the district of Gorey. Seven townlands have been separated from this parish to form the new parish of Redcross. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, and in the patronage of the Archbishop of Dublin : the tithes amount to £700; the glebe-house is a handsome residence, and the glebe comprises 20 acres of arable land. The church, a neat plain structure, was enlarged in 1821 by a loan of £400 from the late Board of First Fruits, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £200 for its repair. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of a union, called Kilbride, comprising also part of the parishes of Templemichael and Castlemacadam; there are chapels at Ballymurn, and Barry-derry. About 190 children are taught in four public schools, one of which is supported by Lieut.-Col. Acton; and another, for which a building was erected by subscription amounting to £182, aided by £100 from the parliamentary fund, is supported by subscription. There are three private schools, in which are about 100 children; and a dispensary. A loan fund has been established, and a house is rented for the poor, who receive also the interest of two legacies of £100 each, bequeathed by Miss De Stournelles and Mrs. Frost, together producing £6. 13. 6. annually. There are several raths, and the remains of an extensive fortification, on the hill above which a shaft was sunk for copper, which was discovered, but not in sufficient quantity to work profitably. At Castletimon and Ennisboheen are remains of old churches, with burial-places; the Society of Friends have a burying-ground at Ballymurton; and on the farm of Ballincarrig several stone graves with skeletons were found a few years since.

DUNGARVAN, a parish, in the barony of GOWRAN, county of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (S.) from Gowran, on the road from Dublin to Waterford; containing 1784 inhabitants, of which number, 75 are in the hamlet. The parish comprises 9134 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and is a constabulary police station. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, and in the patronage of the Crown; the rectory is impropriate in J. Hamilton Bun-bury, Esq. The tithes amount to £480, of which £320 is paid to the impropriator and £160 to the vicar. The glebe-house was erected in 1813, by aid of a gift of £400 and a loan of £400 from the late Board of First Fruits : there is a glebe of 15 acres. The church is a small plain building, erected by aid of a gift of £800, in 1812, from the same Board, and lately repaired by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, at an expense of £283. In the R. C. divisions this parish forms part of the union or district of Gowran, and contains a chapel. The parish school is supported by the incumbent, and there are three pay schools, in which about 300 children are instructed. Here is a very large moat, also the ruins of a square castle at Neiglam.

DUNGARVAN, a sea-port, borough, market and post-town, and a parish, in the barony of DECIES-WITHOUT-DRUM, county of WATERFORD, and province of MUNSTER, 22 miles (S. W. by W.) from Waterford, and 97 3/4 miles (S. W. by S.) from Dublin, on the road from Waterford to Cork; containing 12,450 inhabitants, of which number, 8386 are in the town and borough. This place, formerly called Achad-Garvan, of the same import as its present appellation Dun-Garvan, derived that name from St. Garvan, who in the 7th century founded an abbey here for canons regular of the order of St. Augustine, of which there are no vestiges. Raymond le Gros, one of the earliest English adventurers, in 1174, brought hither the plunder he had taken in Offaly and Lismore, which he put on board some vessels he found lying at anchor; but, being detained by contrary winds, was attacked by the men of Cork, whom he repulsed with the loss of eight of their vessels, with which he sailed away in triumph. Soon afterwards the town, which then formed the frontier barrier of the dependencies of Waterford, was, together with other territories, totally surrendered to Henry II. by Roderic, Sovereign of all Ireland; and a castle was erected for its defence by King John, who is also supposed to have surrounded the town with a wall strengthened with towers. The same monarch granted the custody of the castle, and of the territories of Waterford and Desmond, to Thomas Fitz-Anthony, at a yearly rent of 250 marks, but retained the fee in the Crown; during the minority of Edward I., it was granted to John Fitz-Thomas at a yearly rent of 500 marks, but was subsequently recovered by Edward in a judgment against Thomas Fitz-Maurice, his cousin and heir, and in 1292 given to Thomas Fitz-Anthony. In 1447, the castle, honour, lands, and barony of Dungarvan, together with other extensive territories, were granted to John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury; but the unsettled state of affairs during that period prevented the improvement of the town either in extent or importance. In 1'463, an act was passed at Wexford, setting forth that, " whereas the lordship of Dungarvan was of old the greatest ancient honour belonging to the King in Ireland, and that by war and trouble, and want of English governance, it is for the most part totally destroyed; for the relief and succour whereof it is ordained that the portreeve and commonalty, their heirs and successors, may have and enjoy all manner of free grants, liberties, privileges, and customs as the tenants and inhabitants of the honourable honour of Clare in England enjoyed, with a further power to take customs of all kinds of merchandise bought and sold within the franchises, as the mayor and commons of Bristol did, to be yearly expended on the walls and other defences of the town, under the inspection of the Hon. Sir Thomas, Earl of Desmond, and his heirs." By another statute of the same parliament, the entire fee farm of the town was granted to the said Earl during his life. In the 4th of Henry VIII., an act was passed confirming the castle and all its dependencies to the Crown : but in the 26th of this reign the manor was granted to Sir Pierce Butler, who was likewise created Earl of Ossory, and appointed seneschal, constable, and governor of the castle and manor of Dungarvan, into which the Earl of Desmond had forcibly intruded. In the reign of Edward VI., Robert St. Leger, brother to the Lord-Deputy St. Leger, was confirmed in the government of the castle, to which he had been appointed in the preceding reign, on condition of keeping a proper ward in it; and other constables for the crown were subsequently appointed with extensive powers and emoluments, to one of whom, Henry Stafford, a commission of martial law, extending over the whole county of Waterford, was directed, in the first year of the reign of Elizabeth. In 1575, the Lord-Deputy, Sir Henry Sidney, came from Waterford to this place, where he was met by the Earl of Desmond, who, with great professions of loyalty, offered his services in reducing the country to obedience; but towards the close of the year 1579, when Sir William Pelham, then ' Lord-Justice, was at Waterford, the Earl led a large insurgent force to this place, with which the 400 foot and 100 horse, which had been sent against him, were unable to contend. In the 2nd of James I. the manor was granted to Sir George Thornton, but subsequently was with the castle, by act of parliament, vested in the Earl of Cork, from whom it descended to its present proprietor, the Duke of Devonshire. In the 7th of his reign, James, in reward of the loyalty of the inhabitants during the reign of Elizabeth, granted them a new charter of incorporation; but early in the rebellion of 1641, they broke their allegiance, and took part with the King's enemies; in March 1642 the town was, however, taken by the Lord President of Munster, who placed in it a royal garrison, but it was soon after retaken by surprise, and the English inhabitants were plundered. The insurgents, while in occupation of this place, exported merchandise to France, and in return received warlike stores for fortifying the town and castle, of which they kept possession till 1647, when they were taken by Lord Inchiquin with a force of 1500 foot and the same number of horse. The town remained in the possession of the Royalist party till December 1649, when Cromwell, having abandoned the siege of Waterford, advanced to besiege it; after a regular investment and a few days' siege, in the course of which several neighbouring fortresses were taken by detachments from his army, the town surrendered at discretion. It is said that Cromwell ordered all the inhabitants to be put to the sword, but recalled his mandate in consequence of a female drinking to his health as he entered the town, which, with the exception of the castle and the church, he saved from being plundered by his troops. The charter of the inhabitants was renewed by Richard Cromwell in 1659, and in 1689 a new charter was granted by James II., which, on the accession of William, was annulled.

The town, which contains 1570 houses, is situated at the head of a spacious bay to which it gives name, on a peninsula formed by two arms of the bay; and under the auspices of His Grace the Duke of Devonshire has been much improved. It consists of one principal street, called Mulgrave-street, extending from west to east, and dividing in the latter direction into two short branches leading to the mouth of the port; from these several others branch off in various directions towards the line of quays, which extends along the shore. On the south and west are extensive ranges of inferior houses, and on the north is Devonshire-square, from which a handsome street leads to the bridge across the inlet, a massive structure of one arch 75 feet in span, erected at an expense of £50,000 by the Duke of Devonshire, in 1815, and communicating, by a causeway 350 yards in length, with the suburb of Abbeyside, on the main shore. The inhabitants were formerly supplied with water from the small river Phynisk, brought by an aqueduct constructed about the middle of the last century, by aid of a parliamentary grant; this source of supply having been cut off, wells have been sunk in various parts of the town, but the supply of pure water is rather scanty, that of the wells being fit only for culinary purposes. Immediately adjoining the town are fine springs of pure water, which might be conveyed into it at little expense. The barracks for infantry are adapted for four officers and sixty noncommissioned officers and privates. From its favourable and very healthy situation on the coast, this town has become a place of resort for sea-bathing, and hot and cold baths are at present in progress of erection. The fishery on the Nymph bank has always afforded employment to a considerable number of the inhabitants, and the grant of the tonnage bounty tended greatly to its increase. In 1823, 163 boats and about 1100 men were employed in the fishery, and more than 1000 tons of excellent fish were procured for the supply of the surrounding country; the sum granted in bounties (since withdrawn) was £2647; and as the wives and children of the fishermen were engaged in cleaning and salting the fish, the total number of persons that derived employment was not less than 3000. There are at present 80 hookers, of an aggregate burden of 1600 tons, exclusively employed in this trade, which, although it has greatly declined of late years, is now increasing. There are also 93 four-oared row boats engaged in fishing and cutting sea weed; besides 34 coasting vessels belonging to the port, of an aggregate burden of 2800 tons. The aggregate burden of all these is 4720 tons, and the number of men employed in them, 1229, besides whom more than 3000 persons on shore are employed in various capacities in connection with them. At Ballinacourty, on the eastern side of the parish, the property of T. Wyse, Esq., M. P., a pier for the protection of fishing boats was erected in 1832, partly by subscription, and partly by a grant from the late Fishery Board. The trade of the port consists chiefly in the exportation of corn, live stock, butter, and other provisions to the ports of the English channel; and the importation of timber, coal, culm, and the usual foreign supplies. The harbour affords good shelter for vessels drawing from 14 to 15 feet of water at any time of the tide; vessels drawing 18 feet of water may enter at spring tides, but larger ships can enter only at or near high water of spring tides. There are 3 feet at low water in the shallowest part of the channel, and at the quays there is a depth of 14 feet at high water of spring tides, and 10 feet at neap tides. The south-western recesses of the bay are separated from the rest by a bank called Cunnigar Point, between which and the town it is proposed to throw up an embankment for the purpose of reclaiming the inner recesses of the bay. According to a survey made for this purpose by Mr. Kearney, it is proposed to exclude the tides from the back strand, by making a causeway 122 perches in length, with stone walls on each side, from the garden on the east side of the churchyard to Cunnigar bank, with a roadway 22 feet wide, and sufficient openings with sluices at the bottom to discharge the surface and spring water when the tides are out. It is also proposed to cut a canal from the river Brickey, near Two-mile bridge, through the low grounds of Killongford, and along the southern verge of the back strand, for the purpose of discharging into the outer bay the waters of the Brickey, and the streams that flow into it from the hills on the south, and, by constructing a lock at the eastern end of the canal, of continuing the navigation for sand and other boats to Ballyharraghan, Killongford, and Two-mile bridge, as at present; the low parts of the Cunnigar bank, over which the waves are drifted in high tides by strong easterly and south-easterly winds, will be secured by an embankment of dry stone. The estimated expense of carrying these works into effect is £14,621. 9. 9.; and the quantity of land that would be thus reclaimed, 1234 acres, of which, by an additional expenditure of £1500 for draining and enclosing it, 1007 acres would be fit for cultivation. The causeway, among other advantages, would afford a short and easy passage to the fine bathing strand of the Cunnigar, and thus render the town, from the superior accommodation it would afford for sea-bathing, the beautiful scenery in its vicinity, and the excellence of the roads in every direction, the best-frequented watering-place on this part of the coast. Its situation is peculiarly healthy, from the constant current of air blowing or passing near it, caused by the parallelism of two chains of mountains running nearly east and west, and leaving between them a valley in which the town lies considerably protected from the north winds; in consequence, the cases of sickness are very few compared with the population. The market days are Wednesday and Saturday, chiefly for corn and provisions; and fairs are held on Feb. 7th, June 22nd, Aug. 27th, and Nov. 8th. The market-places for the sale of meat and fish were erected at the expense of the Duke of Devonshire. A chief constabulary police station has been established here.

By charter of James I. the parish of St. Mary, and that of Nugent within the ancient liberties, were erected into the Borough of Dungarvan : the corporation consisted of a sovereign and twelve brethren or free burgesses, with a recorder, town-clerk, and three serjeants-at-mace, of whom one was also water-bailiff; and the borough was invested with powers and privileges nearly equal to those of any city or borough in the kingdom, which were exercised for a considerable time, till the corporation at length fell into decay. The bounds of the manor, though irregular and even uncertain, comprise an area of about 10,000 statute acres and a population of 11,858, including nearly the whole of the parish of Dungarvan East and West, together with Kilrush, and the townland of Ballyharraghan in the parish of Ringagonagh; the townlands of Knockampoor, Canty, and Ballymullalla, though entirely detached from the rest of the manor, form also part of it, while several lands much nearer the town and some wholly surrounded by the manor do not belong to it. A seneschal is appointed by the Duke of Devonshire, with power to hold a court every three weeks, for the recovery of small debts. Previously to the Union, the borough returned two members to the Irish parliament, and since that period has sent one member to the Imperial parliament. The elective franchise, vested by the charter of James I. in the sovereign and burgesses, has, since the corporation fell into disuse, been exercised by the inhabitants of the town occupying houses of the yearly rent of £5, and by the freeholders of the manor, the seneschal being the returning officer. The commissioners appointed to settle the boundaries of boroughs proposed a boundary closely encircling the town, and also to raise the household qualification to £10 : but a select committee subsequently determined that, as all £5 householders throughout the manor were then entitled to vote, the limits of the franchise should be so far restricted only as to exclude some of its widely detached portions, and to include some small portions of land locally within its limits, though not previously forming any part of it. The total number of electors registered up to 1835 was 620, of whom 30 were freeholders above £10, 300 forty-shilling freeholders, and 200 £10 and 90 £5 householders; about 120 are supposed to have since died. The, quarter sessions of the peace for the western division of the county are held here in January, April, and October; and petty sessions are held every Thursday. It is now under the consideration of the privy council to make Dungarvan the assize town, as being in the centre of the county. The county sessions-house is a neat and well arranged building, at the entrance into the town from the bridge; and attached to it is a bridewell, containing ten cells, two day-rooms, and two airing-yards.

The parish is divided by the inlet on which the town is situated into East and West Dungarvan, of which the former comprises the more ancient parishes of Abbeyside and Ballinrode or Nugent's. On the south-east side of the channel the sea has made great encroachments. Limestone and large masses of conglomerate, or pudding-stone, are found in abundance; of the former, considerable quantities are sent in boats from Ballinacourty to Bonmahon, Stradbally, and other places along the coast. The finest view is obtained from the summit of Cushcam, on the north-east, from which are seen the castle of Clonea, the ruins of a church, and a widely extended strand, beyond which are the improvements of Clonkoskoran, and in the distance the town of Dungarvan, with its various towers as if rising from the sea. In the neighbourhood are Ballinacourty, the residence of R. Longan, Esq., commanding a fine view of the harbour and of the bay; Bay View, of R. B. H. Low, Esq.; Duckspool, of J. M. Galwey, Esq.; Tournore, of B. Boate, Esq.; Moonrudh, of the Rev. S. Dickson, vicar of the parish, a modern edifice; and the Hermitage, of W. H. Barron, Esq.; all situated on the south-eastern side of the harbour, and commanding fine marine views. On the opposite side of the bay is the marine villa of the Rt. Hon. H. Villiers Stuart, lieutenant of the county. Clonkoskoran, the seat of Lady Nugent Humble, is beautifully situated among thriving plantations, near the mail coach road from Dungarvan to Waterford, about two miles from the town; Springmount, to the west of the town, is the pleasant residence of T. E. Keily, Esq.; and in the same direction is Coolnagower, the residence of W. Giles, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Lismore, and in the patronage of the Duke of Devonshire, in whom the rectory is impropriate: the tithes amount to £1337. 12. 3., of which £891.14.10. is payable to the impropriator, and £445. 17. 5. to the vicar. The glebe comprises about 13 acres and a few houses and gardens in the town. The church is a handsome structure of hewn stone, with a tower, erected in 1831 by a loan of £800 from the late Board of First Fruits, and occupies a site commanding a fine view over the harbour and the bay. In the Roman Catholic divisions the parish is divided into West and East Dungarvan. In the former is the new R. C. chapel, dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin : it occupies a commanding site on the south side of the town, given by the Duke of Devonshire, who has also at various times contributed nearly £1500 towards its erection; the remainder of the expense was defrayed by a collection made in London by the Rev. P. Fogarty, and divers other contributions. It is in the later English style of architecture : the roof is finely groined and supported on ranges of lofty and well-proportioned columns; the building is lighted by 14 windows of ample dimensions, and it is intended to open a large east window of stained glass; at the west end will be erected a lofty tower, under which will be the principal entrance, and over it a place has been reserved for an organ; the altar is elaborately grand : this large and handsome chapel has been erected from the designs and under the superintendence of Geo. Payne, Esq., architect, of Cork. In the East division there are two chapels, one at Abbeyside, the other at Ballinroad.

Here is a convent of the order of the Presentation, in which are 16 nuns, who employ themselves in the gratuitous instruction of poor female children; and there is a chapel belonging to friars of the order of St. Augustine, the duties of which are performed by two friars, who derive their support from voluntary donations and collections at the chapel gate. A school for boys and another for girls are partly supported by the interest of a bequest of £2000 from the late Pierse Barron, Esq., out of which also the school-house was built. The girls' school is under the superintendence of the ladies of the convent, and the boys' school under that of the " Brethren of the Christian Schools," who have a residence at Shandon, adjoining the town : a branch of the boys' school is held at Shandon school-house. A new school-house has been erected at an expense of £1200, of which £100 was contributed by the Duke of Devonshire, and the remainder was defrayed by its founder, the Very Rev. Dr. Foran, P. P.; it stands on an eminence commanding an extensive and beautiful view, and is a very spacious edifice, capable of conveniently accommodating 800 boys. There is also a school for which a school-house was given by John Odell, Esq., who allows the master a salary of £12. 12. per annum. About 1050 children are educated in the public schools, and 550 in eleven private schools. Here are a fever hospital and a dispensary, towards which the Duke of Devonshire and the Marquess of Waterford contribute largely.

There are some interesting remains of the ancient castle, and of the walls and defences of the town; the former are those of a massive keep in a quadrilateral area, surmounted with a wall defended by a circular tower at each angle, and formerly mounted with cannon; the entrance is by a narrow passage under a tower gateway, flanked by circular bastions, and within the enclosure are the modern barracks. Some of the towers of the town walls are still remaining in connection with modern buildings; and to the west of the town is Cromwell's mount, supposed to have been thrown up by his forces while besieging the town. In the Abbeyside division are the ruins of a lofty square castle, of which nothing more is known than that it was anciently the property of the McGraths. There are no traces of the abbey founded by St. Garvan, but nearly adjacent to the last-named castle are the ruins of a religious house founded in the 13th century for Augustinian friars, probably by the McGraths, who, with the O'Briens of Cummeragh, were its chief benefactors. The remains form an interesting pile; the walls, windows, and arches are still entire : the old conventual church consists of a narrow nave and chancel connected by anarch of elegant design supporting a light and enriched tower, 60 feet high and still in good preservation; the entrance, at the west end, is by a small pointed doorway, and a large east window admits a fine view of the sea; below the window is a tombstone of Donald McGrath, dated 1400; on the foundation of some of the ancient cells the R. C. chapel of Abbeyside has been erected, the bell of which hangs in the old tower, and the walls and entrances of the ancient abbey are preserved in good order. An hospital for lepers, dedicated to St. Bridget, was also founded here, but nothing further has been recorded of it. At Two-mile bridge is a powerful chalybeate spa, which has its origin in the summit of a neighbouring mountain, from a basin containing a considerable portion of iron ore; thence it percolates the earth and, after a course of about four miles, issues out at the foot of the mountain; it has been found to contain, on analysis, as much carbonate of iron as the strongest chalybeate spas of Cheltenham and Leamington. At Shandon are two caves in the limestone rock, one on the sea shore, about 40 feet square, with a long passage leading to inner apartments; the other is in the middle of a plain field, near the river Colligan; in both are stalactites. To the west of the town is a large barrow, surrounded by a fosse. Dungarvan gives the inferior title of Viscount to the Earl of Cork and Orrery.

DUNGIVEN, a market and post-town, and a parish, in the barony of KENAUGHT, county of DERRY, and province of ULSTER, 16 miles (E. S. E.) from Londonderry, and 138 1/4 (N. N. W.) from Dublin; containing 3565 inhabitants, of which number, 1162 are in the town. This place was a seat of the O'Cahans, and was called Dun-y-even, or Doon-yeven; and here, on the summit of a rock, on the eastern bank of the Roe, Domnach O'Cahan, or O'Cathan, founded, in 1100, an abbey for Augustinian canons, which, being shortly afterwards polluted by a cruel massacre, lay for a long time in ruins, but was restored with much solemnity by the Archbishop of Armagh, and flourished till the dissolution, after which the lands were granted to the Irish Society, and are now in the possession of the Skinners' Company. It is situated on the road between Londonderry and Dublin, and on the banks of the river Roe; and comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 30,367 1/2 statute acres, one-third of which is mountain, everywhere affording excellent pasturage. The land around the town is fertile and well cultivated; even the mountain Benbradagh, 1,530 feet above the level of the sea, is chiefly under tillage; and Carntogher, Moneyneiney, Carn, and other mountains, all Very high, afford turbary and sufficient pasturage for vast herds of cattle : grouse and other game abound in the higher parts. The town is in a vale, near the junction of the Owen-reagh and the Owen-beg, which descend in nearly parallel lines from Glenfin and Cairnaban, with the Roe, here crossed by a handsome bridge of freestone : it consists of one long street, intersected by two shorter; some of the houses are well built, but the greater number are low and only thatched. Formerly there were four extensive bleach-greens; they are now unemployed, and the manufacture is limited to a small quantity woven by the inhabitants in their own houses. A large market is held every Tuesday; the market-house is extensive, and there are stores for grain, &c.; considerable fairs are held on the second Tuesday in each month, except May and October, when they take place on the 25th. A court for the manor of Pellipar is held in the court-house at Dungiven, every third Thursday, for the recovery of debts under 40s.; its jurisdiction extends into the parishes of Dungiven, Banagher, Ballynascreen, and Upper and Lower Cumber. Petty sessions are likewise held monthly in the court-house. Here is a constabulary police station; adjoining the market-house is the barrack store. The gentlemen's residences are Pellipar House, that of R. Ogilby, Esq.; the Cottage, of R. Leslie Ogilby, Esq.; and Roe Lodge, of M. King, Esq.

The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Derry, and in the patronage of the impropriator, Robert Ogilby, Esq., lessee of the manor of Pellipar under the Skinners' Company, to whom the entire tithes, amounting to £480. 14. 8., are payable; it is usually held in connection with Banagher. The glebe townland of Tirmeal comprises 654a. 2r. 17., of which 89 are mountain and bog. The church is a commodious cruciform edifice of hewn freestone, built in 1817 (on the site of a former one erected in 1711), at a cost of £1460, of which £1200 was a loan from the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divisions this parish is the head of a union or district, comprising Dungiven and parts of Banaglier and Bovevagh; the chapel is a large building in the town. At Scriggan is a Presbyterian meeting-house, in connection with the Synod of Ulster; and one is in course of erection at Dungiven, in connection with the Seceding Synod. The male and female parochial schools are situated on the glebe of Tirmeal, and are aided by the vicar, who also contributes principally to the support of a school at Gortnacross; a school at Ballymacallion is endowed with an acre of land by the Marquess of Water-ford; and in the town are a school built and supported by R. Ogilby, Esq., and a female work school supported by the vicar and his lady. In these schools about 190 boys and 90 girls are taught; and there are five private schools, in which are about 200 boys and 80 girls, and four Sunday schools. An excellent dispensary is supported in the usual manner. The interesting remains of the abbey church occupy a remarkably picturesque situation, on a rock 200 feet in perpendicular height above the river Roe; they consist of the side walls of the nave and chancel, which are nearly entire, with the gable of the latter, in which, within a circular arch resting on corbels and cylindrical pillars, are two narrow lancet-shaped windows, with a niche on each side and a square-headed window above. The nave is separated from the chancel by a lofty circular arch, and has on the north side a low doorway of corresponding style; it was lighted by a window ornamented with tracery, in good preservation. Under a beautifully ornamented arch in the chancel is an altar-tomb, bearing a recumbent effigy of an armed warrior, said to be one of the O'Cahans; the stones in front are ornamented with figures of armed knights, sculptured in relief, in niches. The remains of the abbey have from time to time been removed, and the capitals, pillars, mullions, &c., may be seen in the churchyard, forming boundaries round the graves or head-stones. Adjoining the town are extensive ruins of a castle and bawn, built in 1618, by the Skinners' Company. A ' lofty stone stands near the old church, set up as the record of an ecclesiastical assembly held here in 590, at which St. Columbkill was present. Near the river Roe is Tubber-Phadrig, or St. Patrick's fountain; and a single stone, in the bed of the river, exists, around which the people assemble on certain days. There are many raths or forts in different parts of the parish : celts of stone and bronze, spear-heads, and Roman coins and other antiquities have been discovered, and are in the possession of R. L. Ogilby and M. Ross, Esqrs.

DUNGLOE, or CLOGHANLEA, a post-town, in the parish of TEMPLECROAN, barony of BOYLAGH, county of DONEGAL, and province of ULSTER, 19 1/2 miles (N.) from Ardara, and 154 (N. W.) from Dublin, on the north-west coast: the population is returned with the parish. Here are a market-house, constabulary police station, and dispensary; also the parochial church, and R. C, chapel. The post-office is subject to that at Ardara. Petty sessions are held on the first Tuesday in each month.

DUNGOURNEY, a parish, partly in the barony of IMOKILLY, but chiefly in that of BARRYMORE, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 4 1/2 miles (N.) from Castlemartyr, on the road from Cork to Youghal; containing 2640 inhabitants. This parish comprises 8991 statute acres, of which 5925 are applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £4529 per annum; about 70 acres are woodland, nearly one-fourth of the land is waste, and the remainder is arable and pasture. The soil is generally good, but the system of agriculture is in an unimproved state; there are some quarries of common red stone, which is worked for various purposes, and there is a moderate supply of turf for fuel. The Dungourney river rises in the neighbouring hills of Clonmult, and flows through a deep glen in the parish, assuming near the church a very romantic appearance, and towards the southern boundary adding much beauty to the highly cultivated and richly wooded demesne of Brookdale, the seat of A. Ormsby, Esq. The other seats are Ballynona, that of R. Wigmore, Esq.; Ballynona Cottage, of H. Wigmore, Esq.; and Young Grove, of C. Foulke, Esq. An agricultural school, in connection with the Protestant Agricultural Society of Cork, has been established at Brookdale, under the patronage of Mr. Ormsby, for the instruction of 30 boys in the practical knowledge of agriculture, combined with a useful and religious education, and including board and clothing; the institution is maintained by a payment of £5 per annum from each of the scholars, and the produce of the farm, aided by donations and subscriptions; when qualified to become useful, the scholars are provided with situations by the Committee, and receive a gratuity of £5. There is also a female school on the same principle, in which 35 girls are boarded, clothed, and educated, under the personal superintendence of Mrs. Ormsby; on leaving the institution they are provided with situations. The buildings for both these establishments have cost more than £1000. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Cloyne, and in the patronage of Major Fitzgerald : the tithes amount to £664. 12. 3 1/2. The glebe-house is a good residence, and the glebe comprises 12 acres. The church, a plain building with a shingled spire, was erected by a gift of £500 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1800, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £119 for its repair. Attached to Brookdale House is a private chapel, in which a clergyman of the Established Church officiates. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union of Imogealy, or Castlemartyr. There is a private school, in which are about 170 children.

DUNHILL, or DON ISLE, anciently called DON-DRONE, a parish, in the barony of MIDDLETHIRD, county of WATERFORD, and province of MUNSTER, 8 miles (S.E.) from Kilmacthomas; containing 2128 inhabitants. It is situated on St. George's channel, and comprises 6115 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The high lands are principally composed of pudding-stone and clay-slate, with large masses of jasper, some of which is very beautiful. The village of Annestown has a few lodging-houses for the accommodation of visitors in the bathing season. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Lismore, united to the vicarages of Guilcagh and Newcastle, and in the gift of the Corporation of Waterford, in which the rectory is impropriate. The tithes amount to £210, of which £110 is payable to the impropriators, and £100 to the vicar; and the vicarial tithes of the union are £194. The glebe comprises above 6 acres. The church at Annestown was rebuilt in 1822, by aid of a gift of £900 from the late Board of First Fruits; and there is a chapel of ease at Guilcagh. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, and has a commodious chapel. The most remarkable ruin is Don Isle or Donhill castle, which was a principal seat of a branch of the La Poers, and was taken by Cromwell's army, after an obstinate defence made by a female proprietor, who was called Countess of Don Isle. Near it are the ruins of the church, against one of the walls of which stood a statue with a coronet, which has lately been placed in front of the R. C. chapel. In its vicinity is a cromlech of silicious slate.

DUNISKY, a parish, in the barony of WEST MUSKERRY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (S. S. E.) from Macroom; containing 479 inhabitants. This is a very small parish, comprising only one ploughland, situated on the south bank of the river Lee, near Warrens-court. The land is good, and the substratum consists entirely of clay-slate. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Cork, being part of the union of St. Peter's, Cork, and of the corps of the archdeaconry : the tithes, amount to £107. There being no church, the parishioners attend divine service at Canaway. The ruins of the old church are a mile and a half north of Warrens-court, on rising ground, and show it to have been a small building. In the R. C. divisions the parish is part of the union or district of Kilmichael.

DUNKANELY, a village, in the parish of KILLAGH-TEE, barony of BANNAGH, county of DONEGAL, and province of ULSTER, 9 miles (W.) from Donegal, near Inver bay, and on the road from Killybegs to Donegal: the population is returned with the parish. In 1618 this place was a settlement of ten British families, having a territory of 1500 acres, a bawn of lime and stone, and a castle, and able to muster 50 men at arms. It consists of one street, has a penny post to Donegal, a dispensary, a place of worship for Methodists, and a public school. Twelve fairs are held in the course of the year for farming stock, and a manor court monthly for the recovery of debts under £3. In the village are the ruins of the old parish church, and in the immediate vicinity is the present church. Half a mile to the west are the ruins of Castle Mac-Swine, occupying a point of land little broader than its foundation, which projects some yards into the sea at the head of Mac-Swine's bay. --See KILLAGHTEE.

DUNKERRIN, a parish, in the barony of CLONLISK, KING'S county, and province of LEINSTER, 4 1/2 miles (S. W. by W.) from Roscrea, on the main road from Dublin to Limerick; containing 2177 inhabitants; of which number, 127 are in the village. This parish is situated on the confines of the county of Tipperary, by. which it is bounded on the east, and comprises 6515 statute acres; of which a considerable portion is bog and waste mountain land. Fairs are held on May 9th, Nov. 3rd, and Dec. 21st; and petty sessions at Shinrone every Tuesday. The village is on the estate of the Rolleston family, whose seat, Franckfort Castle, is contiguous; it is an ancient structure, defended by a regular fortification and fosse. Busherstown is the seat of G. Minchin, Esq.; Newgrove, of Westropp Smith, Esq.; Lisduff, of W. Smith, Esq.; Clyduffe, of T. Spunner, Esq.; Annegrove, of the Rev.W. Minchin; and the Glebe-house, of the Rev. Dr. Hawkins, Dean of Clonfert. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Killaloe, forming the head of the union of Dunkerrin, Castletown-Ely, Rathnaveoge, and Finglass, and in the patronage of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £496. 15. 4 3/4., and of the entire benefice to £923. 1. 6. There is a glebe-house, with three glebes in the union, comprising altogether 86a. 2r. 30p. The church is a handsome modern structure, erected in 1818, by aid of a loan of £1200 from the late Board of First Fruits. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising Dunkerrin, Cullenwayne, and Castletown-Ely, in which are chapels at Dunkerrin and Barna. About 80 children are educated in three private schools. Near Dunkerrin is the old castle of Rathnaveoge, and Ballynakill castle, formerly the residence of the Minchin family.

DUNKITT, a parish, in the barony of IDA, county of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 4 miles (N. by W.) from Waterford, on the road to Thomastown; containing 2637 inhabitants. This parish is situated near the river Suir, with which it communicates by the Dunkitt pill, and comprises 6267 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The land is generally good, and is based on a stratum of limestone, of which great quantities are quarried chiefly for exportation to the county of Wexford by the river Suir, from which the pill is navigable to the quarries. The principal seats are Mullinabro, that of J. Hawtrey Jones, Esq.; Greenville, of A. Fleming, Esq.; and Bishop's Hall, of Simon Blackmore, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, united by act of council, at a period unknown, to the vicarages of Kilcollum and Gaulskill, and in the patronage of the Crown; the rectory is impropriate in the family of Boyd. The tithes amount to £553.16. 11 1/2. of which £369. 4. 7 1/2. is payable to the impropriators, and £184. 12. 4. to the vicar; and the vicarial tithes of the union amount to £519. 12. 3 3/4. The glebe-house was built by a gift of £200, and a loan of £600 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1817, and the glebe comprises 23 3/4 acres. The church of the union is at Gaul-skill. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union of Kilmacow; the chapel is at Bigwood. About 100 children are taught in a public school, and there are two private schools, in which are about the same number.

DUNLAVAN, a market and post-town, and a parish, partly in the barony of UPPERCROSS, county of DUBLIN, but chiefly in the lower half-barony of TALBOTSTOWN, county of WICKLOW, and province of LEINSTER, 7 1/2 miles (N.) from Baltinglass, and 21 (S. W.) from Dublin, on the old road from Blessington to Timolin; containing 2528 inhabitants, of which number, 1068 are in the town. This place is situated on the confines of the counties of Wicklow, Dublin, and Kildare. The town, which is the property of the Tynte family, is built on an eminence surrounded by higher grounds, and consists of two streets, one of which branches off at right angles from the centre of the other. It contains about 180 houses, of which several are well built, is amply supplied with water from springs, and is considered a healthy place of residence. The market, chiefly for corn and potatoes, is on Wednesday; and fairs for cattle are held on March 1st, May 19th, the second Friday in July, Aug. 21st, the third Tuesday in October, and Dec. 1st. The market-house, in the centre of the principal street, and said to have been erected at an expense of £1200, by the Rt. Hon. R. Tynte, was, in 1835, thoroughly repaired, and one end of it fitted up as a court-house, by Lady Tynte; it is a handsome building of hewn stone, with four projecting porticoes, and crowned in the centre by a dome. During the disturbances of 1798, it was fortified and garrisoned for the protection of many families that fled to this town from the insurgents, who were in the neighbourhood. A chief constabulary police force has been stationed in the town, and petty sessions are held on alternate Wednesdays.

The parish comprises 6565 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act; the lands are chiefly under tillage; the soil is fertile, and the system of agriculture is improving. There is very little waste land, and scarcely any bog. Some quarries of stone and slate are worked chiefly for building, but both are of inferior quality. A splendid mansion and out-offices have been lately built at a very great expense by Lady Tynte, on part of the estate called Loughmogue, now Tynte Park; and her grandson and heir, Mr. Tynte, who resides with her, has considerably improved the grounds by planting and fencing. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Dublin and Glendalough, united episcopally and by act of council to the rectory and vicarage of Uske and the vicarages of Rathsallagh and Friendstown, and, in 1833, by act of council, to the curacy of Tubber, together constituting the union and the corps of the prebend of Dunlavan in the cathedral church of St. Patrick, in the patronage of the Archbishop. It appears, from a terrier in the registry, that anciently the vicarage was endowed with one-third of the tithes, but since 1732 the vicarage and prebend have been held together. The tithes amount to £340. 9. 10 1/2., and of the whole benefice to £472. 0. 9 1/2. The glebe-house was built by a gift of £100, and a loan of £900 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1812; the glebe comprises 18 acres. The church, a neat edifice in the later English style, was erected in 1816, by a loan of £1300 from the same Board, and enlarged in 1835, by a grant of £460 from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union, comprising also the parishes of Donard and Donaghmore; the chapel is a neat cruciform edifice, erected on a site presented by Lady Tynte Caldwell, and her daughter Elizabeth, as appears from a tablet over the entrance; there are chapels also at Donard and Donagh-more. About 130 children are taught in two public schools, of which one is supported by Mrs. Pennefather; and there are six private schools, in which are about 230 children, a Sunday school, and a dispensary. Mr. Powell, of Tubber, about 40 years since, bequeathed £200, directing the interest to be appropriated to the apprenticing of one Protestant child of this parish, and one of the parish of Tubber; but payment has of late been withheld. On the townland of Tomant are two Danish raths, commanding extensive views, and an ancient churchyard, near which is a well, supposed to be efficacious in various disorders, but probably owes its celebrity to its being only a fine cold spring; there is also a rath at Milltown. Dean Swift was for some time incumbent of this parish.

DUNLEARY, county of DUBLIN. --See KINGSTOWN.

DUNLECKNEY, a parish, in the barony of IDRONE EAST, county of CARLOW, and province of LEINSTER, on the road from Carlow to Burris; containing, with the post-town of Bagenalstown, 4217 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the river Barrow, was anciently the seat of the Kavanaghs, Kings of Leinster; and in 1300 a preceptory of Knights Templars was founded here, which continued only till 1308, when it was suppressed. It was also the residence of the Bagenal family from the 16th to the 18th century, and is at present the property of Walter Newton, Esq. In 1545, a battle took place at Ballynakill, near Garry hill, in this parish, between the Kavanaghs of the latter place and those of Polmonty, in which, after 100 on each side were slain, the former were victorious and secured possession of the territory which was the object of their contention. The parish comprises 7751 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act; the land is good and the system of agriculture in an improved state. Limestone abounds and is quarried for agricultural purposes, and there are quarries of fine granite, which is used for building : the Barrow is navigable to Waterford. The principal seats are Dunleckney, that of W. Newton, Esq.; Bagenalstown House, of Miss Newton; Garry Hill House, of Viscount Duncannon; the Lodge, of Mrs. Weld; Rathwade House, of B. B. Norton, Esq.; Lodge Mills, of S. Crosthwaite, Esq.; and Clonburrin, of W. B. Cooke, Esq. The manufacture of starch is carried on, and there is an extensive malting concern in the parish belonging to Mr. Crosthwaite; fairs and petty sessions are held at Bagenalstown. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Leighlin, united in 1795 to that of Agha, and in the patronage of A. Weldon, Esq., who is impropriator of the rectory. The tithes amount to £830. 15. 4 1/2., of which £553. 16. 11. is payable to the impropriator, and £276. 18. 5 1/2. to the vicar; and the vicarial tithes of the union, to £415. 7. 8 1/4. The glebe-house is a neat residence; the glebe comprises 10 acres. The church is a small edifice, and has been recently repaired. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district called Bagenalstown, comprising also part of the parishes of Agha, Fenagh, and Slyguff. The chapel, a handsome edifice lately erected at an expense of £2000, is situated at Bagenalstown; and there are chapels also at Newtown and Ballinkillen, and places of worship for Wesleyan Methodists and Walkerites. The parochial school-house, a neat building in the Grecian style, is in Bagenalstown, where also is a handsome court-house in the same style, lately erected at the expense of Philip Bagenal, Esq., in which quarter sessions are held at the usual periods. Besides the parochial school, there are two private schools in the town. The side walls and gables of the old parish church are still remaining in the churchyard; the interior was lighted by narrow lancet-shaped windows. At Ballymoon are the ruins of the castle of the preceptory of the Knights Templars; the walls, which are 8 feet in thickness and 30 in height, enclose a square of 130 feet, flanked by four square towers, and having a gateway entrance on the west side. --See BAGNALSTOWN.

DUNLEER, a post-town and parish (formerly a parliamentary borough), in the barony of FERRARD, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 10 miles (S. E.) from Dundalk, and 30 (N.) from Dublin, on the great north road to Belfast; containing 1603 inhabitants, of which number, 710 are in the town. This place appears to have been first brought into notice by its proprietor, Geo. Legge, Esq., ancestor of the Dartmouth family, to whom Charles II., in 1671, granted a market and fairs; and on whose petition, for the greater encouragement of settlers, the same monarch, in 1678, incorporated the inhabitants by charter, vesting the government in a sovereign, 12 burgesses, and an indefinite number of freemen. The sovereign, who with his deputy was a justice of the peace and coroner for the borough, was annually elected, subject to the approval of the lord of the manor, from the burgesses, who also filled up vacancies in their own body, and by a majority of whom the freemen were admitted by favour, , and a recorder and town-clerk and all other corporate officers were appointed. The corporation returned two members to the Irish parliament till the Union, when the borough was disfranchised, and the £15,000 awarded as compensation was paid in equal moieties to the Right Hon. John Foster, speaker of the Irish House of Commons, and to Henry Coddington, Esq. From the Union till the year 1811 a sovereign was regularly elected, but since that period no election has taken place, and the corporation is now virtually extinct. The town contains 130 houses indifferently built, and is the property of Rodolph de Sails, Esq. The market has been long discontinued, but fairs are held under the charter on July 5th, Dec. 11th, May 14th, and Sept. 19th, and other fairs toll-free on Jan. 6th, Feb. 1st, March 9th, April 1st, June 9th, Aug. 11th, and Nov. 1st. A chief constabulary police force is stationed in the town. The parish, according to the Ordnance survey, comprises 2378 3/4 statute acres. The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Armagh, united by act of council, in 1682, to the rectories of Dysart, Cappog, Monasterboyce, and Moylary, and to the vicarage of Drumcar, and in the patronage of the Crown. The. tithes amount to £153. 12. 3., and of the whole benefice to £741. 11. 7. The glebe-house was built by a gift of £100 and a loan of £1125 from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises 20 1/4 acres, of which 19 1/4 are subject to a rent of £3 per acre. The church has been recently enlarged and repaired, at an expense of £300 granted by the same Board. In the R. C. divisions the parish is the head of a union or district, comprising also the parishes of Cappog, Mosstown, Dromin, and Richardstown, and part of the parish of Kildemock; the chapel is a neat edifice, and there are chapels also at Dromin and Moss-town. About 50 children are taught in the parochial school, which is supported by the rector and curate; an infants' school is supported by subscription; and a handsome school-house has been built in connection with the New Board of Education. There is also a private school, in which are about 80 children; and a dispensary. The horn of a large moose deer was found some years since near the town.

DUNLOE GAP. --See KNOCKANE, county of KERRY.

DUNLOST, a chapelry, in the barony of KILKEA and MOONE, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 3 miles (S. S. E.) from Athy, near the river Barrow; the population is returned with Dunbrea. It forms part of the union of Athy, in the diocese of Dublin.

DUNLOY. --See FINVOY.

DUNLUCE, or DOONLISS, a parish, in the barony of LOWER DUNLUCE, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER, 6 miles (N. N. E.) from Coleraine, on the road to the Giants' Causeway; containing 3605 inhabitants. This parish, which gives name to the barony, was anciently called Portramon, and distinguished as the residence of the celebrated chieftain Mac Quillan, who was lord of a castle of which the original foundation is not precisely known. Mac Quillan, who was brave, hospitable, and improvident, unwarily suffered the Scots around him to increase in strength, till at length they expelled him from all his possessions; and Sorley Boy, brother of James Mac Donnell, having obtained possession of the district called the Glynnes, made himself master also of this place. But Sir John Perrot, the English lord-deputy, assaulted the intruder, and, after a vigorous resistance, drove him from the castle, in which he placed Sir Peter Carey, whom he thought to be a man of the English pale, as governor, with a garrison of fourteen soldiers. Sir Peter, who was in reality one of the Carews of the north, brought around him some of his own country and kindred, and unknown to the deputy discharged the English soldiers; two of his garrison, however, confederating with the party of Mac Donnell, drew up fifty of them by night into the castle, and these having taken possession "of the fortress by surprise, attacked and slew the governor and a few of his companions. On this event, which took place in 1585, the lord-deputy despatched to the assault of the castle an officer named Merriman, who slew the two sons of James Mac Donnell, and Alexander, the son of Sorley Boy, and so harassed the latter by driving away the vast herds of cattle which were his only wealth, that he surrendered Dunluce, and repaired to Dublin to make his submission, which was accepted; and on condition of his fidelity to the English crown, and payment of a tribute of cattle and hawks, he received a regrant of all his possessions, with the government of Dunluce castle. This family was afterwards ennobled by the title of Earl of Antrim; and in 1642, Gen. Monroe, commander of the Scottish army in Ulster, with a party of his forces, paid a friendly visit to the Earl, by whom he was hospitably received; but at the conclusion of the entertainment, Monroe gave the signal to his armed followers, who instantly made the Earl prisoner and seized the castle, and this act was followed soon afterwards by the seizure of all his possessions.

The parish, which is within a mile and a half of the Giants' Causeway, extends for a considerable distance along the coast, and, according to the Ordnance survey, comprises 9381 statute acres. The land is fertile and generally in the highest state of cultivation; the system of agriculture is in a very improved state; there is very little waste land, some excellent pasturage, and a bog of about 500 acres. Limestone abounds, and to the westward of Dunluce castle are the White Rocks lime-works, the most extensive in the North of Ireland. There are numerous quarries of basalt, and great quantities of flint are exported. Coal exists on the estate of John Montgomery, Esq., but no mines have yet been worked. The principal gentlemen's seats are Benvarden, that of J. Montgomery, Esq.; Seaport, of J. Leslie, Esq.; Bardyville, of Sir F. W. Macnaghten, Bart.; and the Cottage, of F. D. Ward, Esq. : there are also some elegant seabathing lodges at Ballintra. The manufacture of paper affords employment to 190 persons, who, with the aid of the most improved machinery, are engaged in making the finer kinds of paper for the English, Scotch, and home markets. A facility of conveyance for the produce of the quarries and limeworks, and for the various sorts of merchandise, is afforded by the small but commodious port of Ballintra. A fair is held annually on Nov. 12th, and petty sessions for the district every fortnight at Bushmills.

The living is a consolidated rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Connor, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £369. 4. 7. The glebe-house was built by a gift of £400 and a loan of £300 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1812; the glebe comprises 20 acres. The church, a handsome edifice, situated at the extremity of the parish, near Bushmills, was erected by aid of a gift of £900 and a loan of £300 from the same Board, in 1821, on the site of an ancient church, which was a ruin in 1625. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or parochial benefice of Ballymoney; the chapel near Bushmills is a very small edifice. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians in connection with the Synod of Ulster, of the second class. About SO children are taught in the public schools, of which the parochial school is chiefly supported by the rector, and a female school was built and endowed by Mrs. Montgomery. There are also three private schools, in which are about 160 children and four Sunday schools. A dispensary was established at Bushmills in 1830, for the parishes of Dunluce, Billy, and Dunseverick. A loan fund was established in 1828, for which purpose the late Hugh Montgomery, Esq., gave £100. The ruins of Dunluce castle are remarkable for their extent and picturesque appearance, especially when viewed from the shore immediately below; the fortified parts occupy the summit of a rock projecting into the sea, and separated from the adjacent cliffs by a deep chasm, over which is an arch forming the only entrance, defended on one side by a wall only 13 inches in thickness; there appears to have been a corresponding wall in a parallel direction with the former, which together were probably the parapets of the bridge. The domestic apartments and offices, of which the remains are extensive, were situated on the main land, and though at a distance appearing only as a massive rugged pile, upon a nearer approach display characteristics of architectural beauty. Underneath the castle is a natural cavern forming a noble apartment, the walls and roof of which are of rude basalt. Near the castle is a very large Danish camp. Splendid specimens of opal, jasper, and cornelian are found upon the shore. Dunluce gives the inferior title of Viscount to the Earls of Antrim.

DUNMACLOUGHY. --See ATHENRY.

DUNMANWAY, a market and post-town, in the parish of FANLOBBUS, Western Division of the barony of EAST CARBERY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 29 miles (S. W. by W.) from Cork, and 155 1/2 (S. W.) from Dublin, on the road from Cork to Bantry; containing 2738 inhabitants. This place, according to most authorities, derived its name, signifying " the castle of the yellow river," or " the castle on the little plain," from an ancient castle belonging to the McCarthys. The town is indebted for its origin to Sir Richard Cox, Lord Chancellor of Ireland in the reign of William. III., who obtained from that monarch the grant of a market and fairs, and erected a stately mansion for his own residence. Sir Richard also built the long bridge over the river Bandon, consisting of six arches, exclusively of four under the causeway, and introduced the linen manufacture, for which, under his auspices, this place became one of the principal marts, and the town, in which a colony from England had settled, one of the most flourishing in the south of Ireland. It occupies a level tract entirely surrounded on the north, west, and south by lofty hills, rocks, and mountains; and is open to the east, in which direction the river, after entering the vale to which it gives name, pursues its course between two lofty ridges diversified with tillage lands, woods, and lawns, intersected by several picturesque glens, and embellished with numerous elegant seats. It consists of one long street extending about half a mile to the west of the bridge, and in 1831 contained 419 houses, which, though indifferently built, are distinguished by an appearance of cleanliness and comfort: the post-office is subordinate to that of Bandon. Several new roads leading to the town have recently been opened, among which is a very fine and level line from Cork to Bantry. A reading-room was established in 1832, but not being generally supported it has declined. The manufacture of linen continued to flourish for some years, but at present there are very few looms at work. A porter and ale brewery, established in 1831, produces 2600 barrels annually; there are also two tanyards and two boulting-mills, the latter capable of grinding annually 15,000 bags of flour, and there are two or three smaller mills in the vicinity. Since 1810 a considerable trade in corn has been carried on. The market is on Tuesday; and fairs, chiefly for cattle, are held on May 4th, the first Tuesday in July (O. S.), Sept, 17th, and Nov. 26th. At the intersection of the principal street is a large building used as a market-house. Here is a constabulary police station; a manorial court for the recovery of debts not exceeding £2 is held every third Saturday, and petty sessions every second Monday. There is a small bridewell in the town for the temporary confinement of misdemeanants.

The church of Fanlobbus is a handsome edifice, erected in 1821, at an expense of £1100, by aid of a loan from the late Board of First Fruits; and a square tower has recently been added to it. There is a R. C. chapel in progress of erection, at an estimated expense of £2500; also a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. Near the R. C. chapel is a school, aided by the priest; and it is intended to establish a savings' bank and a branch of the Labourers' Friend Society : here is a dispensary. Of the stately mansion of Lord Chancellor Cox nothing remains but a part of the kitchen, now a weaver's cabin, with a fragment of the garden wall. Near the R. C. chapel is a chalybeate spring which is efficacious in cutaneous diseases; and not far distant is a small but very beautiful lake, in which Sir Richard Cox was drowned. There are several picturesque, waterfalls in the midst of some very romantic scenery, and in the mountains are the ruins of Toher castle.

DUNMOE, a parish, in the barony of MORGALLION, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (N. N. E.) from Navan, on the road to Slane; containing 112 inhabitants. The castle was built by Hugh de Lacy, and in 1641 was surrendered by Capt. Power to the insurgents, in obedience to a forged order from the Lords-Justices. It was partly rebuilt in the 17th century, and is an oblong massive pile, flanked with towers at the angles, now belonging to the D'Arcy family. The parish is in the diocese of Meath; it is a rectory, forming part of the union of Stackallen, and the tithes amount to £81. 10. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Slane.

DUNMORE, a market and post-town, and a parish, partly in the barony of HALF-BALLYMOE, but chiefly in that of DUNMORE, county of GALWAY, and province of CONNAUGHT, 7 1/4 miles (N. by E.) from Tuam, and 106 (W.) from Dublin; containing 10,705 inhabitants, of which number, 847 are in the town. St. Patrick built the monastery of Domnagh Padraig, or " the stone house of Patrick," here, and made St. Fulartach its superintendent; and a friary for Augustine Eremites was founded on the site of this abbey, in 1425, by Lord Athenry. The parish comprises 35,571 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and contains Quarry-mount, the seat of J. J. Bodkin, Esq.; and Carantrila, of W. H. Handcock, Esq. The market is on Thursday; and fairs are held on May 29th, July 10th, Oct. 10th, and Dec. 11th. It has a sub-post-office to Tuam, and is a constabulary police station. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Tuam, and in the patronage of the Crown : the tithes amount to £646. 3. 1. The glebe-house was built in 1815, by aid of a gift of £100 and a loan of £900, and has a glebe of five acres. The church is part of the ancient friary. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church, and has a small slated chapel. About 400 children are educated in two public, and 260 in eight private schools; there is also a Sunday school. Here are the ruins of a castle of the Birminghams. The Right Hon. Sir Gore Ouseley, Bart., formerly ambassador in Persia, and Sir William Ouseley, an eminent Oriental scholar, are natives of this place.

DUNMORE, a parish, in the county of the city of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 3 1/2 miles (N.) from Kilkenny, on the road to Durrow; containing 875 inhabitants. It comprises 2264 statute acres, and has a constabulary police station. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, united with the vicarages of Muckalee and Kilmodum, and in the patronage of the Crown; the rectory is impropriate in the Marquess of Ormonde. The tithes amount to £175. 3., of which £85. 3. is payable to the impropriator, and £90 to the vicar; the tithes of the union are £210. The glebe-house was erected in 1816, by aid of a gift of £350 and a loan of £450 from the late Board of First Fruits : the glebe comprises 22 acres. The church is a plain building, recently repaired by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, at an expense of £114. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Muckalee.

DUNMORE, or DUNMORE EAST, a sea-port and post-town, in the parish of KILLEA, barony of GAULTIER, county of WATERFORD, and province of MUNSTER, 9 miles (S. E.) from Waterford, and 84 3/4 (S. by E.) from Dublin; containing 631 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the western shore of Waterford haven, was originally a poor fishing village, consisting only of a few cabins built of clay, and thatched with straw; but since the improvement of its harbour by government, as a station for the post-office packets from Milford, it has grown into importance and become a fashionable bathing-place. The town is situated in a valley sloping gently towards the sea, and consists chiefly of thatched cottages, which are let to visiters during the season, and of which many are about to be rebuilt by the Marquess of Waterford, the principal proprietor, by whom various important improvements are contemplated, which will render it in every respect a desirable place of resort for sea-bathing. As seen from the sea it has a very pleasing appearance, presenting several neat white houses widely interspersed among richly cultivated fields, with the church on the road to the pier, and the ruins of an ancient church crowning the hill in the back ground. The plan for improving the harbour was projected in 1814, and the expense of carrying it into effect was estimated by the late Mr. Nimmo, under whose superintendence it was conducted, at £19,385; but from the necessary additions and subsequent improvements, that sum had, in 1821, amounted to £42,500, and in 1832 to £93,286; and it was then found that £15,000 more would be requisite to complete this important work, making a total expenditure of £108,286. The pier, which extends in a north-eastern direction for more than 700 feet, is defended by a breakwater, stretching from Dunmore Head more than 800 feet into the water, varying from four to six fathoms in depth, and presenting towards the sea an inclined plane paved with massive blocks of stone, which breaks the force of the waves before they reach the parapet of the pier, which has an elevation of 70 feet. The pier and quay are built of a silicious stone quarried in the neighbouring hills, and faced with a fine granite, which, after the exhaustion of these quarries, was brought from the county of Carlow. The basin comprises an area of six acres, and is sheltered by the Mole and Dunmore hill from the west and south-west winds, on the north-east by the promontory of Creden Head, and on the east by the peninsula of Hook; the depth at the entrance is 15 feet, and at the innermost part 8 feet at the lowest ebb. At the pier head is a lighthouse, displaying a red light towards the sea, and a bright light up the harbour, which is easily accessible, but it is gradually filling with sand, whence it is in contemplation to remove the mail packet station to the quay of Waterford, thus enabling the post-office to place a superior class of steamers on the line. This is now the station of the mail packets between England and the South of Ireland, and one of the four ports for British correspondence. There are four steamers, each of 80-horse power, on this station; the packet with the mail for Milford leaves Dunmore daily at 1/2 past 6 o'clock in the morning, and on the arrival of the packet from Milford, a coach conveys the mail and passengers to Waterford : the distance between the two ports is 80 miles. The fishery is still carried on here, in which three hookers of from 14 to 18 tons' burden are employed in the cod and ling fishery in the deep sea, and 30 yawls in the herring and in-shore fishery. Dun-more is also the pilot station for vessels making for Waterford harbour. The limits of the harbour by the 58th of George III., cap. 72, extend from Shanoon Point to Ardnamult Point; the duties of the Commissioners of this harbour have been annexed to the Board of Public Works. In the rocks in the bay of Dunmore is a fissure of no great extent, called the Cathedral, and to the west of it, near the promontory of Red Head, is another, called the Bishop's cave, 100 feet in length and 24 feet wide.

DUNMOYLAN, a parish, in the Shanid Division of the barony of LOWER CONNELLO, county of LIMERICK, and province of MUNSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S.) from Shanagolden, on the road to Newcastle; containing 1704 inhabitants. It comprises 1774 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The land is in general good, but for want of drainage is much damaged by surface water; the system of agriculture is in a backward state. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Limerick, forming part of the union of Castlerobert, or Robertstown; the rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Cork. The tithes amount to £235, of which two-thirds are payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Kilcoleman. There are three private schools, in which about 50 children are educated. Near the ruins of the old church is the doon, or fort, whence it derives its name.

DUNMURGHILL, a parish, in the barony of and OUGHTERANY, county of KILDARE, and province of LEINSTER, 6 1/2 miles (S. W.) from Maynooth; containing 234 inhabitants. It is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Kildare, entirely appropriate to the dean and chapter of the cathedral of St. Bridget: the tithes amount to £18. 15. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Maynooth.

DUNMURRY, a village, in that part of the parish of DRUMBEG which is in the barony of UPPER BELFAST, county of ANTRIM, and province of ULSTER, 3 1/2 miles (N. E.) from Lisburn, on the river Glenwater and the road from Belfast to Lisburn; containing 479 inhabitants. This place, which takes its name from two Danish forts, or raths, in its immediate vicinity, was formerly the parish of Ballygosh, which soon after the Reformation was annexed to that of Drumbeg. Its ancient name has been superseded by that of the village which has been recently erected, and which is beautifully situated in a sequestered and fertile vale, and remarkably neat. Over the Glenwater are two bridges, one at the village, an ancient structure, and the other, over which the Dublin road passes, a noble pile of two arches of freestone, quarried on the spot. The surrounding hills being richly planted add greatly to the beauty of the scenery, which is also embellished with several handsome seats, of which the principal are Seymour Hill, that of W. Charley, Esq.; Woodbourne, of M. Charley, Esq.; Dunmurry House, of W. Hunter, Esq.; Suffolk, of J. McCance, Esq.; Glenville, of W. McCance, Esq.; and Collin House, of W. Roberts, Esq.; besides others which are noticed in the account of the parish of Drum-beg, which see. In the village are some extensive flour-mills, worked partly by water and partly by steam, and attached to them are large stores for grain and malt-kilns. Near these is a large bleach-green, in which 14,000 pieces of fine linen are annually bleached; and at Glenburn, a little lower down upon the same stream, is another, in which 12.000 are annually finished. Quarries of freestone for building are wrought here; there are also quarries of basalt, which in the grounds of Glenburn consists of rude columnar masses with concave and convex joints, similar to those of the Giants' Causeway. Beneath the freestone are some thin strata of coal, which have never been worked. The church of Ballygosh has long since disappeared, and the rectorial tithes of the two townlands which constituted the parish were granted by James I. to Sir Arthur Chichester, and the vicarial tithes to the incumbent of Drumbeg, in the proportions of two-thirds and one-third respectively. There is a place of worship for Presbyterians, formerly in connection with the General, but now with the Remonstrant, Synod of Ulster. Closely adjoining the bridge was discovered, while quarrying the stone for its erection, a natural basaltic wall in a direction from north to south, composed of stones of different sizes and forms, and having in a striking degree the appearance of art. On Collin mountain, to the north-west of the village, is a very conspicuous cairn of considerable extent; it consists of small stones piled together in a conical form, and is now almost covered with green sward.

DUNMURRY, a parish, in the barony of EAST OPHALY, county of KILBAKE, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (N.) from Kildare, on the road to Rathangan; containing 155 inhabitants. This parish comprises 1054 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, which, excepting a few acres of common, are entirely arable. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Kildare, forming part of the union of Thomastown: the tithes amount to £75. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Kildare. Dunmurry House is the residence of E. J. Medlecott, Esq.

DUNQUIN --See DONQUIN.

DUNSANY, a parish, in the barony of SKRYNE, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 3/4 miles (N. W.) from Dunshaughlin, on the road from that place to Bective-bridge; containing 291 inhabitants. It comprises 899 statute acres, and contains a constabulary police station. The castle, which was erected in the 12th century, has been in the possession of the noble family of Plunkett at least since Sir Christopher Plunkett was created Lord Dunsany in 1461. It is incorporated with the modern castle, which is a very handsome Gothic building, containing some fine paintings and sculptures, and surrounded by a well planted demesne of more than 400 statute acres, within which is an ancient church where many members of the family have been interred. The parish is in the diocese of Meath, and is a rectory, forming part of the union of Taragh: the tithes amount to £60. In the R. C. divisions it is united with Killeen, Kilmessan, Assey, Treebly, Balsoon, and Scurloghstown, in which union or district are chapels at Dunsany and Kilmessan. About 200 children are educated in a school, for which Lord Dunsany allows a house and garden rent-free.

 

DUNSFORD, or DUNSPORT, a parish, in the barony of LECALE, county of DOWN, and province of ULSTER, 3 1/2 miles (E. S. E.) from Downpatrick; containing 1680 inhabitants. This parish, which is situated near the southern entrance to Strangford Lough, comprises, with Guns island, according to the Ordnance survey, 4239 statute acres, all under cultivation, except 40 acres of bog, and very fertile, much grain being exported from the stores at Ballyhornan, where small vessels land coal. Guns island lies off the coast, which is bold and rocky, and includes Killard Point. The parish is in the diocese of Down, and is a rectory, forming the corps of the prebend of Dunsford in the cathedral of the Holy Trinity, and in the patronage of the Bishop : the tithes amount to £382, of which £263 is payable to the incumbent and £139 to the impropriators. The church is a small plain edifice with a bell tower. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district comprising this parish and Ardglass, and contain.ing two chapels, of which the one for Dunsford is at Ballydock. About 350 children are educated in four public schools.

DUNSHAUGHLIN, a post-town and parish (formerly an incorporated town), in the barony of RATOATH, county of MEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 9 1/4 miles (S. S. E.) from Navan, and 13 3/4 (N. W.) from Dublin, on the road to Enniskillen; containing 1548 inhabitants, of which number, 913 are in the town. This place derives its name, signifying " Seachlan's Hill," and its origin, from St. Seachlan, nephew of St. Patrick, who founded a church or abbey here in the middle of the fifth century, which, after being sacked in 1026, and burnt in 1043, appears to have been destroyed by the sept of Hy Bruin in 1152. The provost and commonalty of the town of Dunshaghelyn were, in 1423, ordered to be at Trim with all their power for its defence. The parish comprises 7379 statute acres, of which about 200 are waste and bog, and the remainder arable and pasture land in nearly equal proportions. The town contains about 160 houses : it has fairs on June 11th and Dec. 10th, a dispensary, and is a constabulary police station. Petty sessions are held every fortnight and quarter sessions half-yearly in a neat court-house. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Meath, united to Rathregan, and in the patronage of the Crown, the tithes amount to £296, of which £26 is payable to the representatives of Col. Reynell, as lay impropriators of the townlands of Derks and Ballinlough : the gross value of the benefice is £436. The glebe-house, in Rathregan, was built by aid of a loan of £562, in 1822, from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises 23 acres. The church, which is in the town, was built in 1813, by aid of a loan of £700 from the same Board. In the R. C. divisions the parish is united with Colmolyn, in each of which is a chapel. There are two public schools in which are about 100 children, and a private school of about 25.

DUNTRILEAGUE. --See GALBALLY.

DUNURLIN, a parish, in the barony of CORKAGUINEY, county of KERRY, and province of MUNSTER, 6 miles (N. W.) from Dingle, on the west side of Smerwick harbour; containing 1997 inhabitants. In 1579, Saunders, the Pope's nuncio, with a party of 80 Spaniards and a few English and Irish catholics, landed here, and built a fort at Smerwick for their safety, expecting to be joined by the discontented Irish; but their ships were seized by Capt. Courtenay. In the following year a reinforcement of 700 Spaniards and Italians landed with arms for 5000 men, besides cannon, ammunition and money, and added some works to the fort, named by them "Fort del Or." The Earl of Ormonde marched directly against them, on which they retired to the fastness of Glanigalt; but finding the English not so powerful as they expected, 300 of them with their commander returned by night into the fort. The Lord-Deputy, with Captains Zouch and Raleigh, soon arriving with 800 men, and Sir William Winter at the same time returning to the coast with his fleet, the Spaniards were attacked both by sea and land, and after an arduous siege submitted at discretion. On being disarmed, all the Spaniards, except their commander and staff, were put to the sword; and the Irish who had joined them were hanged. The parish contains 5732 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, a large portion of which consists of coarse mountain pasture and bog. The portion under tillage is manured with seaweed, abundance of which is procured on the coast; and the state of agriculture is slowly improving. Some of the inhabitants are employed in fishing. Near the coast are three remarkable hills, called by sailors "the Three Sisters; " and between the harbour of Smerwick and Ferriter's creek is the low promontory called Dunurlin Head, forming the western point of Smerwick bay : it is situated 2 1/4 miles (E. N. E. 1/2E.) from Sybil Head, and the latter is 5 1/2 miles (N. E. by N.) from Dunmore Head. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, and in the gift of the Bishop: the tithes amount to £150; there is neither church, glebe-house, nor glebe. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Keel, which also comprises the parishes of Donquin, Kilquane, Kilmelchedor, and Marhyn, and contains the chapels of Boulteen and Carrig. About 40 children are taught in a public and about 25 in a private school Overlooking the little cove, called Ferriter's creek, are the remains of Castle Sybil, or Sybilla's castle, formerly belonging to the Ferriters, and said to have been built by a widow of that family; and on the north-west side of Smerwick harbour are the remains of the Spanish fortification of Fort del Or, which consisted of a curtain 60 feet in length, a ditch, and two bastions.

DURAS, a parish, in the barony of KILTARTAN, county of GALWAY, and province of CONNAUGHT, 16 miles (E. S. E.) from Galway : the population is returned with Kinvarra. This parish, which is situated on the bay of Galway, takes its name from a small fertile island close to the shore, which was granted by Cromwell to Major John Walcot, whose grandson sold it to Mr. French, from whom it descended in the female line to the Baron de Basterot, its present proprietor. A great portion is rocky and incapable of cultivation; but some of the land is very rich and produces excellent wheat. Limestone is abundant, and much is quarried for agricultural and other purposes. The late Mr. French raised embankments in several places to prevent the encroachment of the sea, and built a long bridge to connect the island with the main land; great improvements have also been made by bis successor. The principal seats are Duras Park, that of P. M. Lynch, Esq.; and Duras House, of the Baron de Basterot.-- Great numbers of oysters and other fish are taken off the coast, and about a mile and a half to the west of Duras Point a pier has been constructed, which, though dry at low water, is accessible to vessels of 60 or 80 tons' burden at the return of the tide; the expense of its erection was partly defrayed by a grant from Government. From the west end of the pier a ledge of foul ground extends to Deer Island. Here is a large flour-mill, worked by the tide. The parish is in the diocese of Kilmacduagh; the rectory is partly appropriate to the see, and partly to the benefice of Ardrahan; the vicarage forms part of the union of Kilcolgan; the tithes are included in the composition for Kinvarra, which see. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Kinvarra; the chapel was erected by the late P. M. Lynch, Esq., and was enlarged and a spire added to it by his son, the present proprietor of Duras Park, by whom it has been also endowed with £10 per annum. On the island of Duras are the remains of an ancient friary, with a burial-ground; and there are the remains of a druidical altar, near which some ancient silver coins have been found.

DURROW, or CASTLE-DURROW, a market and post-town, and a parish, partly in the barony of UPPER OSSORY, QUEEN'S county, but chiefly in that of GALMOY, county of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 12 miles (S. by E.) from Maryborough, and 54 (S. W.) from Dublin, on the road from Athy to Cashel; containing 2911 inhabitants, of which number, 1298 are in the town. This parish comprises 6843 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act; three-fourths of the land are arable and pasture, about 1000 acres woodland, and 300 bog. The town, which is on the bank of the river Erkin, contains 236 houses forming a square, many of which are well-built and slated. It is included in the county of Kilkenny for civil, purposes, but is completely surrounded by Queen's county, of which it formed a part until the Earl of Ormonde, by act of parliament, procured its annexation to Kilkenny. Malt is made here, and there is a large boulting-mill. The market is held on Friday in the market-house; and fairs are held on the second Thursday (O. S.) in May, Aug., and Nov., and Feb. 2nd, March 4th, April 16th, July 3rd, and Oct. 8th. It is a constabulary police station, and has a dispensary. Petty sessions are held on alternate Fridays. Adjoining the town is Castle-Durrow, a large ancient mansion belonging to Viscount Ashbrook, from which he takes the title of Baron. Here are also Donmore, the residence of the Staples family; Moyne, of R. Hamilton Stubber, Esq.; and Castlewood, of R. Lawrenson, Esq. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, and in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of St. Canice's, Kilkenny; the rectory is appropriate to the economy estate of the cathedral. The tithes amount to £360, of which £240 is payable to the lessee under the economy estate, and £120 to the vicar. There is a glebe-house, with a glebe of more than 18 acres. A cattle show was established here, in 1801, by the Midland Farming Society. The church is a large building, with a tower and spire, and has recently been repaired by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, at an expense of £738. In the R. C. divisions part of the parish is in the union or district of Ballyragget, and the remainder with Aghamacart forms the district of Durrow, in which is a chapel. The Wesleyan Methodists have a meeting-house in the town. The parochial school is aided by Lord Ashbrook and the incumbent, and an infants' school is supported by an annual donation of £52 from Mrs. Walker. About 70 children are educated in these schools, about 180 in four private schools, and there is also a Sunday school. At Callohill, on the estate of Lord Carbery, are the ruins of a castle. A monastery once existed at Durrow, but its history is unknown; and at Ballynasleigh was a large altar, or cromlech, which was destroyed in a search for money, also another cromlech and some enclosures and pits.

DURROW, a parish, partly in the barony of MOYCASHEL, county of WESTMEATH, but chiefly in that of BALLYCOWAN, KING'S county, and province of LEINSTER, 2 3/4 miles (N.) from Tullamore, on the road to Kilbeggan; containing 5192 inhabitants. This parish, which is also called Dervagh, was distinguished at a very early period for its sumptuous monastery, founded by St. Columb, in 546, and also for an abbey of Augustine Canons, which was subsequently founded and dedicated to the Blessed Virgin and St. Columb. The latter establishment, which had been endowed with the town of Durrow, by Aed McBrenaynn, King of Teaffia, who died in 585, was plundered in 832, by Fethlemid, son of Crimthan, who slew the monks and burned the town; and after having been repeatedly destroyed by fire, was, in 1175, plundered by the English, who laid waste the adjacent country. In 1186, Hugh de Lacy, while superintending the erection of a castle on the ruins of the monastery founded by St. Columb, was killed by one of the labourers, who, indignant at the profanation of the sacred spot, struck off his head with an axe while he was stooping down to give directions. In 1227, Simon Clifford built here the castle of Rahan O'Swaney, and also granted an annuity of 40s. to the abbey, which continued to flourish till the dissolution, when it was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Nicholas Herbert, who made it his residence, and from whose family (which took the name of Stepney) it passed to that of the Earl of Norbury, its present proprietor. The parish comprises 688 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act. The soil is fertile, and the system of agriculture improving; there is only a small portion of bog, and the only waste land consists of sand hills. Limestone abounds and is quarried extensively for agricultural and other uses. The principal seats are Durrow Abbey, that of the Earl of Norbury, situated in an ample and highly improved demesne, in which his lordship is erecting a spacious mansion in the ancient style; Kilclare, of John Armstrong, Esq.; Coolrain, of R. B. Slater, Esq.; Ballynamona, of R. Belton, Esq., and Rostella, of Dr. Naghten. The linen manufacture was carried on here; and there was an extensive bleach-green, the property of Mr. Armstrong, in which about 50 persons were employed. The river Brosna, which bounds the parish on the north and east, and the Silver river, which bounds it on the south and west, afford facilities for trade; on the latter a flourishing distillery has been lately established. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the diocese of Meath, and in the patronage of the Earl of Norbury, in whom, and in H. Kemmis and J. Armstrong, Esqrs., the rectory is impropriate. The tithes amount to £223. 14. 1 1/2 of which £146.0.7 1/2. is payable to Lord Norbury, £60.8.10. to Mr. Kemmis, and £17. 4. 8. to Mr. Armstrong; the stipend of the perpetual curate is £80, payable by Lord Norbury. The glebe-house is a neat residence, and the glebe comprises 25 acres, subject to a rent of £17. 10. The church, a venerable and ancient structure, was repaired in 1802, by a gift of £450, and a loan of £50 from the late Board of First Fruits, and contains monuments to the Stepney and Armstrong families. In the churchyard is an ancient cross curiously sculptured with scriptural devices, which is supposed to have been brought from Scotland by St. Columb; it is of a different kind of stone to any in the neighbourhood. In the R. C. divisions the parish is in the union of Tullamore; the chapel is a very handsome edifice, in the later English style. There are three private schools, in which are about 200 children. Near the church is a holy well, dedicated to St. Columb. There are the remains of several towers, and also a large rath in the parish.

DURRUS-KILCROHANE, a parish, partly in the barony of BANTRY, but chiefly in the Western Division of the barony of WEST CARBERY, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 5 miles (S. S. W.) from Bantry, on the road to Dunmanus bay; containing 5290 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the south side of the bay of Bantry, and comprises 9793 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, and valued at £3716 per annum; 2562 acres are arable, 622 pasture, and 50 bog, the remainder being coarse land. The surface is very uneven, and in some parts rises into mountains of considerable elevation, but, although parts are rocky and bare, cultivation extends, and much of the waste land is reclaimable. The principal manure used is sea-sand, which is brought up the bay and landed at many little creeks on both sides of it. The bay is a remarkable inlet, extending from Sheeps-head to Four-mile-water, a distance of 16 miles, and deep enough for the largest ships, which are occasionally driven in by adverse winds. A manor court for the recovery of debts under 40s. is held once a month; and petty sessions every fortnight. At Carrigboy there is a constabulary police station. The gentlemen's seats are Four-mile-water Court, that of the Rev. Alleyn Evanson; Ardoguina, of R. T. Evanson, Esq.; O'Donovan's Cove, of T. O'Donovan, Esq.; Blair's Cove, of R. L. Blair, Esq.; Fort Lodge, of R. O'Donovan, Esq.; and the glebe-house, of the Rev. E. J. Alcock. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Cork, united in 1792, by act of council, with that of Kilcrohane, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the rectory is impropriate in the Earl of Donoughmore : the tithes amount to £350, of which £1/0 is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar; and the entire tithes of the benefice amount to £415. There are two glebes, one in Durrus of 51a. 2r. 7p., the other in Kilcrohane of 5a. 1r. 35p. The church, near Four-mile-water, is a neat building, erected in 1792 by aid of a gift of £500 from the late Board of First Fruits; the tower was considerably raised and embattled in 1830. The R. C. union or district is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there are three chapels, one of which is near Four-mile-water, another at Aghakisky, and the third in Kilcrohane. There is also a place of worship for Wesleyan Methodists. Here are five public schools, in which about 520 children are taught. The only remains of antiquity are the ruins of Rossmore castle. Near Friendly Cove is a strong chalybeate spring efficacious in liver complaints.

DURSEY, an island, in the parish of KILNAMANNAGH, barony of BERE, county of CORK, and province of MUNSTER, 8 miles (S. W.) from Castletown; containing 198 inhabitants. On this island part of the French army landed in 1796, and on the following day were taken prisoners in Castletown. After this the government erected a signal tower on the highest point of the island, which formed the first of a line of signal stations that extended to Cork. Dursey is situated off the south-west coast, at the extremity of a peninsula whose shores border the entrances to Bantry bay and Bearhaven on one side, and to the river Kenmare on the other. It is in lat. 51° 34' 40", and lon. 10° 15', extending 1 1/4 mile in length by 1/2 a mile in breadth, and comprises 754 acres, the greater part of which is a rough mountainous tract, interspersed with rocky pasture and coarse arable land. It is the property of the Earl of Bantry. Between the island and the mainland is a narrow sound, through which vessels may sail with a favourable wind and tide; and near it is Ballydonaghan bay, which is deep water, having from 20 to 30 fathoms close to the shore. Contiguous to the island are several rocks. Near the ferry crossing the sound are the remains of a very old church, called Our Lady's abbey, consisting of part of the walls only.

DYNISH, county of CLARE. --See INNISMACNAUGHTEN.

DYSART, or DISERT, a parish, partly in the barony of IRAGHTICONNOR, but chiefly in that of CLAN-MAURICE, county of KERRY, and province of MUNSTER, 6 miles (S. S. W.) from Listowel, on the river Brick; containing 631 inhabitants. It comprises 3608 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, including some excellent land. There is a considerable portion of bog, affording fuel of good quality: the state of agriculture is gradually improving. Ballinagar is the seat of the representatives of the late John Barnard, Esq. The parish is in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe; the vicarage forms part of the union of Aghavallin, and the rectory is impropriate in Anthony Stoughton, Esq. The tithes amount to £133. 16. 10., payable in moieties to the impropriator and the vicar; and at Ballinagar is a glebe of 13 acres. In the R. C. divisions it is partly in the union or district of Listowel, but chiefly in that of Lixnaw, or Iveamore. About 70 children are educated in a private school. The ruins of the ancient church still remain in the burial-ground. Ennismore, the residence of J. F. Hewson, Esq., gives the titles of Baron and Viscount to the family of Hare, Earls of Listowel.

DYSART, a parish, in the barony of FASSADINING, county of KILKENNY, and province of LEINSTER, 2 1/4 miles (S.) from Castlecomer, on the road to Kilkenny; containing 2501 inhabitants. This parish is situated on the river Dinin; and comprises 2606 statute acres. It is a vicarage, in the diocese of Ossory, appropriate to the vicars choral of the cathedral of St. Canice, Kilkenny; the rectory is impropriate in the representatives of Sir James Tynte, Bart. The tithes amount to £300, of which £200 is paid to the impropriator, and £100 to the vicars choral. There is no church; the parishioners attend divine worship at Mothell. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Muckalee. About 90 children are educated in a public school.

DYSART, a parish, in the barony of FERRARD, county of LOUTH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Dunleer, on the coast road from Drogheda to Dundalk; containing 699 inhabitants. The land is of superior quality and well cultivated: about two-thirds are in tillage, and there are about 50 acres of bog. The village of Grange Bellew, consisting of about 25 houses, occupied by the labourers of Sir Patrick Bellew, Bart., has a neat appearance. There is a mill for grinding oatmeal, and another for dressing flax. Barmeath, the residence of Sir Patrick Bellew, stands in a richly wooded demesne, commanding extensive views. The old castle of John Bellew (one of the lords of the English pale) is incorporated in the present mansion; and in the demesne is Windmill Hill, on which is a circular tower forming a conspicuous land mark. The parish is in the diocese of Armagh, and is a rectory, forming part of the union of Dunleer : the tithes amount to £129. 19. 7 1/2. In the R. C. divisions it is the head of a union or district, which also comprises the parishes of Clonmore, Port, Dunany, Salterstown, and Drumcar; and contains three chapels. That of Dysart is a handsome building, the site for which was presented by Sir Patrick Bellew, who also contributed towards its erection. A school of about 160 children is aided by Sir Patrick, who also contributed largely towards the erection of the school-house. Some vestiges of the ancient church still remain in the burial-ground.

DYSART, county of ROSCOMMON. --See DISERT.

DYSART, or DESERT, a parish, in the barony of UPPERTHIRD, county of WATERFORD, and province of MUNSTER, 4 miles (E. by S.) from Clonmel; containing 1444 inhabitants. This parish is bounded by the river Suir, which separates it from the county of Tipperary, and contains 3,318 statute acres, as applotted tinder the tithe act. Near Churchtown is the pleasant residence of John Power, Esq. It is in the diocese of Lismore : the rectory, with that of Kilmoleran, constitutes the corps of the prebend of Dysart in the cathedral of Lismore; the vicarage was episcopally united, in 1787, to that of Kilmoleran, and in 1804 to the rectories of Fenoagh and Templemichael, forming the union of Dysart; both are in the gift of the Bishop. The tithes amount to £304. 12. 3., of which two-thirds are payable to the prebendary and the remainder to the vicar; the entire revenue of the prebend is £429, and the tithes of the benefice amount to £425. 2. 3. : the glebe-house stands on a glebe of 4 1/2 acres. A recent grant of £188 has been made by the Ecclesiastical Board for repairing the church, which is at Churchtown. Adjacent to it are the ruins of the ancient church, within the walls of which are two large old tombs of members of the Butler and Everard families, the latter of which had a castle here in the middle of the 17th century. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Carrickbeg, and contains a chapel. The parochial school, in which about 50 children are educated, was established by Sir Moore Disney, who built the school-house.

DYSART, a parish, partly in the barony of RATHCONRATH, but chiefly in that of MOYCASHEL and MAGHERADERNAN, county of WESTMEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 5 miles (S. W.) from Mullingar, on Lough Ennel, and on the road from Mullingar to Kilbeggan; containing 1020 inhabitants. St. Colman is said to have founded an abbey here, which was eventually a house of Conventual Franciscans. One of the islands belonging to Dysart was fortified by the Irish at the close of the civil war of 1641, and made one of their chief depositories. It was taken, under capitulation, by the English, but was re-taken and the English made prisoners; it finally surrendered to a superior force. The parish comprises 4244 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act: the land is exceedingly fertile. There is a considerable tract of bog, and an abundance of limestone. Dysart House, now in ruins, and Lilliput, also uninhabited, both the property of Andrew Savage Nugent, Esq., are in the parish. There is a constabulary police station in the village. The parish is in the diocese of Meath, and is a rectory, forming part of the union of Churchtown : the tithes amount to £120, and the glebe contains 12 acres. In the R. C. divisions it is part of the union or district of Churchtown; the chapel is near the village. There are some remains of an old church with a cemetery.

DYSARTENOS, a parish, partly in the barony of MARYBOROUGH EAST, but chiefly in that of STRADBALLY, QUEEN'S county, and province of LEINSTER, 3 1/2 miles (W. by S.) from Stradbally, on the road to Maryborough; containing 1354 inhabitants. This place, at a very remote period, was the residence of the O'Mores, princes of Leix; and also of Dermod McMurrough, king of Leinster. A monastery was founded here by AEngus, on his retirement from Clonenagh abbey, of which he was abbot; but, though it flourished for some time, not even the site is known. The parish is the property of Sir Henry Parnell, Bart., who has fitted up a place of summer residence within the walls of the ancient fortress. Fairs are held here on Whit-Monday, and Oct. 12th. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of Leighlin, united from time immemorial to the vicarage of Kilteel, and in the patronage of Lord Carew, in whom the rectory is impropriate. The tithes amount to £416. 10. 10 1/2., of which £277. 13. 11 1/4. is payable to the impropriator, and the remainder to the vicar. The glebe-house was built in 1813, by a gift of £400, and a loan of £360 from the late Board of First Fruits; the glebe comprises seven acres. The church, towards the repair of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have lately granted £333, is a small edifice with a square tower, forming a very picturesque object, on the summit of one of the Dysart hills. In the R. C. divisions the parish forms part of the union or district of Maryborough; the chapel is a neat building. About 140 children are taught in a national school, and there is also a Sunday school. The fortress of Dunamase occupies the summit of a precipitous rock, rising from the midst of an extensive plain and from a very remote age was the residence of the O'Mores, and with the territory of Leinster became the property of Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke, by marriage with the daughter of Dermod McMurrough, King of Leinster, and afterwards passed again by marriage to William de Braos, the reputed founder of the castle and manor of Dunamase. In 1264 it was held by Maurice Fitzgerald, and soon after by Lord Mortimer, during whose absence in England it was, with seven other of his castles, seized by his vassal O'More, to whom he had entrusted it. Lord Mortimer, on his subsequent recovery of the fortress, increased its strength by additional fortifications; and it was for a long period an object of continued contests between the English and the native chieftains. It was further strengthened in the reign of James I., but was taken in 1641 by the insurgents, who were soon after driven out by Sir Chas. Coote; it afterwards surrendered to Gen. Preston, but was retaken by the parliamentarians, who in 1646 were expelled by Owen Roe O'Neill, who carried it by assault. In 1649 it was taken by Lord Castlehaven, but the year following the garrison surrendered to the parliamentarian forces under Cols. Hewson and Reynolds, by whom it was dismantled and nearly demolished. The remains occupy the summit of a hill 200 feet high, and consist of a barbican and watch-tower defending the entrance on the southwest side, on which alone it was accessible; from the barbican a draw-bridge afforded access to the first gateway, which is defended by two towers. The interior consists of an outer and inner court; and the whole is defended by walls of great thickness surrounding the summit of the hill, which is more than 1000 feet in circuit, fortified at intervals with towers. The ruins of the keep, in which was apparently a chapel, occupy the highest ground; and adjoining it are the remains of the state apartments. Small silver coins of the early Irish kings have been found on the site of the ruins.

DYSARTGALLEN, a parish, in the barony of CULLINAGH, QUEEN'S county, and province of LEINSTER, on the road from Durrow to Abbeyleix; containing, with the post-town of Ballinakill (which is described under its own head), 4018 inhabitants. This parish comprises 10,557 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act; the soil is generally good, and the land in a profitable state of cultivation; there is a small quantity of bog, and grit-stone is quarried for building. The only seat of importance is Monaclare, the residence of S. M. Stubber, Esq. Fairs are held monthly at Ballinakill. The living is a rectory and vicarage, in the diocese of Leighlin, and in the patronage of Earl Stanhope : the tithes amount to £406. 3. 1. The glebe-house was built by a gift of £100, and a loan pf £550 from the late Board of First Fruits, in 1810; the glebe comprises 30 acres. The church, towards the repair of which the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have recently granted £292, is a handsome building with a spire, situated in Ballinakill; it has a window of stained glass, and was erected in 1821, by a loan of £1100. The R. C. parish is co-extensive with that of the Established Church; there is a chapel at Ballinakill, and another at Knockardgurt. About 680 children are taught in two public schools, of which the parochial school is supported by the rector, who also built the school-house; and there are also five private schools, in which are about 160 children. Mr. Dillon bequeathed £500 to the R. C. poor of the parish. There are some remains of the castles of Moate and Ballinakill; and at Heywood is a chalybeate spring.

 

DYSERT, or DISART, a parish, in the barony of TRUGHENACKMY, county of KERRY, and province of MUNSTER, 1 1/2 mile (S.) from Castle-Island, on the road to Killarney; containing 1431 inhabitants. It comprises 8105 statute acres, as applotted under the tithe act, about one-half of which consists of coarse mountain pasture and bog: limestone abounds, and is generally burnt for manure. It is a rectory, in the diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe, forming part of the union of Killentierna: the tithes amount to £173. 12. 9., and there is a glebe of about 5 1/2 acres. In the R. C. divisions it forms part of the union or district of Currens, or Killentierna. The ruins of the church still remain in the burial-ground; and at Kilsarcon are the vestiges of another church or chapel, with a burial-ground attached.

DYSERTALE, a parish, in the barony of DELVIN, county of WESTMEATH, and province of LEINSTER, 2 miles (S. W.) from Castletown-Delvin; containing 2 inhabitants. It comprises 80 plantation acres only, and is a rectory, in the diocese of Meath, forming part of the union of Kilcumney, or Drumcree : the tithes amount to £3. 6. 8.

DYSERTLYN. --See DESERTLYN.